Personal exposure assessment to air toxics in BRTs: Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico City Seventh Annual Transforming Transpor...
Outline  <ul><li>INE: air pollution, transportation, GHG </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of a Bus Rapit Transit System  on Co...
Credits  - <ul><li>INE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrian Fernández, President  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonora Rojas and Vic...
INE Climate Change Program Ecosystems conservation    Chemicals, Urban and Regional pollution       National Center for En...
Trends of Air quality in Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Ozone and CO Source:  http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/ Ozone  Carb...
Trends of PM in Mexico City Metropolitan Area Source: Retama, 2009.  http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
Trends of the different PM fractions in MCMA Source: Retama, 2009.  http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
Trends of PM2.5 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area   Source: Retama, 2009.  http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
Carbon monoxide trends in Mexico city: in public transportation (personal exposure) and ambient air   Personal exposure co...
Impact of interventions: effect on communter´s personal exposure to air toxics and air pollutants  .  © © Personal exposur...
Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto  Invernadero 2006 .  Contribución por sector  (INE, 2009) 711 million ...
Shiohara, N., Fernández-Bremauntz, A., Blanco-Jiménez, S. and Yanagisawa, Y., 2005.  The commuters’ exposure to volatile c...
Marr, L. C., Grogan, L. A., Wöhrnschimmel, H., Molina, L. T., Molina, J. M., Smith, T. J., Garshick, E. (2004)  Vehicle tr...
Assessment of commuter´s personal exposure to air pollutants  Metrobús Insurgentes,  Mexico City  (2004-2005) Zero Emissio...
CO, PM 2.5 , PM 10  and benzene (before and after Metrobus  2004 2005 Metrobus Insurgentes
Detroit: Batterman et al., 2002 Sidney: Duffy and Nelson, 1997 Taichung: Kuo et al., 2000 Taipei: Chan et al., 1994 Boston...
Helsinki: Scotto di Marco et al., 2005 Hong Kong: Chan, 1999 Paris: Dor et al., 1995 Amsterdam: Van Wijnen et al., 1995 At...
Detroit: Batterman et al., 2002 Sidney: Duffy and Nelson, 1997 Taichung: Kuo et al., 2000 Taipei: Chan et al., 1994 Boston...
Guangzhou: Chan et al., 2002 Mexico: Gómez-Perales et al., 2005 London: Adams et al., 2001 Adams et al., 2002 Kaur et al.,...
Studies on personal Exposure reported inMexico  Año Ruta Modo Referencia 1991 Indios Verdes – San Ángel ; Tacuba – Pantitl...
Study objective <ul><li>determine reduction in commuters’ exposure to air pollutants that may result from a change from a ...
Insurgentes
Methods <ul><li>Measurements of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , benzene and carbon monoxide invehicle concentrations in conventional publ...
Results <ul><li>Significant reductions in personal exposures inside vehicles of the BRT system between  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Cobenefits Metrobus Insurgentes  <ul><ul><li>Emissions reductions tons/per year  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 HCT </...
<ul><li>Before  </li></ul><ul><li>Only “trolebus” </li></ul><ul><li>Confined line  </li></ul><ul><li>Reduccion in travelin...
Field measurements in June-July 2008 Field campaing for personal exposure assessment in Eje central
<ul><li>Team 1.- Trolebús </li></ul><ul><li>team 2.- mix route </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3.-  rotatino mix and trolebus </li>...
Bus stop   Sampler at  1 m height (to simulate breathing zone) Field campaing for personal exposure assessment in Eje cent...
Carbon monoxide  Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor  Autobús (1991): 38 ppm Microbús (1991): 55 ppm Microbu...
PM2.5 Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor  Micro-, Autobús (2004) Metrobús (2005)
PM composition*: elemental carbon vs. Organic carbon  Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor  * Subsample
BTX Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor
BTX Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor  Microbús (2004) Autobús (2004) Metrobús (2005)
Travel time  Resultados – línea base Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor
Summary  <ul><li>Trasnportation (public and prive) is an micro-environment with hihg exposure to air pollutants </li></ul>...
Conclusions <ul><li>BRT systems have the potential to reduce in-vehicle concentrations of air pollutants in comparison to ...
Next steps  <ul><li>Field campaign at the Zero Emissions corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Field campaign at the Monterrey Corrid...
Gracias [email_address] www.ine.gob.mx
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Personal Exposure Assessment to Air Toxics in BRTs: Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico City

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By Beatriz Cardenas. Presented at Day One of Transforming Transportation 2010. Washington, D.C. January 14, 2010. www.transformingtransportation2010.org.

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Personal Exposure Assessment to Air Toxics in BRTs: Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico City

  1. 2. Personal exposure assessment to air toxics in BRTs: Metrobus Insurgentes, Mexico City Seventh Annual Transforming Transportation Washington, D.C. January 13 th, 2010 Beatriz Cárdenas González Instituto Nacional de Ecología
  2. 3. Outline <ul><li>INE: air pollution, transportation, GHG </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of a Bus Rapit Transit System on Commuter‘s exposure to air pollutants in Mexico City: Metrobus Insurgentes 2004-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Current projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Emisions Corridor, Mexico City 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruiz Cortines Corridor, Monterrey 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned and Next steps </li></ul>
  3. 4. Credits - <ul><li>INE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrian Fernández, President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonora Rojas and Victor Gutiérrez Avedoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Wöhrnschimmel, Beatriz Cárdenas, Miriam Zuk * </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerardo Martínez**, Julia Cerón </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salvador Blanco, Arturo Campos, Jepthé Cruz, Teresa Ortuño </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adriana Lobo, Hilda Martínez </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nuevo León State Goverment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idolina de la Cerda, Juan Marin, Jaime Garza </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hewlett Fundation </li></ul><ul><li>Embarq </li></ul>
  4. 5. INE Climate Change Program Ecosystems conservation   Chemicals, Urban and Regional pollution    National Center for Environmental Research and Training Environmental Policy and Economy    Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment National Institute of Ecology (technical and scientific branch)
  5. 6. Trends of Air quality in Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Ozone and CO Source: http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/ Ozone Carbon monoxide (CO)
  6. 7. Trends of PM in Mexico City Metropolitan Area Source: Retama, 2009. http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
  7. 8. Trends of the different PM fractions in MCMA Source: Retama, 2009. http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
  8. 9. Trends of PM2.5 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area Source: Retama, 2009. http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/
  9. 10. Carbon monoxide trends in Mexico city: in public transportation (personal exposure) and ambient air Personal exposure concentration Ambient concentration Introduction of Catalytic converter Mexico City air monitoring network
  10. 11. Impact of interventions: effect on communter´s personal exposure to air toxics and air pollutants . © © Personal exposure to air toxics
  11. 12. Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero 2006 . Contribución por sector (INE, 2009) 711 million of tons CO 2 eq./year Sources: INEGEI 2006. Instituto Nacional de Ecología 2009 Fixed and area sources Transportation waste Change of soil use and agriculture Industrial processes Fugitive emissions Energy Power plants 20.7% Construction and manufacturing 7.9% Other sectors (residential included) 4.4%
  12. 13. Shiohara, N., Fernández-Bremauntz, A., Blanco-Jiménez, S. and Yanagisawa, Y., 2005. The commuters’ exposure to volatile chemicals and carcinogenic risk in Mexico City . Atmospheric Environment 39, 3481–3489. Volatile organic compounds in public transportation in Mexico City
  13. 14. Marr, L. C., Grogan, L. A., Wöhrnschimmel, H., Molina, L. T., Molina, J. M., Smith, T. J., Garshick, E. (2004) Vehicle traffic as a source of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area . Environmental Science and Technology (38) pp. 2584-2592 PAHs in public transportation
  14. 15. Assessment of commuter´s personal exposure to air pollutants Metrobús Insurgentes, Mexico City (2004-2005) Zero Emissions Corridor Eje Central México City (2008-baseline) in progress BRT Ruiz Cortinez Corridor Monterrey, Nuevo León (2009-baseline) in progress
  15. 16. CO, PM 2.5 , PM 10 and benzene (before and after Metrobus 2004 2005 Metrobus Insurgentes
  16. 17. Detroit: Batterman et al., 2002 Sidney: Duffy and Nelson, 1997 Taichung: Kuo et al., 2000 Taipei: Chan et al., 1994 Boston: Chan et al., 1992 Raleigh: Chan, 1991 London: Bevan, 1991 Mexico: Shiohara et al., 2005 Gómez-Perales et al., 2004 INE/UAMI/GDF-SMA 2009 Tula: INE/UAMI 2008 Salamanca: INE/IEG/UAMI 2007 Monterrey: INE/CTS/APMARN/CETYV 2009 Benzene indoor levels reported in different cities PM2.5 personal Exposure reported in the world
  17. 18. Helsinki: Scotto di Marco et al., 2005 Hong Kong: Chan, 1999 Paris: Dor et al., 1995 Amsterdam: Van Wijnen et al., 1995 Athens: Vellopoulou et al., 1998 Duci et al., 2003 Guangzhou: Chan et al., 2002 Mexico: Gómez-Perales et al., 2002 London: Kaur et al., 2005 CO personal Exposure reported in the world
  18. 19. Detroit: Batterman et al., 2002 Sidney: Duffy and Nelson, 1997 Taichung: Kuo et al., 2000 Taipei: Chan et al., 1994 Boston: Chan et al., 1992 Raleigh: Chan, 1991 London: Bevan, 1991 Mexico: Shiohara et al., 2005 Gómez-Perales et al., 2002 Benzene personal Exposure reported in the world
  19. 20. Guangzhou: Chan et al., 2002 Mexico: Gómez-Perales et al., 2005 London: Adams et al., 2001 Adams et al., 2002 Kaur et al., 2005 Northampton: Gulliver and Briggs, 2004 Aberdeen: Dennekamp et al., 2002 Boston: Levy et al., 2002 Hong Kong: Chan, 2002 © CENICA PM2.5 personal Exposure reported in the world
  20. 21. Studies on personal Exposure reported inMexico Año Ruta Modo Referencia 1991 Indios Verdes – San Ángel ; Tacuba – Pantitlán, Pino Suarez – Xochimilco; La Villa – Auditorio; Marina Nacional – Pantitlán Auto particular, combi, microbús, autobús , metro, trolé, tren ligero Fernández-Bremauntz & Ashmore, 1995 2002 Indios Verdes – San Ángel ; Tacuba – Pantitlán, La Villa – Auditorio; Microbús, autobús , metro Gómez et al., 2004 2003 Indios Verdes – San Ángel ; La Villa – Auditorio; Microbús, autobús Gómez et al., 2007 2004 Indios Verdes – San Ángel Auto particular, Microbús, autobús Wöhrnschimmel et al., 2008
  21. 22. Study objective <ul><li>determine reduction in commuters’ exposure to air pollutants that may result from a change from a conventional bus transport system to a BRT system. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Insurgentes
  23. 24. Methods <ul><li>Measurements of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , benzene and carbon monoxide invehicle concentrations in conventional public transport and modern vehicles of a BRT system . </li></ul>Number of measurements 2004 Minibus 2004 Bus 2005 Metrobus PM 10 35 34 55 PM 2.5 33 35 51 Benzene 29 29 53 CO 35 34 51
  24. 25. Results <ul><li>Significant reductions in personal exposures inside vehicles of the BRT system between </li></ul><ul><li>32% and 59% were found for air pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Commuting times dropped by about 20% </li></ul>
  25. 26. Cobenefits Metrobus Insurgentes <ul><ul><li>Emissions reductions tons/per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 HCT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>690 NO X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.8 PM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 SO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health impacts avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6,100 lost days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600 days of restringed activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 new cases of acute broquitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 premature deaths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic benefits (yearly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 millions USD in health cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 m trip time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12.3 m net benefit </li></ul></ul></ul>280,000 tons of CO 2 eq reductions Source:INE
  26. 27. <ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Only “trolebus” </li></ul><ul><li>Confined line </li></ul><ul><li>Reduccion in traveling time and emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in personal exposure to air pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of urban </li></ul>Zero emissions Eje Central <ul><li>Different routes and different vehicles for public transportation (trolebus, bus, minibus) </li></ul><ul><li>Confined line and use of different lines </li></ul><ul><li>Longer time </li></ul>Zero Emissions Corridor Eje Central in Mexico City
  27. 28. Field measurements in June-July 2008 Field campaing for personal exposure assessment in Eje central
  28. 29. <ul><li>Team 1.- Trolebús </li></ul><ul><li>team 2.- mix route </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3.- rotatino mix and trolebus </li></ul><ul><li>team 4.- bus stop </li></ul>Field campaing for personal exposure assessment in Eje central
  29. 30. Bus stop Sampler at 1 m height (to simulate breathing zone) Field campaing for personal exposure assessment in Eje central
  30. 31. Carbon monoxide Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor Autobús (1991): 38 ppm Microbús (1991): 55 ppm Microbus (2004) bus (2004) Metrobús (2005)
  31. 32. PM2.5 Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor Micro-, Autobús (2004) Metrobús (2005)
  32. 33. PM composition*: elemental carbon vs. Organic carbon Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor * Subsample
  33. 34. BTX Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor
  34. 35. BTX Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor Microbús (2004) Autobús (2004) Metrobús (2005)
  35. 36. Travel time Resultados – línea base Eje Central Base line for Zero emissions corridor
  36. 37. Summary <ul><li>Trasnportation (public and prive) is an micro-environment with hihg exposure to air pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in air pollutant concentrations and time being exposed to them result in different communter`s exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated reductions in communter`s exposore to air pollutants with Metrobus Insurgente </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to use this data and transform into indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Personal exposure assessment studies could be used to support the implemntation of BRTs but ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>questions should be asked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical mass and analytical infraestructure need to be expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate what is already available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential to share experiences and learn from mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive communication </li></ul>
  37. 38. Conclusions <ul><li>BRT systems have the potential to reduce in-vehicle concentrations of air pollutants in comparison to conventional transport modes. </li></ul><ul><li>The additional reduction of commuting times further decreases total exposure and thus the health impact of commuting . </li></ul><ul><li>BRT systems contribute to increased quality of life of public transport users. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Next steps <ul><li>Field campaign at the Zero Emissions corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Field campaign at the Monterrey Corridor </li></ul><ul><li>Identify needs of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other partners </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Gracias [email_address] www.ine.gob.mx

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