Mexico City and the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety - Martha Hijar - National Academy of Medicine, Mexico - Fundacion Entornos - Transforming Transportation 2013 - EMBARQ and The World Bank
Mexico City and the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety!! Presented at Transforming Transportation 2013!! Martha Híjar, PhD!! Senior Researcher!! National Academy of Medicine, Mexico!Transforming Transportation 2013!
TRANSFORMING TRANSPORTATION Washington DC / January 17-‐18, 2013 CITIES AND THE DECADE OF ACTION ON ROAD SAFETY Implica(ons of the Decade of Ac(on on Road Safety The case of Mexico City Martha Híjar PhD Senior researcher
FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEFINITION OF THE ROAD SAFETY PILLARS Systemic approach Souce: adapted from the world report of road safety WHO 2009
Approaches to Road Safety TradiAonal approach: • AcAons and mecanisms • knowledge and • rules of behaviour, • to use the urban roads correctly. Integral and modern Approach • Measurements of urban design, • safe coexistence of every actor • social character of the street. Fuente: Sanz alduán, Alfonso. Calmar el Tráﬁco. Pasos para una nueva cultura de la movilidad urbana. 3º edición. Madrid 2008. Ministerio de Fomento, España.
Regional road safety Road safety management instruments. Safety and protec(ve quality of road networks for the all road s m obility Safe road users Safe vehicles Road us er beha Develop programmes to viour improve road user behaviour Improve health systems to Post crash care provide appropriate emergency treatment
PILLAR 2 Safe roads mobility Raise the inherent safety and protec(ve quality of road networks for the beneﬁt of all road users, especially the most vulnerable. Courtesy Baranda B
PILLAR 4: Road user behavior • Develop comprehensive programs to improve road user behavior. • Sustained or increased enforcement of laws and standards, combined with • Public awareness/educa(on to increase • SEAT-‐BELT and • HELMET WEARING rates, and INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS • to reduce DRINK-‐DRIVING, MOTOR CRASHES • SPEED, and other risk factors
MOBILITY PATTERNS ACCORDING FAMILY INCOME LOW HIGH 4 PERSONS NO CAR 4 PERSONS TWO CARS HOME HOME GROCERY SCHOOL SHOPING STORE BUS STOP PHYSICIAN 5 TRIPS 13 TRIPS BUS STOP 46 Kms. 28 Kms. SCHOOL OFFICE PARTNERS OFFICE RESTAURANTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT BY FOOT CAR TAXI BIKESource: Alcântara de Vasconcelos Eduardo,2008
WHAT MEANS MOBILITY ON URBAN AREAS? CITY LIFE AGE WORK INCOME (social class) RESIDENCE DAILY ACTIVITIES • TECHNICAL PROBLEM a SOCIAL AND POLITICAL issue
RTI Mortality rates by type of road user Mexico City 2007-2011 12 10 YEAR RATES/100,000 IHABITANTS 8 2007 6 2008 4 2009 2010 2 2011* 0 Pedestrian Cyclist Motorcyclist Occupants Other RTI TYPE OF ROAD USER
RTI Hospital discharge rates by type of road user Mexico City 2007-2011 18 16 14 12 YEAR 2007 RATES/100,000 IHABITANTS 10 2008 8 2009 6 2010 4 2011* 2 0 Pedestrian Cyclist Motorcyclist Occupants Other RTI TYPE OF ROAD USER
Mexico City Context MODEL (CAR ORIENTED) MOST DISADVANTAGED ROAD TRAFFIC Needs of individual mobility PARTIALLY SOLVED VS ROAD SAFETY MODES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION but not interconnected Adverse eﬀects: Environmental, human hours lost, physical and MENTAL HEALTH Severe externality ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES,
DistribuAon of road traﬃc fataliAes by road user in low, middle and high income countries Source: Naci, H., Chisholm, D., Baker, T.D., 2009. Distribu(on of road traﬃc deaths by road user group: a global comparison. Injury Preven(on 15, 55–59
CAUSES OF DEATH BY ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES LAS AMERICAS REGION 2009 100% 2% 1% 8% 8% 10% 12% 14% 90% 20% Others and unespecified 2% 31% 80% 9% 23% 8% 32% 23% 70% 43% Pedestrians 5% 11% 60% 4% 12% 6% 31% 12% Cyclists 50% 6% 2% 40% 8% 74% 5% Motorcyclists 30% 61% 51% 14% 49% 47% 20% 36% Motor vehicle occupants 10% 20% 0% North Caribe Caribe no Cono Meso Andina TOTAL America Latino latino sur AméricaSource: Reporte regional sobre seguridad vial en Las Américas. PAHO 2010
COMMUNITY DESIGN AND HEALTH • Obesity, physical ac(vity, CVD Related to land use • Water quan(ty and quality Related to automobile • Air pollu(on and asthma dependency • Climate change contribu(on • ↑ Car crashes • ↑ Pedestrian injuries Related to social • Mental health impact processes • ↓ Social capital
Walking and cycling as physical ac(vity or as a mobility need? Outcome Longevity Disease preven(on Exposure: pedestrian CHD or cyclist Cancer Diabetes Stroke Health promo(on Mental health WALK AND CYCLING ARE DANGEROUS BUT NOT TO DO IT IS MORE DANGEROUS CONTEXT IS IMPORTANT
Conceptual model for Safety Promotion GOVERANCE AND SOCIAL CAPITAL SUSTENTABILITY DEVELOPMENT OF A INTERSETORIALITY AND INTEGRATIVE MODEL FOR SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SOCIAL NETWORKS ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PUBLIC POLICY HEALTH PARTICIPATORY KNOWLEDGE PROCESS RESULTS INEQUITIES
CHALLENGES THE INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS SAFETY PROMOTION MODERN, COMPREHENSIVE AND INCLUSIVE ROAD SAFETY APPROACH NEW PARADIGM FOR MOBILITY. WALK SAFETY AND INTERCONNECTED WITH THE REST OF THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM. INCLUDE MORE DETAILED ACTIONS BY TYPE OF ROAD ACTOR AT THE DECADE OF ACTION FOR ROAD SAFETY TO PROMOTE THE MOBILITY OF A SAFE, EQUITABLE, HEALTHY AND SUSTAINABLE WAY FOR ALL AND EACH ROAD ACTOR MOBILITY POLICIES BASED ON EVIDENCE BASE THINK GLOBALLY/ ACT LOCALLY (The importance of the context)
Man has lost the power to YVAN ILLYCH conceive himself as something CONFERENCE ABOUT MEXICO CITY other than a user of motorized Universidad Autónoma de México transport. 1970 (42 years ago) He has lost consciousness of the physical , social and psychological powers available to him because of his feet. He has forgooen to mark the scope of his domains with his footprints, or to meet with the neighbors walking around a park. He can’t ﬁnd anyone without crashing, nor can he arrive without a motor dragging him
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