Trip chaining: This means women now have to manage even more complex travel patterns, carefully ‘chaining’ their trips from schools to places of work to shopping, health care, and recreational facilities or places of worship. Women’s mobility patterns are also more intimately bound up with their children’s mobility patterns than men’s. STL: Close relationships which exist between women’s place of residence, their ability to access places of employment, education or basic services and their ability to improve their livelihoods. Given women’s higher domestic and caretaking responsibilities, they tend to seek employment opportunities closer to home with more flexible hours than their male counterparts. This translates into a higher sensitivity to distance. In a study amongst low-income populations in Chennai, as many as 83% of the poor women walked, compared to 63% of the men. Even in bicycle rates, while there was a complete lack of bicycle facilities in Chennai, resulting in male bicycle rates of 8 per cent and women rates of only 1 per cent.
Data from theNational Crime Records Bureau show that cities with a population of more than one million tend to have a higher rate of crime in general. There were 33,789 cases of crimes against women reported from 53 mega cities out of the total 2,28,650 cases reported in the country during 2011. Among them, Delhi accounted for 13.3% (4,489), followed by Bengaluru 5.6% (1,890), and Hyderabad 5.5% (1,860). The proportion of IPC crimes committed against women has increased during the last five years from 8.8 % in the year 2007 to 9.4% during the year 2011.4 Several research studies have been conducted over the past few years to understand women’s experience and participation in cities. In Delhi, a 2010 study with over 5000 men and women showed that over 95% of the women had experienced some form of harassment in the past year while a similar percentage of men reported having been witness to sexual harassment. Almost two out of three women and girls reported facing incidents of sexual harassment between 2-5 times in the past year. Studies conducted by numerous civil society organizations like Jagori, Akshara and Sakhi have demonstrated that women face harassment as part of everyday life and not only at night or in secluded spaces. While “bad design” of public spaces might not directly cause verbal or sexual assault, the inverse does hold true. Design can go a long way to make a space inviting to women and discourage situations where women get harassed. Design can create a situation for change to happen and reinforce it when it does. Safer cities for women are better and safer cities for all.Vishwanath, Kalpana. 2013. Planning cities as if women matter. Seminar. Ibid
Gender and Public Spaces
Source: *Gender-based division of labor; Disparities in power and control of resources; Gender biases in rights and entitlements.’ (World
Source: Anand, Anvita and Tiwari, Geetam. 2006. A Gendered Perspective of the Shelter-Transport-Livelihood Link: The Case of Poor Women in
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Deike, Peters. Breadwinners, Homemakers and Beasts of Burden: A Gender Perspective on Transport and Mobility. ISR, Berline, Germany
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