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Sustainable Urban Transport Fuels and Vehicles - Dario Hidalgo - EMBARQ - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank

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Sustainable Urban Transport Fuels and Vehicles - Dario Hidalgo - EMBARQ - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank

  1. 1. Sustainable Urban Transport Fuels and Vehicles!!   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!!   Dario Hidalgo, PhD!!   Director of Research and Practice!!   EMBARQ!Transforming Transportation 2013!
  2. 2. Sustainable Urban Transport Fuels and Vehicles Darío Hidalgo, PhDDirector of Research and Practice, EMBARQ Transforming Transportation January 17th, 2013 Photo:&CTS&EMBARQ&Mexico
  3. 3. Modal Distribution in LAC (2007) Fuente: Observatorio Movilidad Urbana CAF http://omu.caf.com/
  4. 4. Therefore it is important that we have the cleanest bus technologieshttp://airenuevobogota.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/bus-botando-humo.jpg
  5. 5. Meta-analysis of Exhaust Emissions http://www.embarq.org/en/ project/sustainable-urban- transport-fuels-and-vehicles- program Authors: Erin Cooper, Aileen Carrigan EMBARQ Magdala Arioli, EMBARQ Brasil Umang Jain, EMBARQ India Contributions: Jorge Macias, Cynthia Menendez, Georg Schmid, CTS-EMBARQ Mexico Funding:
  6. 6. Exhaust Emissions Which type of fuel and which technology has the lowest emissions in Brazil, India, and Mexico? Emissions Testing In use, real drive cycle EmissionsEngine Testing testing Standard Testing Developing US Europe Countries
  7. 7. Fuels and TechnologiesEmissions vary with respect to fuels, technologiesalso significantly between the same fuel type and technology Fuels Exhaust After Treatment TechnologiesDiesel (and Hybrids) OC – Oxidation Catalyst DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas RecirculationBiodiesel (20 and 100%) SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas RecirculationCompressed Natural Gas (CNG) OC – Oxidation Catalyst TWC – Three-way CatalystLiquified Natural Gas (LNG)Ethanol
  8. 8. CO results graph Older technology
  9. 9. THC results graph Older CNG tech (mostly due to methane)
  10. 10. NOx results graph ULSD with SCR CNG with 3WC Biodiesel
  11. 11. PM results graph Diesel without emission control technologies
  12. 12. CO2e results graph ULSD, EGR, DPF, Hybrid CNG, B20 w/ o emission control technologies
  13. 13. Example for India: NOx vs. PM
  14. 14. Example for India: CO2 vs. PM
  15. 15. Additional considerations! Lab tests versus field tests (major variations, little data apart from Diesel and CNG)!   Drive Cycle – more variations in urban cycles! Mileage of vehicle – Nox increases, CO2 a little! Altitude – Nox, THC, CO2 increases (little data above 1000 meters)! Overall analysis of emissions: it is important to see various emissions and not to focus on just one, e.g. CO2eq or PM… because there are always tradeoffs
  16. 16. CO THC NOx PM CO2LNG High Very High Medium Very LowE95 Very High Very High Very High Very HighE93 Very High Very High Medium Very HighD50+DPF Low Very Low High Medium HighD50 Medium Very Low High Very High MediumD15+SCR High Very Low Medium Medium LowD15+OC Very Low Very Low Medium Medium MediumD15+Hybrid Very Low Very Low Variable Low VariableD15+EGR Very Low Very Low Medium Medium Very HighD15+DPF Very Low Very Low High Low Very HighD15 Low Very Low High Very High Very HighD≥150+OC Low Low High Very High LowD≥150 Medium Low Very High Very High MediumCNG+OC Very Low Very High High Very Low MediumCNG+3WC Very Low Low Very Low Very Low MediumCNG Very High Very High Very High Very Low HighB20 Low Low High Medium HighB100+SCR Medium Very Low Low Low Very LowB100+EGR Very Low Very Low Medium Medium Low
  17. 17. Conclusion! It is important to see the technologies in the various dimensions of emissions! After treatment is very important – EGR, OC, DPF! According to the data, the best combinations are: !   CNG + 3WC !   B100 + SCR !   D15 + OC !   D15+ Hybrid (depends on air conditioning)! It is necessary to review the total cost of ownership (lifecycle) Photo:&CTS&EMBARQ&Mexico
  18. 18. Photo:  CTS  EMBARQ  Mexico
  19. 19. ¡Gracias!www.embarq.org
  20. 20. Transforming Transportation 2013!!   Co-organized by EMBARQ and The World Bank!!   More information at:!! EMBARQ.org!! worldbank.org/transport!!   Questions? Comments? Contact us at embarq@wri.org!!   Follow us on Twitter: @EMBARQnetwork!Transforming Transportation 2013!

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