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CONNECTKaro 2015 - Land Management For Smart Cities - LARR Benefits

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CONNECTKaro 2015 - Session 1
Land Management For Smart Cities
Speaker - Dr Reshmy Nair, Chairperson and Associate Professor in the Centre for Excellence in Management of Land Acquisition, Resettlement and Rehabilitation (CMLARR), Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), Hyderabad

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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CONNECTKaro 2015 - Land Management For Smart Cities - LARR Benefits

  1. 1. Addressing Land Issues for Smart Cities 04/21/15 1Dr. Reshmy Nair Dr. Reshmy Nair Associate Professor Centre for Excellence in Management of land Acquisition, Resettlement and Rehabilitation, ASCI, Hyderabad reshmy.asci@gmail.com/reshmy.nair@asci.org.in
  2. 2. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 2 Location Area (Acres) Key Institution and Issues Agency Navelim, Goa 33 Sewage Treatment- To take less productive lands State Government Una, Himachal Pradesh 8000 Airport and Aircraft SEZ/Farmers Unwilling to give up irrigated land; Project Abandoned State Government Dabolim Village, Goa 19 Real Estate, Ecological grounds DLF Ltd Lower Penganga Valley, Maharashtra 47000 Irrigation/Livelihood and Good Soil State Government Rajarhat, West Bengal 50 IT Complex/Forced Acquisition and Corruption Allegations by TMC Infosys Technologies Peelamedu, Chinniapalayam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 415 Airport/ Greater Compensation Airports Authority of India Unnao, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 1200 SEZs/ Greater Compensation UP State Industrial Development Corporation Belgaum, Karnataka 1078 Petrochemical Plant/ No Livelihood Alternative Zuari Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd, Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board Land Acquisition Stalled Projects - Typology
  3. 3. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 3 “Despite its immense potential and promise, by many accounts, India continues to suffer from poverty. A third of its population still lives in extreme poverty-possibly the highest incidence outside sub- Saharan Africa-and many people still lack access to basic services and opportunities such as sanitation, healthcare and quality schooling. The infant mortality and malnutrition incidences are among the highest in the world while we have the second shortest life expectancy in Asia. To a lesser extent, its large informal economy and its lack of a universal social safety net show that India remains largely a poor country that is developing with large disparities within its society”.  The Global Competitiveness Report, 2014-15, World Economic Forum (WEF)
  4. 4. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 4 • Growth should enhance employment opportunities–surest way of being included • Growth should be spread across major sectors of the economy SOME IGNORED STRATEGIC FACTORS Agriculture Employment/ Growth • GDP growth originating in agriculture is twice as effective in reducing poverty as GDP growth originating outside (World Development Report, 2008). Inclusive Growth - Growth of Largest Numbers (??) Sectors Share in GDP Share in Total Employment Agriculture & Allied 14 49 Industry 27 24 Services 59 27 Source: Economic Survey, Government of India, 2013-14
  5. 5. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 5 “ Vikas Nahi Samman Chahiye” – No longer Acceptable ..Social equity has a dialectical effect on advancement of economic equity…  Poverty: One-third of the world’s poor live in India.  15-35% of agricultural land is farmed by tenants (Committee on Land Reforms, 2009)  Official Poor - 22 percent. Significant number of just above the official poverty line are “vulnerable" and shocks such as illness or a job loss can push them back into desperate circumstances.  Out of pocket expenditure on health is roughly 78 percent (among the highest in the world (Shiva Kumar et al. 2010). From 8% in 1947, private sector today accounts for 93% of all hospitals, 64% of beds and 80-85% of doctors. 39 million people dunked yearly below poverty line for medical reasons (Sinha, 2011).  India spends 1.2 % on health vis-à-vis 3.4% in other middle income countries (Gupta, 2002) and among lowest in the world . ECONOMIC WOES
  6. 6. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 6  Average age of the Indian population: (125 billion) -29 years in 2020.  Working age population - 58 (2001) to 64 percent (2021)  BPO: 6 percent of the country’s GDP employs merely 0.6 percent of India’s 482 million strong workforces (GCR, WEF, 2014-15).  Share of manufacturing in employment: Stagnating at 11 percent since 1990s.  India will need to find 44 million additional jobs between 2015 and 2020 (only 2.7 million extra jobs created between 2004-05 and 2009-10)  Share of informal sector in employment: 92% (National Commission on Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector).  Estimates for 2020: 700 million people of working age (24-59 years); 500 million workers (including migrants in lean agricultural seasons) will require vocational/skill training. EMPLOYMENT /WORKFORCE
  7. 7. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 7 EMPLOYMENT /WORKFORCE 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Fixed Worker participation Rates (millions) Male Workers 339 361 380 398 414 426 437 Female Workers 127 136 143 150 157 162 167 Total Workers 467 496 523 548 570 589 604 Extra Jobs 30 27 25 22 18 15 Rising Worker Participation Rates (millions) Male Workers 339 361 390 418 445 471 494 Female Workers 127 136 151 166 182 197 213 Total Workers 467 496 540 584 627 668 707 Extra Jobs 30 44 44 43 41 39 Source; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  8. 8. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 8 • Largest share of workforce - greatest numbers • Lacklustre growth of agriculture since the early 1990s • Double digit food price inflation-a grim reminder • Less than 45% of land under assured irrigation. Poverty rates in irrigated districts one-third than in districts without irrigation (World Bank 2005). ????  Productivity Enhancement – declining relative price of food – secondary expansion for other sectors (direct and indirect)  Better educational preparedness – farm and for decrease in overcrowding of workforce Dynamic Agriculture – Strategic Factor
  9. 9. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 9  Historical Injustice in Development Induced Displacement  Highly Inequitable Growth Process  Time/Cost Overruns due to Protest Induced Delays  Development as a “Win-Win” situation for all  LAA, 1894: Perceived Low Compensation, Lack of Sustainable Livelihood Llternative, Lack of Transparency/ Consultations, Acquisition for any Public Purpose, Misuse of Urgency Provisions etc. Land Acquisition Stalled Projects - Typology
  10. 10.  SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Entry point for Consultation and more of a Conflict Settlement Mechanism – minimises land requirement & displacement, reduces information asymmetry induced land selling etc  Timelines – MAXIMUM 1. SIA and Expert Group (EG) – Maximum of 8 Months 2. Preliminary Notification - Within 1Year of EG Report - IMMEDIATELY 3. Final Declaration-Within One Year 4. Award-Within One Year-WITHIIN SIX MONTHS 5. Possession of Land (No displacement ) –Within 6 months of Award 6. Possession in Case of Displacement - Within 18 months of award  INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS: To aid implementation;  LARR Authority: Cases to be decided in 6 months WAY FORWARD – ALTERNATIVE MODELS -LA + BENEFIT SHARING 10 Major Apprehensions
  11. 11. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 11 Protects: Land owners and Livelihood Losers with much greater benefits Promotes: Consultation, transparency and consent to reduce conflicts Utilization of excess land available Innovations like land lease, sharing of developed land etc Prevents: Excess land acquisition More Displacement than Warranted Acquisition of land in Scheduled Areas Acquisition of multi-crop irrigated land (except as a last resort) Existing Legislative Framework
  12. 12. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 12 Information Revolution Role of media Civil society (3.3 million) Contradictory role of political parties (inconsistent and opportunistic).  Universal recognition of Development as a “Win-Win” situation for all/ Resettlement as a Development Opportunity SOCIAL BACKGROUND
  13. 13. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 13 The AP Land Pooling Model Patta Dry Wet Residential 1000 Sq.yards 1000 Sq.yards Commercial 200 Sq.yards 300 Sq.yards Yearly Payment for 10 yrs(Rs.) 30,000 50,000 Yearly increase (Rs.) 3000 5000 One time additional payment for gardens like lime/sapota/guava 50,000 Pension of two thousand five hundred rupees per month per family for a period of ten years to all landless families through a capital region social security fund Housing to houseless as well as those losing houses in the course of development Interest free loan of up to 25 lakhs to all the poor families for self employment Free education and medical facilities to all those residing as on 8/12/2014 Establish old age homes Establish NTR canteens Establish skill development institution and provide training with stipend to enhance the skills of cultivating tenants, agricultural labourers and other needy persons
  14. 14. 04/21/15 Dr. Reshmy Nair 14  Is land proposed to be pooled/acquired the minimum required  Have irrigated land been avoided to the best extent  What will be the ‘loss’ to the existing land-owners/other livelihood losers and how is this proposed to be covered by the Government?  How will people who are displaced (physical/livelihood) be relocated by the Government?  What are the skills of the population in the acquired area and the employment opportunities that would be available post acquisition/pooling of the land? What steps would be taken to successfully address the gap?  Does the land pooling incorporate equity criterion in deduction policy?  What are the innovative models of benefit sharing that can make the land-losers permanent stakeholders in the project? Smart Planning in Land Pooling- Due Diligence in Reducing Conflicts

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