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Evaluating the Parking Standard
Reform in London:
A Matched-Pair Approach
Fei Li
New York University
Wagner Graduate Schoo...
Why care about parking Standards?

 Underused parking
(Willson, 1995)
 More costly housing
(Jia & Wachs, 1998)

Minimum ...
Reforming Parking Policy
 Three approaches to parking regulation (Barter, 2010)
 The traditional approach: minimum parki...
London Parking Reform
 Following two national policies (PPG3, PPG13) and the
2004 London Plan:
 An across-the-board shif...
The Study Area
Parking standards
(# of spaces per unit)
Borough

Prereform
(Min)

Postreform
(Max)

# of cars per
househol...
Estimating the Policy Effect
 607 pairs of pre- and post-reform developments
matched by location and development type
 T...
Results

Average
Reform
Effect (𝜹)

Percent Bound by
Minimum Parking
Standards (%)

Average
Binding
Effect

Percent Capped...
Conclusions & Policy Implications
 A larger part of the average effect in London parking
reform is attributable to the el...
Evaluating the parking standard reform in London  a matched-pair approach - Fei Li - Lee Schipper Scholar - Transforming T...
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Evaluating the parking standard reform in London a matched-pair approach - Fei Li - Lee Schipper Scholar - Transforming Transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

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Evaluating the parking standard reform in London a matched-pair approach - Fei Li - Lee Schipper Scholar - Transforming Transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

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Evaluating the parking standard reform in London a matched-pair approach - Fei Li - Lee Schipper Scholar - Transforming Transportation 2014 - EMBARQ The World Bank

  1. 1. Evaluating the Parking Standard Reform in London: A Matched-Pair Approach Fei Li New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy
  2. 2. Why care about parking Standards?  Underused parking (Willson, 1995)  More costly housing (Jia & Wachs, 1998) Minimum Parking Standard Higher Car Ownership and Usage  Barring redevelopment (Manville and Shoup, 2010)  Greater car dependence (Shoup, 2005) Excess Parking Supply Lower Density Lower Parking Costs Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy Higher Housing Costs 2
  3. 3. Reforming Parking Policy  Three approaches to parking regulation (Barter, 2010)  The traditional approach: minimum parking standards  The market approach: deregulating off-street parking & pricing on-street parking (Shoup, 2005)  Comprehensive parking management: maximum parking standards (parking caps), on-street parking control, etc. Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy 3
  4. 4. London Parking Reform  Following two national policies (PPG3, PPG13) and the 2004 London Plan:  An across-the-board shift from minimum to maximum car parking standards (mainly for residential uses)  Encouraging car free developments in downtown areas  On-street parking controls limiting car usage  To evaluate the effect of the parking reform, we compare the parking provision in pre-reform (1997-2000) and postreform (2004-2010) developments Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy 4
  5. 5. The Study Area Parking standards (# of spaces per unit) Borough Prereform (Min) Postreform (Max) # of cars per household Commuting by car (%) 2001 2001 2011 2011 Barnet Harrow Hammersmith and Fulham (H & F) Islington 0-1 0.5 Mixed 0.51 0.41 16.82 6.39 Lambeth 0-1 0.25-1 Mixed 0.61 0.51 20.07 1-1.5 1-1.5 None 0.74 0.66 30.82 15.29 Newham 1.5-3 1-3 Reduced 0.63 0.60 29.25 12.67 Southwark 1.1 0-2 Mixed 0.59 0.50 21.84 8.66 Westminster 1 1-1.5 Increased 0.54 0.46 14.43 6.48 Bexley 1.33-2.5 1-2 Reduced 1.13 1.17 50.75 33.43 None 0.65 0.54 19.00 Waltham Forest Redbridge 8.73 Havering Brent Brent 1.2-2.16 1-2 Reduced 0.88 0.80 36.11 1.5-3 1-2 Reduced 1.16 1.18 45.23 1-2 1 Reduced 0.79 0.77 36.59 1-2 Reduced 1.09 1.06 40.70 24.40 H&F K&C Barking and Dagenham Greenwich Southwark Lambeth Hounslow Richmond upon Thames Wandsworth Bexley Lewisham Merton Kingston 18.71 1-3 Hackney Islington Tower Newham Hamlets Westminster C.o.L. Ealing 28.91 Greenwich Camden Hillingdon 18.67 Bromley Richmond upon Thames Outer London Haringey 9.12 Lewisham Inner London 1-1.6 1-1.6 ± Enfield Change Bromley Sutton Croydon Legend Selected Boroughs 0 1 2 4 6 8 Miles Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy Inner London 5
  6. 6. Estimating the Policy Effect  607 pairs of pre- and post-reform developments matched by location and development type  The average reform effect on parking supply: 𝑌 = 𝑋𝛽 + 𝛿𝑍 + 𝜀  Pairwise difference estimator: 𝐸 𝑖 = 𝑌𝑖 𝑚𝑖𝑛 − 𝑌𝑖 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜀𝑖 Pre-reform parking supply 𝑚𝑖𝑛 − 𝜀𝑖 𝑚𝑎𝑥 Capping effect Binding effect − 𝛿 Post-reform parking supply Parking standard Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy 6
  7. 7. Results Average Reform Effect (𝜹) Percent Bound by Minimum Parking Standards (%) Average Binding Effect Percent Capped by Maximum Parking Standards (%) Average Capping Effect Inner London 0.65 (62%) 27.3 0.87 (81%) 8.2 0.49 (30%) Outer London 0.81 (28%) 28.4 0.75 (41%) 20.1 0.90 (33%) Total 0.73 (45%) 27.8 0.81 (61%) 14.2 0.78 (32%) Figures in parentheses are the percentages of reduction in pre-reform parking supply. Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy 7
  8. 8. Conclusions & Policy Implications  A larger part of the average effect in London parking reform is attributable to the elimination of minimum parking standards  Minimum parking standards cause greater market distortion in the inner city  The London parking reform suggests the potential for an efficient parking market with minimal regulation on off-street parking provision and flexible on-street parking prices Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy 8

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