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JnNURM Funded BRT Systems in India: A Review


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By Madhav Pai, Technical Director, EMBARQ India

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JnNURM Funded BRT Systems in India: A Review

  1. 1. J n NURM Funded BRT Systems in India: A Review Madhav Pai Technical Director – India EMBARQ TRB, 2009 Washington, DC
  2. 3. <ul><li>Current Status – 17 Cities are considering, planning or implementing busway/BRT projects. </li></ul><ul><li>10 of the 17 are being funded through J n NURM </li></ul>
  3. 4. @ Ambedkar Marg & Mehrauli Badarpur Road Junction Bus priority at junction
  4. 5. Source: DIMTS Metro Phase I Metro Phase II HCBS Phase I
  5. 7. Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI April 26 th , 2008 Packed bus on a Saturday, there were more than 200 passengers in the bus
  6. 8. Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI April 26 th , 2008 Bus Station on Mehrauli Badarpur Road
  7. 10. <ul><li>Car vs. bus drivers </li></ul><ul><li>65% of car drivers feel the BRT has made traffic congestion worse </li></ul><ul><li>75% of bus drivers say the BRT is a huge improvement for buses. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50% of car drivers say that the new bus stops in the middle of the road do not make driving more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus drivers say it's easier to pick up passengers from the new bus stops and 72% of them say the middle-of-the-road stops are working better than the earlier system. </li></ul><ul><li>Most car drivers, 76%, however, say that they are worried about hitting pedestrians crossing the road. </li></ul><ul><li>61% of car drivers say driving is easier now that buses have their own lane </li></ul><ul><li>82% of bus drivers say the new bus lanes for them make driving easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus passengers </li></ul><ul><li>88% of bus commuters feel the new BRT and its buses are an improvement on Delhi's public transport system </li></ul><ul><li>71% believe it will help in reducing travel time - most bus users say their commute time has already been slashed by 50 per cent after the BRT was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>60% of bus commuters say there are enough Marshals and traffic policemen to help guide them to their buses </li></ul>Despite some design and operational issues, bus users & bus drivers are perceiving large benefits Source: NDTV Poll, May 1st, 2008 http:// =NEWEN20080048558
  8. 12. Delhi BRTS Initial Corridor <ul><li>Initial Operation: 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Length: 5.6 Km </li></ul><ul><li>Stations: 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Ridership: N/A; 8,000 pphpd </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: 60 buses/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Speed: 11-13 Km/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Median lane busways on Arterial – open system (0.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Small shelters with narrow platforms – insufficient bays (0.25) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed fleet (0.25) </li></ul><ul><li>Manual fare collection – on board, no central control (0.1) </li></ul><ul><li>BRT Rating: 0.70 (18%) </li></ul>Source: Pai and Hidalgo, JnNURM Funded BRT Systems in India: A Review, TRB 2009
  9. 13. <ul><li>The traffic signals did not work properly. Signal cycles excessively long (12 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Bus queuing at stations - spillovers </li></ul><ul><li>High number of Blue Line Bus breakdowns in the bus lane. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus drivers were not well informed of the new operations. Additional traffic wardens have helped providing instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicles and two wheelers invaded the bus lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian jaywalking </li></ul>Delhi bus corridor had several problems during the first weeks:
  10. 14. Source: DIMTS Metro Phase I Metro Phase II HCBS Phase I
  11. 15. Pune Pilot Corridor <ul><li>Pune inaugurated a pilot corridor on 3 December 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Bus priority in median lane </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot corridor of 14.8 Kilometers </li></ul>PUNE
  12. 16. Things done well <ul><li>Infrastructure costs have been low </li></ul><ul><li>High performance: commercial speeds of 16-18 km/hr in stretches where segregation infrastructure is complete. High occupancy 80-100 passengers observed in the peak sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Service receives good rating by users. People indicate that the busway has reduced the travel time and the new buses are of better quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Fares for new AC Volvo buses are same. </li></ul><ul><li>On board e-ticketing has been introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved driver work environments. The uniformed drivers feel a sense of dignity and pride. </li></ul>PUNE
  13. 17. <ul><li>Implementation was rushed, causing operational problems, user dissatisfaction and bad public image. Very few problems have been corrected since operations have begun. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation infrastructure is complete in only for 3 kms of the 14.8 km corridor. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect of busways by the general traffic is not adequate due to lack of continuous segregation, enforcement and user education. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stop circulation for passengers is difficult due to the presence of obstacles (seats, columns) and narrow sections. Passengers are required to step down the platforms to reach the pedestrian walkways at the intersection. </li></ul><ul><li>Level boarding has not been achieved as buses do not dock at close distance to the platforms. As a result there is high inconvenience to the passengers that need to walk down the platforms to walk up the bus entrances. </li></ul>PUNE Things that perhaps should have been differently
  14. 18. PMPML bus moving faster than rest of the traffic Pune Pilot Corridor Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI Feb 8 th , 2008 PUNE
  15. 19. Students who boarded the bus at Vidyapeeth enjoying their ride back home Pune Pilot Corridor Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI Feb 8 th , 2008 PUNE
  16. 20. Mixed Traffic in Segregated Lane Pune Pilot Corridor Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI Feb 8 th , 2008 PUNE
  17. 21. Opportunity for Terminal Development (355,000 sq. ft.) Pune Pilot Corridor Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI Feb 8 th , 2008 PUNE
  18. 22. No level boarding causes inconveniences to passengers and increases dwell times Pedestrians don’t use crosswalks Overcrowded buses Hadapsar Terminal Pune Pilot Corridor Photo By: Madhav Pai, EMBARQ/WRI Feb 8 th , 2008
  19. 23. J n NURM funded BRT projects in India (Under Implementation) <ul><li>Ahmedabad (Janmarg) </li></ul><ul><li>Indore (MetroJet) </li></ul><ul><li>Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Pune </li></ul>
  20. 24. Demonstration Corridor AHMEDABAD
  21. 25. Project Highlights <ul><li>BRTS – Master Plan – 88 km </li></ul><ul><li>12 km Pilot – 58 km Phase I – 34 Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot corridor will be inaugurated in March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>35% cost from J n NURM funds </li></ul><ul><li>Fully segregated corridors, level access </li></ul><ul><li>Closed system </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled operations </li></ul><ul><li>Fare integration </li></ul>AHMEDABAD
  22. 26. Demonstration Corridor INDORE
  23. 27. Project Highlights <ul><li>BRTS Master Plan – 88 km </li></ul><ul><li>12 km Pilot – 47 km Phase I – 39 km Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>12 kms sanctioned, 50% funds from J n NURM </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot will be inaugurated December 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Fully segregated corridors, level access </li></ul><ul><li>Open system </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled operations </li></ul><ul><li>Prepayment, electronic ticketing </li></ul>INDORE
  24. 28. Demonstration Corridor JAIPUR
  25. 29. Project Highlights <ul><li>BRTS – Master Plan – 138 km </li></ul><ul><li>7.1 km Pilot – 47 km Phase I – 84 Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>All 138 kms sanctioned </li></ul><ul><li>50% cost from J n NURM funds </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot corridor will be inaugurated in March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Fully segregated corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Open system </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled operations </li></ul><ul><li>Prepayment, electronic ticketing </li></ul>JAIPUR
  26. 30. Demonstration Corridor PUNE PUNE
  27. 31. Project Highlights <ul><li>BRTS – Master Plan – 100 km </li></ul><ul><li>15 km Pilot – 58 km Phase I – 34 Phase II </li></ul><ul><li>All 100 kms sanctioned </li></ul><ul><li>50% cost from J n NURM funds </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot corridor will be inaugurated in December 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed traffic through downtown </li></ul><ul><li>Open system </li></ul><ul><li>No controlled operations </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic ticketing </li></ul>PUNE
  28. 32. Early Progress & Lessons Learnt
  29. 33. Bus Boost to Bus Based - Public Transport <ul><li>A need for bus based public transport and preferential treatment of buses realized by central government (Ministry of Urban Development) </li></ul><ul><li>Change in perspective of senior city bureaucrats towards bus-based public transport system due to national workshops and exposure trips. </li></ul><ul><li>Realization in city bureaucracy for restructuring state/municipal corporation owned bus companies and implementing organized bus based public transport in cities where IPT has major share. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal capacity building for City staff </li></ul>
  30. 34. Bus Capacity Building <ul><li>Bus Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus body building was a cottage industry until a few years ago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the last four years manufacturers through internal research and joint ventures have rapidly built capacity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ITS Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local manufacturers are working very hard to build capacity in manufacturing GPS devices, traffic signal technology and other ITS equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local manufacturers have managed to significantly drop costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consulting Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure visits, MoUD workshops and conferences like this have provided an excellent platform for exchange </li></ul>
  31. 35. Difficulties of working with new vendors <ul><ul><li>Costs for technology haven’t stabilized, which makes financial planning extremely difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies (buses and equipment) haven’t been fully tested and systems have endure a learning process as industry matures </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Routes in mixed traffic through city centers Demand: 3,000 PPHPD Speed = 20 km Speed = 20 km Speed = 8 km Speed = 20 km
  33. 37. Fare Levels <ul><li>Fare levels are low, one rupee per kilometer or lower </li></ul><ul><li>Planned services maybe faster, more reliable and with better bus and information technologies, however planned bus occupancy is very high </li></ul><ul><li>Fares at these levels alone are not sufficient to provide adequate level of service and make the system financially sustainable </li></ul>
  34. 38. Financial Sustainability, Fare Levels & Bus Occupancy <ul><li>Alternate revenue sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed annual subsidy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land development </li></ul></ul>
  35. 39. Convincing all City Staff <ul><li>There is buy-in from the main stakeholders of the project, Engineers, contractors, land development authorities implementing the project are not fully convinced. </li></ul><ul><li>Logic of running the buses in median lanes continues to be questioned </li></ul><ul><li>Buy-in and confidence in the project is required to make bold decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers of primary stakeholder has been a big concern </li></ul><ul><li>Special efforts to emphasize the need for equitable allocation of road space to all its constituents (Pedestrians, Bicyclists, Public transport, IPT and Personal vehicles). </li></ul>
  36. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>Systems reviewed are all expected to improve travel conditions, quality and performance of public transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems in their current form will significantly contribute to mobility needs in Tier II cities, but are far from reducing the pressures of rapid motorization. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Recommendations <ul><ul><li>Make all efforts to facilitate improvements in the technology space -fare collection integration, terminals and operations control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive, performance based specifications in contracts to cover for lack of experience on the vendors/contractors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand long term implications of contracts being negotiated with private parties for bus operations & fare collection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to achieve commercial speeds of 20 km/hr (Including stops and waiting at junction) with safe, efficient operations, boarding and alighting at stops, level boarding, limited access to bus stations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure trips, field visits, conference exchanges not only for decision makers but for staff working on the projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce cities to supervise, monitor and control the system after implementation, to collect data for system planning, to archive collected data and to measure & monitor. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Thank You Foundation Global Strategic Partners SUMA Partnership Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia CAI Asia – ADB - SIDA