Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
www.TransformingTransportation.org
Examining the Relationship
between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and
the Built Environment in...
Examining the relationship between
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the built
environment in Latin America
C. Guatemala
Bogotá
...
Motivation
Conventional wisdom and some
rail-based evidence about
transit-oriented development
(TOD) suggest:
• there is a...
1. Density
2. Diversity
3. Design
4. Destination
accessibility
5. Distance to transit
Transit
ridership
(# passengers per ...
Attributes of transit-oriented development (TOD)
• Compact and dense
• High land use mixtures
• High-quality pedestrian en...
Built environment and transit ridership
catchment areas around transit stations
measurements of built environment attribut...
1. What is the association between population
density and BRT ridership?
Sample of 87 BRT stations in Curitiba
Sample of 1...
Data management Curitiba (N=87)
Detailed area
Sample of 87 BRT stations in Curitiba (excluding
those overlapped with BRT t...
Data collection seven cities (N=120)
Segment
Block
BRT Stop
(buffer area)
BRT Terminal Portal 80
Bogota (Colombia)
Segment...
All data aggregated at station level (continuous variables)
Methodology: BRT station level
Segment-level data
% of segment...
500
700
900
1,100
1,300
1,500
1,700
1,900
2,100
2,300
2,500
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
PredictedBRTridership
Po...
1,500
2,500
3,500
4,500
5,500
6,500
7,500
8,500
9,500
10,500
11,500
12,500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
PredictedBRTri...
Entropy is positively associated with BRT ridership
% segments with high-rise developments and developments (>5
stories) a...
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PredictedBRTridership
Percentile
NMT fr...
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PredictedBRTridership...
C1
(0.467)
C2
(0.038)
C3
(0.335)
C4
(ref)
C5
(0.024)
C6
(0.415)
C7
(0.036)
C8
(0.003)
C9
(0.393)
C10
(0.329)
C11
(0.326)
C...
Discussion
• Positive association between population density and BRT
ridership in Curitiba with an elasticity of 0.26
• At...
Conclusion
• Population density is necessary but not sufficient in order to
achieve high levels of ridership at the BRT st...
Applicability in other countries (India)
• Development of BRT Terminals as urban development
projects including:
• High-ri...
Policy Implications
Promotion of BRT station area plans in two scenarios
• Design and planning stage (future BRT stations)...
Recommendations
Further research on the relationship between the built
environment and transit ridership
• Extend this met...
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India
Acknowledgements
Professor Daniel A. Rodriguez
Mr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Examining the Relationship between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the Built Environment in Latin America - Erik Vergel-Tovar - UNC Chapel Hill - Lee Schipper Memorial Scholar - Transforming Transportation 2015

3,419 views

Published on

The way built environment factors influence the success of BRT systems holds lessons for planners and policymakers. Read more: http://bit.ly/1mf3hUV

Transforming Transportation 2015: Smart Cities for Shared Prosperity is the annual conference co-organized by the World Resources Institute and the World Bank.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

Examining the Relationship between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the Built Environment in Latin America - Erik Vergel-Tovar - UNC Chapel Hill - Lee Schipper Memorial Scholar - Transforming Transportation 2015

  1. 1. www.TransformingTransportation.org Examining the Relationship between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the Built Environment in Latin America Erik Vergel-Tovar PhD Candidate, UNC-Chapel Hill, and 2014 Lee Schipper Memorial Scholar Presented at Transforming Transportation 2015
  2. 2. Examining the relationship between Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and the built environment in Latin America C. Guatemala Bogotá Quito Guayaquil Goiânia Sao Paulo Curitiba Erik Vergel-Tovar evergel@live.unc.edu PhD Candidate and Lee Schipper Scholar Department of City and Regional Planning University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill © IPPUC (2011) 7 cities 4,837,631 # passengers per day 15.42 % of world ridership
  3. 3. Motivation Conventional wisdom and some rail-based evidence about transit-oriented development (TOD) suggest: • there is a positive association between transit ridership and population density around stops BRT trunk corridors and population density in Curitiba (census tract level) However, using regression analysis this research examines: • whether population density and other built environment attributes explain BRT ridership in seven cities in Latin America
  4. 4. 1. Density 2. Diversity 3. Design 4. Destination accessibility 5. Distance to transit Transit ridership (# passengers per day) The five 5 “Ds” Attributes of the built environment in dimensions Built environment and travel 6. Parking 7. NMT infrastructure 8. Socioeconomic characteristics 9. Facilities and public spaces Additional dimensions TOD Transit-oriented development Features
  5. 5. Attributes of transit-oriented development (TOD) • Compact and dense • High land use mixtures • High-quality pedestrian environment • Coordination between transit and the built environment Transit oriented development TOD Some benefits of TOD • Concentrates demand (economies of density) • Accessibility benefits (local & regional scale) • Real estate/neighborhood-community development strategy (development around transit stations) • Generates revenue for the city (ridership, among others)
  6. 6. Built environment and transit ridership catchment areas around transit stations measurements of built environment attributes and tests associations with ridership levels Heavy Rail • Taipei • New York • Hong Kong • Seoul • Montreal • Nanjing Light Rail Transit • Metropolitan Areas (USA and Canada) Gap regarding how built environment features influence BRT ridership Bus Rapid Transit • Bogota • Los Angeles Station level studies (aggregated type) on the relationship between the built environment and transit ridership
  7. 7. 1. What is the association between population density and BRT ridership? Sample of 87 BRT stations in Curitiba Sample of 120 BRT stations in seven cities in Latin America 2. What are the associations between built environment attributes and BRT ridership? Sample of 120 BRT stations in seven cities in Latin America 3. Are TOD features associated with BRT ridership? Built environment factors – TOD features Cluster analysis – BRT stations typology - clusters Research questions
  8. 8. Data management Curitiba (N=87) Detailed area Sample of 87 BRT stations in Curitiba (excluding those overlapped with BRT terminals) • BRT Terminals (n=15) area of study: 0.79 Km2 • BRT stations (n=72) area of study: 0.15 Km2 to 0.20 Km2 BRT stop overlapped Overlapped area excluded from the analysis Detailed area
  9. 9. Data collection seven cities (N=120) Segment Block BRT Stop (buffer area) BRT Terminal Portal 80 Bogota (Colombia) Segments per BRT stations (N=120) 108.45 109.75 102.38 118.91 136.67 103.90 143.91 0 50 100 150 200 Bogota Sao Paulo Curitiba Goiania CdGuatemala Quito Guayaquil Sample: 120 BRT stations visited in seven cities Aggregated data: 13,555 segments and 3,804 blocks studied N=31 N=12 N=16 N=11 N=9 N=30 N=11
  10. 10. All data aggregated at station level (continuous variables) Methodology: BRT station level Segment-level data % of segments in stop Block-level data density or count of instances (0-n) Station-level data: population density, centrality, segments density, average distance to BRT stop BRT Terminal Americas Bogota (Colombia) BRT Terminal Americas Bogota (Colombia)
  11. 11. 500 700 900 1,100 1,300 1,500 1,700 1,900 2,100 2,300 2,500 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 PredictedBRTridership Population density (people/ha) Sample BRT Terminals and stations N=87 Sample BRT single stations N=72 Population density is positively associated to BRT ridership with an elasticity of 0.26 Results Curitiba Research Question 1 R2 0.8411 R2 0.4260
  12. 12. 1,500 2,500 3,500 4,500 5,500 6,500 7,500 8,500 9,500 10,500 11,500 12,500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 PredictedBRTridership Population density (people/ha) Population density is not statistically significant (N=120) Centrality (negatively) and BRT Terminals (positively) associated with BRT ridership Results seven cities Latin America Research question 1 Bogota (+) Ciudad de Guatemala Curitiba (+) Guayaquil Quito Sao Paulo Goiania (+)
  13. 13. Entropy is positively associated with BRT ridership % segments with high-rise developments and developments (>5 stories) are positively associated with BRT ridership Results seven cities Latin America Research question 2 Predicted BRT ridership and entropy (evenness commercial, residential, institutional land uses) 5,000 7,500 10,000 12,500 15,000 17,500 20,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PredictedBRTridership Percentile R 2 0.7353 Predicted BRT ridership and developments (% segments high-rise development - % segments with >5 stories) 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PredictedBRTridership Percentile High-rise developments >5 stories R 2 0.7247 R 2 0.7256
  14. 14. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PredictedBRTridership Percentile NMT friendliness BRT oriented facility index 100,000 125,000 150,000 175,000 200,000 225,000 250,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PredictedBRTridership Percentile NMT and facilities: positively associated with BRT ridership BRT Terminals and % segments with high-rise developments: positively associated with BRT ridership Predicted BRT ridership, NMT friendliness and facilities (density of non-motorized transport infrastructure and facilities) R 2 0.7461 R 2 0.6747 Predicted BRT ridership, Terminals and high-rise developments (interaction BRT terminals and % segments high-rise developments) R 2 0.6992 Results seven cities Latin America Research question 2
  15. 15. 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PredictedBRTridership Percentile High-rise multifamily BRT-oriented mixed land uses Institutional facilities facing BRT corridor • High-rise multifamily developments, BRT-oriented mixed land uses • Institutional land uses, facilities, high building heights facing BRT corridor Predicted BRT ridership and built environment factors R 2 0.7184 TOD features with positive association with BRT ridership: Results seven cities Latin America Research question 3
  16. 16. C1 (0.467) C2 (0.038) C3 (0.335) C4 (ref) C5 (0.024) C6 (0.415) C7 (0.036) C8 (0.003) C9 (0.393) C10 (0.329) C11 (0.326) C12 (0.047) C13 (0.965) Percentage change 25.99% 144.04% 73.24% 156.79% 110.40% 150.54% 325.63% 31.82% 81.41% 59.06% 161.11% -9.13% 25.99% 144.04% 73.24% 156.79% 110.40% 150.54% 325.63% 31.82% 81.41% 59.06% 161.11% -9.13% -50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% 350% CoefficientafterKennedy Predicted percentage change on BRT ridership by cluster (BRT station type) Results seven cities Latin America Research question 3 BRT Terminals High-rise multifamily mixed land use Historic Center
  17. 17. Discussion • Positive association between population density and BRT ridership in Curitiba with an elasticity of 0.26 • At the city level, there is a positive association between population density and BRT ridership in the sample of BRT stations in Bogota, Curitiba and Goiania • Population density is not statistically significant in the data analysis developed with the sample of 120 BRT stations in seven cities in Latin America • The introduction of built environment attributes in the analysis of the sample of 120 BRT stations increases the explanatory power of the model by 12.3% or 8 percentage points
  18. 18. Conclusion • Population density is necessary but not sufficient in order to achieve high levels of ridership at the BRT station level • Built environment attributes commonly considered as part of transit-oriented development (TOD) features are positively associated with BRT ridership • Characteristics of urban development typologies around BRT stations with positive associations with BRT ridership: • High-rise multifamily and commercial developments • Mixture of BRT oriented land uses (commercial, residential and institutional) • High building heights (more than 5 stories) • Presence of facilities facing BRT corridors
  19. 19. Applicability in other countries (India) • Development of BRT Terminals as urban development projects including: • High-rise developments • Mixture of land uses (commercial, residential, institutional) • Network of NMT infrastructure • Implementation of land use planning measures around current and future BRT stations by promoting: • Land readjustment schemes • Public space for NMT infrastructure • Land developments (> 5 stories) • Mixture of commercial, residential and institutional land uses • Facilities on the BRT right of way.
  20. 20. Policy Implications Promotion of BRT station area plans in two scenarios • Design and planning stage (future BRT stations): • Data collection of built environment attributes • Land use planning regulations • Land readjustment and value capture measures • Implementation and operation stage (current BRT stations): • Base line of TOD features • Promote high-rise developments around BRT Terminals • Priority to NMT infrastructure around BRT stations located in Historic Centers • Slum upgrading measures in close proximity to BRT station in low income areas • Urban renewal and revitalization around BRT stations in areas with urban decay
  21. 21. Recommendations Further research on the relationship between the built environment and transit ridership • Extend this methodology in other countries implementing BRT systems (India, Mexico, China, Turkey and South Africa) • Include additional variables in the analyses such as socioeconomic data and BRT systems design features • Test several hypotheses by comparing different buffer areas addressing methodologically the overlap between BRT stations • Data collection for longitudinal studies looking at changes before and after around BRT stations in order to conduct data analyses to establish causality on this relationship
  22. 22. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and urban development in Latin America and India Acknowledgements Professor Daniel A. Rodriguez Mr. Ramon Munoz-Raskin Mr. Sam Zimmerman Dr. Dario Hidalgo Local Governments Relatives, colleagues and friends who supported this research Amanda Klepper (GIS)

×