Motorcycle Management in Taiwan - Jason Chang - National Taiwan University - Taipei City - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank
Motorcycle Management Policy in Taiwan: From Dilemma to Reality !! Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!! S.K. Jason Chang, PhD!! Professor, National Taiwan University!! Advisor, Taipei City Government!Transforming Transportation 2013!
Motorcycle Management Policy in Taiwan: From Dilemma to Reality S.K. Jason Chang, Ph.D. Professor, Na+onal Taiwan University Advisor, Taipei City Government email@example.com The 10th Transforming Transporta.on Annual Conference In The World Bank, Washington, DC, Jan 17-‐18, 2013,
Taiwan • 94% of Taiwan’s Population Live along the West Corridor (20% of land)• Area: 36,000 sq km Popula+on: 23 million • Nice Weather: Summer-‐ 28~35oC Winter: 12~25oC Taipei Population / k㎡ >15000 5000-15000 Hsinchu 3000-5000 1000-3000 500-1000 300-500 100-300 Taichung <100 Tainan & Kaohsiung
Taiwan and Urban Areas • Vehicles: Cars 6.8 mi, Motorcycles 14 mi • Taipei: 3000 sq km, Pop 6.8 mi Car-‐ 2.5 mi, Motorcycle-‐3.2 mi MRT 110 km; Pre-‐BRT 58 km • Kaohsiung: 2200 sq km, Pop 2.8 mi Car-‐ 0.7 mi, Motorcycle-‐ 2.3 mi MRT 43km • i-‐Bus and i-‐Taxi: high-‐quality, high availability and wide coverage. • High Speed Rail: the journey b/w Taipei and Kaohsiung (345km) 90 minutes.
General Features of CiCes in Taiwan • Stable Urbaniza+on and Motoriza+on • Mixed Land Use + High Popula+on Density • Personal Mobility / Mixed Traﬃc Flow Characteris+cs: Motorcycle (40%) + Car (25%) + PT (25%) + Cycling & Walk (10%) Taipei: MC (25%) + Car (25%) + PT (35%) + Cycling & Walk (15%) Kaohsiung: MC (60%) + Car (20%) + PT (8%) + Cycling & Walk (12%) • Fatality in Traﬃc Accidents: 80% MC
From 1982 to 2012 “Are they a transi+on step toward full, car-‐based motoriza+on?”NO!!
CharacterisCcs of Motorcycles Less space needed and easy parking Convenience Free parking or $0.7 per day MC: 1/6 space of car Less cost for own and use Aﬀordability O&M Cost ($/km): MC 0.09 Car 0.38 For short trip Flexibility Mixed land use Compact city environment CommuCng Cme: 10-‐20 min High modal share 9
Traffic Accidents-Fatality in Urban Area Total Motorcycle M/C % Taipei 145 79 54.48% New Taipei 385 168 62.45% Taichung 404 275 68.07% Tainan 368 225 61.14% Kaohsiung 385 290 75.32% Source: Institute of Transportation, MOTC (2011)l Urban area has 450 總數最高 comparaCvely lower MC 400 350 fatality. Traﬃc 300 250 其他車種 management, enforcement 200 150 機車 and speed are key factors. 100 50 機車比例最高 0 臺北市 新北市 臺中市 臺南市 高雄市
Motorcycle pay far less thanshould pay (including External Cost) • Actually Paid / Should Pay Walk: 100.0% Bike: 96.6% Motorcycle: 34.8% Car: 59.6% Taxi: 47.8% Bus: 81.6% Metro: 89.7% Personal mobility of using private motorized mode has been heavily subsidized by social resources
The “convenience” of motorcyclesprovide necessary mobility foreconomy. However, lack of policy,management and pricing scheme hascaused huge social loss. Source: hfp:// michaelturton.blogspot.com
30 Years Re-think about the Role of Motorcycle and Management • Na+onal policy on motorcycle • Beneﬁts iden+ﬁed w/ a good management on safety and environmental issues Bus Bus • PCE of Motorcycle: Walk Bike only only Bike Walk 0.15~0.45 in various mixed rate and Source: Dr. Kent Wang, DG of Kaohsiung DOT (2011) composi+ons
Energy Eﬃciency of Motorcycle Motorcycle: 0.024 liter per trip km, same as Bus. Motorcycle Metro Taxi Car Domestic Bus High Speed Conventional air Train Rail Source: Vision of Low Carbon Transportation, MOTC, 2011. 17
Motorcycle Management Traffic Engineering Parking, Enforcement and Policy
Traﬃc Engineering and RegulaCon Junction: Safetyand Efficiency-Motorcycle Floodgate-Two Stage Left Turn Left Turn forMotorcyclesfirst cross the streetparallel and reach thewaiting area to cross themain street Source: Lung, Chang and Hong (1986)
Traﬃc Engineering and RegulaCon Junction: Safety and EfficiencyMotorcycle Floodgate
Motorcycle Safety Manual Motorcycle Safety- Motorcycle Helmet Law- Motorcycle w/ Bus and Heavy Vehicle- Enforcement and Education
Helmet 1994, Trial Law of Helmet in Taipei City A pilot study showed an increase in helmet use from 21% to 79% and a 56% reduction in motorized vehicle–related fatality. 1997, National Helmet Law A 50.2% reduction in motorized vehicle– related fatality from 1998 to 2008.Source: Implementation of a Motorcycle Helmet Law in Taiwan andTraffic Deaths Over 18 Years, America Medical Association, 2011.
Pre-BRT has reduced 85% ofmotorcycle-related accidentsin those corridors.
Education and Training1. Wear Hamlet and other safety equipment2. Watch closely on your partner seating behind you3. Respect right of way4. Keep reasonable distance and follow the signal5. Always respect Pedestrian6. Always think about family……
Environmental Issues1. Stop two stroke MC since 20042. New Energy: e2W e2W 1. Demo Project: Peng Hu Island Low Carbon Village: 5,000 MCs w/ subsidy $250~$1,200 per MC +300 staCons, powered by solar and wind. 2. NaConal Encouragement Project: 15,000 MCs per year subsided with US$800 per MC.
Concluding Remarks¡ Clear Management Policy. ¡ Research on Mixed Traﬃc Flow and Travel Behaviors. ¡ External Cost and Social Equity. ¡ Speed and Safety. ¡ New Energy Applica+on: M2W vs. e2W. ¡ Interna+onal Coopera+on.
Transforming Transportation 2013!! Co-organized by EMBARQ and The World Bank!! More information at:!! EMBARQ.org!! worldbank.org/transport!! Questions? Comments? Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org!! Follow us on Twitter: @EMBARQnetwork!Transforming Transportation 2013!