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Managing Urban Expansion
Rejeet Mathews,
Manager, Integrated Urban Planning
WRI India
5th April, 2016
rejeet.mathews@wri.o...
Municipal Boundary
Urban Area (2005-06)
Urban Area (2011-12)
Delhi NCR Mumbai Pune
54 sqkm/ year 5 sqkm/ year 42 sqkm/year...
Ahmedabad Chennai Bengaluru
13 sqkm/ year 18 sqkm/ year 39 sqkm/year
Inevitable Urban Expansion in Indian Cities…
• Chenna...
While aiming for the benefits of compactness, and preventing the
externalities of sprawl, the inevitability of urban expan...
Case: Bangalore
• Peripheries
with over a
100% growth
rate
• Core city
starting to de-
densify
Metropolitan Region Authority| Development Authority |
Municipal Corporation
BMRDA | BDA | BBMP
60 sqkm | 29 sqkm | 13 sqk...
Areas around
Bangalore
International
Airport…
Disconnected, Dispersed
and Un-serviced
urbanisation near
Bengaluru Airport…...
Large campuses with few roads in Whitefield…
• EPIP - 500 acres
• ITPB - 70 acres
• Bagmane World Trade
Centre – 50 acres
...
Density of Road Networks in periphery abysmal…
Jaynagar Vijaynagar Whitefield
Data Source: Open Street Map and Google Maps...
Dead end streets…
Contrasting traditional settlements and newer developments…
Photo: Rejeet Mathews, WRI India
Private havens and public apathy…
Traditional and cultural public spaces accessible to all disappearing…
Self provisioning of basic services…
Environmental degradation…
Environmental degradation…
1. Introducing Missing
Scales of Plans…
Karnataka
State
District/
Bengaluru
Metropolitan
Region
Bengaluru
Local Planning
Area
Municipal
Zonal and
Ward Area
State ...
2. Exploring Alternatives to
Access Planned and
Serviced Land…
Land Owners - Public Agencies – Private Developers – Political Economy
Alternatives to Access Planned and Serviced Land…
Broad Public Purpose
• Strategic and defence purposes at
national and state levels
• Social and physical infrastructure
pr...
3. Adopting Strategic Spatial
Planning and Projects…
Source: Generated by EMBARQ India using data from Bhuvan NRSC and Census data
One size fits all…!
• An urban centre with 8...
Image and Data Source: One New York, Mayor Bill de Blasio
Strategic Spatial
Planning | New York
Image and Data Source: One New
York, Mayor Bill de Blasio
Strategic
Spatial
Planning |
New York
Strategic
Spatial
Planning |
Greater
London
Strategic
Spatial
Planning |
Greater
London
4. Leveraging Coalitions
and Civic Networks…
• Capacity and capability of
urban local bodies remains low
• Long range critical decisions
and sustained follow up are
hi...
• The coming in of a non partisan,
evidence driven organisation/ think tank
that sits outside of political and
administrat...
Thank You.
Managing Urban Expansion
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Managing Urban Expansion

  1. 1. Managing Urban Expansion Rejeet Mathews, Manager, Integrated Urban Planning WRI India 5th April, 2016 rejeet.mathews@wri.org
  2. 2. Municipal Boundary Urban Area (2005-06) Urban Area (2011-12) Delhi NCR Mumbai Pune 54 sqkm/ year 5 sqkm/ year 42 sqkm/year Inevitable Urban Expansion in Indian Cities… • Rapid growth in satellite towns of Delhi (Gurgaon, Noida, Grt Noida, Faridabad etc) • Mumbai, little movement in peripheries, but witnessing inner city redevelopment • Pune capitalising on Mumbai’s slow down, attracting new economies like IT/ ITES Source: Generated by WRI India using data from Bhuvan NRSC
  3. 3. Ahmedabad Chennai Bengaluru 13 sqkm/ year 18 sqkm/ year 39 sqkm/year Inevitable Urban Expansion in Indian Cities… • Chennai and Ahmedabad have moderate transport corridor oriented growth • Bangalore is witnessing high-tech and IT/ ITES offices proliferating and clustering at the peripheries Source: Generated by WRI India using data from Bhuvan NRSC Municipal Boundary Urban Area (2005-06) Urban Area (2011-12)
  4. 4. While aiming for the benefits of compactness, and preventing the externalities of sprawl, the inevitability of urban expansion must be recognized and planned for by cities aiming to be smart… Concern: ‘The country’s march to the city will then be merely demographic...’ KCS
  5. 5. Case: Bangalore
  6. 6. • Peripheries with over a 100% growth rate • Core city starting to de- densify
  7. 7. Metropolitan Region Authority| Development Authority | Municipal Corporation BMRDA | BDA | BBMP 60 sqkm | 29 sqkm | 13 sqkm increase per year 1,223 sqft | 594 sqft | 265 sqft every minute Bengaluru’s rapid rate of expansion… BIAL Airport Electronics City Whitefield Source: Generated by WRI India using data from Bhuvan NRSC
  8. 8. Areas around Bangalore International Airport… Disconnected, Dispersed and Un-serviced urbanisation near Bengaluru Airport… Data Source: Open Street Map and Google Maps, Google Earth, Water bodies from LULC (50K) 2011-12 NRSC-ISRO
  9. 9. Large campuses with few roads in Whitefield… • EPIP - 500 acres • ITPB - 70 acres • Bagmane World Trade Centre – 50 acres • GE - 36 acres • Gopalan SEZ – 25 acres • Divyasree Technopark – 22 acres
  10. 10. Density of Road Networks in periphery abysmal… Jaynagar Vijaynagar Whitefield Data Source: Open Street Map and Google Maps, Google Earth,
  11. 11. Dead end streets…
  12. 12. Contrasting traditional settlements and newer developments…
  13. 13. Photo: Rejeet Mathews, WRI India Private havens and public apathy…
  14. 14. Traditional and cultural public spaces accessible to all disappearing…
  15. 15. Self provisioning of basic services…
  16. 16. Environmental degradation…
  17. 17. Environmental degradation…
  18. 18. 1. Introducing Missing Scales of Plans…
  19. 19. Karnataka State District/ Bengaluru Metropolitan Region Bengaluru Local Planning Area Municipal Zonal and Ward Area State Five Year Plans Urban Vision 2020 Annual Plans South Karnataka Region Plan BMR Revised Structure Plan 2031 Interim Master Plans for local planning areas within Region Revised Master Plan for BMA JNNURM CDP JNNURM DPR Smart City / AMRUT Development projects for zones Actual Situation Model Law State Perspective Plan Perspective Plan for Districts; Development Plan for Districts Perspective Plan for Metropolitan Area; Development Plan for Metropolitan Area Perspective Plan for Local Planning Area Development Plan for Local Planning Area Development Scheme Land Pooling Scheme KTCP Act, 1961 Outline Development Plan/ CDPs for LPAs within Region Master Plan / Outline Development Plan Town Planning Scheme State Perspective Plan and Urban Vision Inter-Regional Development Strategy District / Bengaluru Metropolitan Region Perspective Strategy and Development Plan Bengaluru Strategic Spatial Plan and Strategic Projects + Land Use and DCR oriented Development Plan City Development Plan and Strategic Projects for other Medium and Small Sized Urban Centres Municipal Zonal Plans Ward Plans Schemes and Projects Proposed Karnataka Urban and Regional Planning and Development Act
  20. 20. 2. Exploring Alternatives to Access Planned and Serviced Land…
  21. 21. Land Owners - Public Agencies – Private Developers – Political Economy Alternatives to Access Planned and Serviced Land…
  22. 22. Broad Public Purpose • Strategic and defence purposes at national and state levels • Social and physical infrastructure projects • Large scale industrial corridors • Affordable housing • Emergency needs, natural calamities Types of Land Accessed • Rural • Urban (Redevelopment – Renewal – Retrofitting) • Combination (Rural + Urban) Types of Stakeholders accessing land for public purposes • Government • Private parties/ developers • Public private partnerships • NGOs/ Institutions • Owners themselves Various mechanisms and methods used to access land • National Land Acquisition Act (RFCTLARR 2013) - Employs eminent domain to compulsorily acquire land • Town Planning Scheme - Employs a land readjustment technique • Land Pooling Scheme - Employs a land pooling technique • Joint Development Model - Employs a public private partnership method • NAINA Scheme - Employs a land pooling cum eminent domain technique • Accommodation Reservation and Transferable Development Rights - Employs a built up area in lieu of land lost for public purpose technique • Cluster Redevelopment Scheme - Employs a built up area and redeveloped building in lieu of urban renewal technique • Market Price Negotiation - Employs a direct price negotiation for land purchase • Informal Squatting - Use and occupation of land occurs informally without access to titles • Land Lease - Payment of a lease amount (rent) to use the land for a specified period
  23. 23. 3. Adopting Strategic Spatial Planning and Projects…
  24. 24. Source: Generated by EMBARQ India using data from Bhuvan NRSC and Census data One size fits all…! • An urban centre with 8 million people follows an identical process of city master planning as one of 8 thousand people as per current Town and Country Planning Acts • Settlements vary in population size, spatial spread and complexity, but yet follow a one size fits all policy
  25. 25. Image and Data Source: One New York, Mayor Bill de Blasio Strategic Spatial Planning | New York
  26. 26. Image and Data Source: One New York, Mayor Bill de Blasio Strategic Spatial Planning | New York
  27. 27. Strategic Spatial Planning | Greater London
  28. 28. Strategic Spatial Planning | Greater London
  29. 29. 4. Leveraging Coalitions and Civic Networks…
  30. 30. • Capacity and capability of urban local bodies remains low • Long range critical decisions and sustained follow up are hindered by election cycles, administrative boundaries etc. • The scale and pace of urbanisation in India is resulting in several efforts at restructuring municipal and development authorities to face new challenges. • BBMP Restructuring Committee and DDA Act Restructuring Committee are examples…
  31. 31. • The coming in of a non partisan, evidence driven organisation/ think tank that sits outside of political and administrative pressures and time lines has seen good results in some global cities • One such example is the Regional Planning Association of the New York tri state region.
  32. 32. Thank You.

By Rejeet Mathews/WRI India

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