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Motorcycle Management Policy in Taiwan: From Dilemma to Reality !!   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!!   S.K...
Motorcycle	  Management	  Policy	  	  in	  Taiwan:	  From	  Dilemma	  to	  Reality	  	                      S.K.	  Jason	 ...
Agenda•    Background	  •    Traffic	  Engineering	  •    Parking	  Management	  •    Safety	  Issues	  •    Environmental	 ...
Taiwan	  •  94% of Taiwan’s Population Live along the West Corridor (20% of land)•  Area:	  36,000	  sq	  km	  	  	  	  	 ...
Taiwan and Urban Areas    •  Vehicles:	  Cars	  6.8	  mi,	  Motorcycles	  14	  mi	  	      •  Taipei:	  3000	  sq	  km,	  ...
General	  Features	  of	  CiCes	  in	  Taiwan	  •  Stable	  Urbaniza+on	  and	  Motoriza+on	  •  Mixed	  Land	  Use	  +	  ...
From	  1982	  to	  2012	  	  “Are	  they	  a	  transi+on	  step	  toward	        full,	  car-­‐based	  motoriza+on?”NO!!
CharacterisCcs	  of	  Motorcycles                                           	  Less	  space	  needed	  and	  easy	  parkin...
Ownership                                        	                	              	               	              Growth	   ...
Fatality – Traffic Accidents    	       Others	       Motorcycle	                                Total	                   ...
Injury: Traffic Accidents  	      Other	  Veh	  Motorcycle	                                Total	                         ...
Traffic Accidents-Fatality            in Urban Area                              Total	         Motorcycle	               ...
Motorcycle pay far less thanshould pay (including External Cost)  •  Actually	  Paid	  /	  Should	  Pay	       	  Walk:   ...
The “convenience” of motorcyclesprovide necessary mobility foreconomy. However, lack of policy,management and pricing sche...
30 Years                                                                          Re-think                                ...
Energy	  Efficiency	  of	  Motorcycle	                                          Motorcycle: 0.024 liter per                 ...
Motorcycle Management  Traffic Engineering Parking, Enforcement       and Policy
Traffic	  Engineering	  and	  RegulaCon	  Junction: Safetyand Efficiency-Motorcycle Floodgate-Two Stage Left Turn Left Turn ...
Traffic	  Engineering	  and	  RegulaCon	  Junction: Safety and EfficiencyMotorcycle Floodgate
Source: Lung, Chang and Hong (1986)
Speed Limit and LaneRegulation for Motorcycles
ParkingManagement
Before   After
Before	        After	             7              27
Side Walk Clear Program                           30
Intermodal MobilityMC+ Metro, Railway & Ferry
Parking Fee
Motorcycle	  Safety	  Manual    Motorcycle     Safety- Motorcycle Helmet Law- Motorcycle w/ Bus and Heavy Vehicle- Enforce...
Helmet      1994, Trial Law of Helmet in Taipei City      A pilot study showed an increase in helmet      use from 21% to ...
Pre-BRT has reduced 85% ofmotorcycle-related accidentsin those corridors.
Motorcycle w/ Bus & Truck        Ž                                    Œ         
Enforcementand Education
Education and Training1.  Wear Hamlet and other safety equipment2.  Watch closely on your partner seating behind you3.  Re...
Environmental Issues1.  Stop two stroke MC since 20042.  New Energy: e2W               e2W	                 1.  Demo	  Pro...
Concluding Remarks¡  Clear	  Management	  Policy.	  ¡  Research	  on	  Mixed	  Traffic	  Flow	  and	      Travel	  Behavio...
Thanksskchang@ntu.edu.tw
Transforming Transportation 2013!!     Co-organized by EMBARQ and The World Bank!!     More information at:!!     EMBARQ.o...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
Motorcycle Management in Taiwan -  Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 20...
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Motorcycle Management in Taiwan - Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank

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Motorcycle Management in Taiwan - Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank

  1. 1. Motorcycle Management Policy in Taiwan: From Dilemma to Reality !!   Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!!   S.K. Jason Chang, PhD!!   Professor, National Taiwan University!!   Advisor, Taipei City Government!Transforming Transportation 2013!
  2. 2. Motorcycle  Management  Policy    in  Taiwan:  From  Dilemma  to  Reality     S.K.  Jason  Chang,  Ph.D.   Professor,  Na+onal  Taiwan  University   Advisor,  Taipei  City  Government     skchang@ntu.edu.tw   The  10th    Transforming  Transporta.on  Annual  Conference     In  The  World  Bank,  Washington,  DC,   Jan  17-­‐18,  2013,    
  3. 3. Agenda•  Background  •  Traffic  Engineering  •  Parking  Management  •  Safety  Issues  •  Environmental  and  External  Effects  •  Concluding  Remarks
  4. 4. Taiwan  •  94% of Taiwan’s Population Live along the West Corridor (20% of land)•  Area:  36,000  sq  km          Popula+on:  23  million  •  Nice  Weather:  Summer-­‐  28~35oC  Winter:  12~25oC   Taipei Population / k㎡ >15000 5000-15000 Hsinchu 3000-5000 1000-3000 500-1000 300-500 100-300 Taichung <100 Tainan & Kaohsiung
  5. 5. Taiwan and Urban Areas •  Vehicles:  Cars  6.8  mi,  Motorcycles  14  mi     •  Taipei:  3000  sq  km,  Pop  6.8  mi   Car-­‐  2.5  mi,  Motorcycle-­‐3.2  mi   MRT  110  km;  Pre-­‐BRT  58  km     •  Kaohsiung:  2200  sq  km,  Pop  2.8  mi   Car-­‐  0.7  mi,  Motorcycle-­‐  2.3  mi     MRT  43km   •  i-­‐Bus  and  i-­‐Taxi:  high-­‐quality,  high   availability  and  wide  coverage.   •  High  Speed  Rail:    the  journey  b/w  Taipei   and  Kaohsiung  (345km)  90  minutes.  
  6. 6. General  Features  of  CiCes  in  Taiwan  •  Stable  Urbaniza+on  and  Motoriza+on  •  Mixed  Land  Use  +  High  Popula+on  Density  •  Personal  Mobility  /  Mixed  Traffic  Flow   Characteris+cs:     Motorcycle    (40%)  +  Car  (25%)  +  PT  (25%)  +   Cycling  &  Walk  (10%)   Taipei:  MC  (25%)  +  Car  (25%)  +  PT  (35%)  +   Cycling  &  Walk  (15%)   Kaohsiung:  MC  (60%)  +  Car  (20%)  +  PT  (8%)  +   Cycling  &  Walk  (12%)  •  Fatality  in  Traffic  Accidents:  80%  MC  
  7. 7. From  1982  to  2012    “Are  they  a  transi+on  step  toward   full,  car-­‐based  motoriza+on?”NO!!
  8. 8. CharacterisCcs  of  Motorcycles  Less  space  needed  and  easy  parking Convenience Free  parking  or  $0.7  per  day    MC:  1/6  space  of  car   Less  cost  for  own  and  use   Affordability O&M  Cost  ($/km):   MC  0.09   Car  0.38   For  short  trip Flexibility Mixed  land  use   Compact  city  environment   CommuCng  Cme:  10-­‐20  min     High  modal   share 9
  9. 9. Ownership         Growth   2000 2005 2010 2011 Rate   (00~11)PopulaCon  (Age:  >  20) 1,940,976   2,064,619 2,153,491   2,168,018   11.7%  Household 874,986 949,121 1,022,493 1,035,012 18.3%Motorized  Vehicle 1,715,548 2,039,320 2,259,019   2,304,532   34.2%  Motorized  Vehicle  per   0.88   0.99   1.05   1.06   20.5%  capita  (MC)   (0.63)   (0.68) (0.71)   (0.72)  Motorized  Vehicle  per   1.96   2.15   2.21   2.23   13.8%  household  (MC)   (1.38)   (1.46) (1.47)   (1.49)   10
  10. 10. Fatality – Traffic Accidents   Others Motorcycle Total M/C % 2007 643 2,325 2,968 78.34% 2008 563 2,152 2,715 79.26% 2009 490 2,038 2,528 80.62% 2010 483 2,110 2,593 81.37% 2011 514 2,119 2,633 80.48% Source: Institute of Transportation, MOTC (2011) 3,500     3,000    Motorcycles 2,500     2,000    contribute 80%. 1,500     MC 機車   Others 其他車種   1,000     500     0     96年   97年   98年   99年   100年  
  11. 11. Injury: Traffic Accidents   Other  Veh Motorcycle Total M/C  % 2007 21,340     174,298     195,638     89.09%  2008 19,682     184,616     204,298     90.37%  2009 19,261     201,444     220,705     91.27%  2010 22,858     243,089     265,947     91.41%  2011 23,860     262,916     286,776     91.68%   Source: Institute of Transportation, MOTC (2011) 350,000     300,000    Motorcycles 250,000     200,000     機車  contribute 90%. MC 150,000     Others 其他車種   100,000     50,000     0     96年   97年   98年   99年   100年  
  12. 12. Traffic Accidents-Fatality in Urban Area Total Motorcycle M/C  % Taipei 145   79   54.48%   New  Taipei 385   168   62.45%   Taichung 404   275   68.07%   Tainan 368   225   61.14%   Kaohsiung 385   290   75.32%   Source: Institute of Transportation, MOTC (2011)l  Urban  area  has   450   總數最高 comparaCvely  lower  MC   400   350   fatality.    Traffic   300   250   其他車種   management,    enforcement     200   150   機車   and  speed  are  key  factors. 100   50   機車比例最高 0   臺北市   新北市   臺中市   臺南市   高雄市  
  13. 13. Motorcycle pay far less thanshould pay (including External Cost) •  Actually  Paid  /  Should  Pay    Walk:    100.0%    Bike:    96.6%      Motorcycle:  34.8%      Car:      59.6%      Taxi:    47.8%    Bus:    81.6%      Metro:    89.7%   Personal  mobility  of  using  private  motorized  mode   has  been  heavily  subsidized  by  social  resources  
  14. 14. The “convenience” of motorcyclesprovide necessary mobility foreconomy. However, lack of policy,management and pricing scheme hascaused huge social loss. Source:  hfp:// michaelturton.blogspot.com  
  15. 15. 30 Years Re-think about the Role of Motorcycle and Management •  Na+onal  policy  on   motorcycle   •  Benefits  iden+fied    w/   a  good  management   on  safety  and   environmental  issues   Bus Bus •  PCE  of  Motorcycle:   Walk Bike only only Bike Walk 0.15~0.45  in  various   mixed  rate  and  Source:  Dr.  Kent  Wang,  DG  of  Kaohsiung  DOT  (2011) composi+ons  
  16. 16. Energy  Efficiency  of  Motorcycle   Motorcycle: 0.024 liter per trip km, same as Bus. Motorcycle Metro Taxi Car Domestic Bus High Speed Conventional air Train Rail Source: Vision of Low Carbon Transportation, MOTC, 2011. 17
  17. 17. Motorcycle Management Traffic Engineering Parking, Enforcement and Policy
  18. 18. Traffic  Engineering  and  RegulaCon  Junction: Safetyand Efficiency-Motorcycle Floodgate-Two Stage Left Turn Left Turn forMotorcyclesfirst cross the streetparallel and reach thewaiting area to cross themain street Source: Lung, Chang and Hong (1986)
  19. 19. Traffic  Engineering  and  RegulaCon  Junction: Safety and EfficiencyMotorcycle Floodgate
  20. 20. Source: Lung, Chang and Hong (1986)
  21. 21. Speed Limit and LaneRegulation for Motorcycles
  22. 22. ParkingManagement
  23. 23. Before After
  24. 24. Before After 7 27
  25. 25. Side Walk Clear Program 30
  26. 26. Intermodal MobilityMC+ Metro, Railway & Ferry
  27. 27. Parking Fee
  28. 28. Motorcycle  Safety  Manual Motorcycle Safety- Motorcycle Helmet Law- Motorcycle w/ Bus and Heavy Vehicle- Enforcement and Education
  29. 29. Helmet 1994, Trial Law of Helmet in Taipei City A pilot study showed an increase in helmet use from 21% to 79% and a 56% reduction in motorized vehicle–related fatality. 1997, National Helmet Law A 50.2% reduction in motorized vehicle– related fatality from 1998 to 2008.Source: Implementation of a Motorcycle Helmet Law in Taiwan andTraffic Deaths Over 18 Years, America Medical Association, 2011.
  30. 30. Pre-BRT has reduced 85% ofmotorcycle-related accidentsin those corridors.
  31. 31. Motorcycle w/ Bus & Truck Ž  Œ 
  32. 32. Enforcementand Education
  33. 33. Education and Training1.  Wear Hamlet and other safety equipment2.  Watch closely on your partner seating behind you3.  Respect right of way4.  Keep reasonable distance and follow the signal5.  Always respect Pedestrian6.  Always think about family……
  34. 34. Environmental Issues1.  Stop two stroke MC since 20042.  New Energy: e2W e2W   1.  Demo  Project:  Peng  Hu  Island  Low   Carbon  Village:  5,000  MCs  w/   subsidy  $250~$1,200  per  MC  +300   staCons,  powered  by  solar  and   wind.     2.   NaConal  Encouragement  Project:   15,000  MCs  per  year  subsided  with   US$800  per  MC.
  35. 35. Concluding Remarks¡  Clear  Management  Policy.  ¡  Research  on  Mixed  Traffic  Flow  and   Travel  Behaviors.  ¡  External  Cost  and    Social  Equity.  ¡  Speed  and  Safety.  ¡  New  Energy  Applica+on:  M2W  vs.   e2W.  ¡  Interna+onal  Coopera+on.
  36. 36. Thanksskchang@ntu.edu.tw
  37. 37. Transforming Transportation 2013!!   Co-organized by EMBARQ and The World Bank!!   More information at:!! EMBARQ.org!! worldbank.org/transport!!   Questions? Comments? Contact us at embarq@wri.org!!   Follow us on Twitter: @EMBARQnetwork!Transforming Transportation 2013!

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