Citywide Transit Integration in a Large City: The Case of Sao Paulo, Brazil


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By Dario Hidalgo, Senior Transport Engineer
EMBARQ - The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport.

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Citywide Transit Integration in a Large City: The Case of Sao Paulo, Brazil

  1. 1. CITYWIDE TRANSIT INTEGRATION IN A LARGE CITY: THE CASE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL Dario Hidalgo, PhD Senior Transport Engineer EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport TRB Annual Meeting Washington DC, January 2009
  2. 2. Sao Paulo is a growing megacity with increasing problems in mobility and quality of life Metropolitan Area: 39 Cities, 19 Million People City of Sao Paulo: 10.4 Million (6% of Brazil) Source: Sao Paulo Municipality
  3. 3. High public transport share, but was declining <ul><li>Total Trips ~ 30 Million (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Transport Share </li></ul><ul><li>of Motorized Trips </li></ul><ul><li>68% </li></ul><ul><li>61% </li></ul><ul><li>56% </li></ul><ul><li>2001 51% </li></ul>Source: Municipality of Sao Paulo
  4. 4. Mega challenges in congestion, air quality, safety and security, energy consumption and GHG emissions Photos: Municipality of Sao Paulo
  5. 5. The city is transforming radial/dispersed transit into an integrated system Source: Sao Paulo Municipality
  6. 6. This is resulting in a positive shift in modal share trends Percent Motorized Trips Graph: Sao Paulo Municipality
  7. 7. São Paulo Integrated System (formerly Interligado) <ul><li>Bus Priority Treatments (BRT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally segregated busway (Expresso Tiradentes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median busways (Passa-Rapido) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential buslanes (Via Livre) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration terminals and transfer stations; bus stops </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet renovation </li></ul><ul><li>New concession contracts by areas </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of informal operators </li></ul><ul><li>Single Fare, using electronic fare collection system </li></ul><ul><li>ITS: Control and User Information </li></ul>1200 km de serviço estrutural 3300 km de serviço local Source: Sao Paulo Municipality, 2004
  8. 8. Sao Paulo reform is way beyond recent BRT Experiences in Developing Cities Single Corridor Several Corridors Feeder Routes City Wide Route Reorganization Non Integrated Integrated Metrobús – Mexico BRT – Beijing TransMilenio - Bogotá Metrovía - Guayaquil Jakarta Quito (Trole, Ecovía, North) Transantiago Interligado – Sao Paulo Megabús - Pereira RIT - Curitiba Metrobus - Istanbul
  9. 9. Expresso Tiradentes (formerly Paulistao, Fura-Fila) <ul><li>Fully segregated corridor 31,8 km </li></ul><ul><li>29 stops, 4 terminals, 8 transfer stations </li></ul><ul><li>Two elevated sections: 5 km and 1 km </li></ul><ul><li>350,000 passengers per day expected when completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel-electric hybrid buses (15 m) and articulated buses. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial operations of the first section (8 km) started in March 2007 </li></ul>Photo: SPTrans
  10. 10. Median Busways (Passa-Rapido) <ul><li>Overhaul and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Open operation, buses can feed in and out from the busway. </li></ul><ul><li>Bus stops on the left hand side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where median busways are not possible, pperation is on the curb side (buses have doors on both sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcement with closed circuit TV cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty one corridors, 321 km planned, 104 Km completed </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preferential bus lanes (“Operação Via Livre”) <ul><li>Curbside lanes with horizontal and vertical road markings and special traffic signals </li></ul><ul><li>30 corridors, 204 km planned </li></ul>
  12. 12. Terminals <ul><li>Enclosed paid areas with amenities (restrooms, stores) </li></ul><ul><li>Operated under concession contracts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed amount per bus serving the terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards and dynamic advertisement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsstands and coffee-shops. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan includes 32 terminals; 14 of them implemented (Many existing terminals required only overhaul) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Transfer stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>328 transfer stations planned, 25 completed in the 2001-2004 period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bus stops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 types with sizes between 4m of length and 1.8 m width to 38 m of length and 3.5 m width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17,000 bus stops with an average spacing of 300m in the local network and 500 m in the structural network. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fleet renewal <ul><li>Diesel Euro II, III and alternative technologies </li></ul><ul><li>13,711 low-entry vehicles (14,903 currently) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulated 1,073 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Padron 5,599 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional 2,423 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbus 3,063 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minibus 1,553 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buses in the structural subsystem have doors on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperatives of self-employed van operators were required to acquire new minibuses </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fare Integration <ul><li>Smart card ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>Time Based Fare - Free transfers within 3 hours of the first validation </li></ul><ul><li>Access to 22 cities (out of 39 in Metropolitan Area) with one single payment </li></ul><ul><li>Flat fare ~1.05 dollar/trip </li></ul>
  16. 16. Control system Source: Sao Paulo Municipality
  17. 17. Public Investment Source: Sao Paulo Municipality, Exchange rate 2.85 brazilian reales per US dollar (January 2004). 1/ Formerly named Paulistão ad Fura-Fila. Initial operations started in March 2007 2/ Includes infrastructure built before 2001 R$ 140 million 937,34 496,38 440,97 2 Total 80,52 48,24 32,28 Monitoring and Control 29,29 22,01 7,28 203,7 km 126,0 km 77,7 km Via-Livre (30 corridors – curbside) 237,89 79,60 158,6 2 31,8 km 31,8 km Expresso Tiradentes 1 (Fully Segregated) 328,59 210,76 117,83 320,7 km 226,1 km 94,6 km Passa-Rápido (31 corridors – median) 34,21 31,58 2,63 328 303 25 Transfer Stations 164,19 104,50 59,69 32 18 14 Terminal Facilities 62,66 62,66 Electronic Fare Collection Sys tem Total 2005-2008 2001- 2004 Total 2005-2008 2001- 2004 Component USD Million Units
  18. 18. Main Impact – Increase in Boardings and Linked Trips
  19. 19. <ul><li>Dialogue and information. Creation of the Municipal Council of Transport and Traffic, with broad representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation process with the bus operators’ representative. </li></ul>Opposition from transport industry leaders <ul><li>Regulations were changed to allow several components: integrated fare collection system; conditions for the transport concessions, integration of informal operators, among others </li></ul>Regulatory Regime <ul><li>Initially a municipal project, expanded later to the state and other municipalities </li></ul>Coordination with other levels of government <ul><li>High level coordination group (Secretary of Transport, Director of SPTrans and Director of CET). </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and implementation groups under a single coordination authority </li></ul><ul><li>Designation of several professionals of the municipal agencies to the project </li></ul>Inter-agency coordination Solution/Mitigation Barrier
  20. 20. <ul><li>Information and discussion with the community; non-intrusive design </li></ul>Neighborhoods opposed busways <ul><li>Use of existing right of ways, low cost solutions for bus stops, integration points and terminals; </li></ul><ul><li>Loan from the Brazilian Development Bank BNDES was obtained for investments </li></ul>Limited funding availability <ul><li>Participation of a competent team of professionals </li></ul><ul><li>The route reorganization approach was fairly straightforward: segmentation of services (local, structural) and elimination of redundancies. The new network is rather complex </li></ul>Large scale reorganization <ul><li>Small operators incorporated into the new scheme through cooperatives under contract </li></ul>Opposition from van operators (Peruveiros) Solution/Mitigation Barrier
  21. 21. Launch of Integration Scheme <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of credits was difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many facilities were inadequate – small bus stops and transfer stations cause bus queuing and delays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via Livre corridors (curbside) were invaded (delivery trucks, taxi cabs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete user information on routes and frequencies (maps were difficult to understand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delays in infrastructure deployment, including those caused by lawsuits filed by neighbors’ organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial difficulties for small operators (cooperatives) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Design Issues <ul><li>Busways are open; no real operational control on the supply level (spatial and temporal) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of the operation is variable and limited capacity of the bus stops often leads to spillovers and reduced commercial speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Soft segregation; control with CCTV cameras does not seem enough to deter bus lanes invasion </li></ul>Photo: Sao Paulo Municipality
  23. 23. Perceived Quality of Service for Municipal Buses remains low Source: ANTP Main User Concerns Emission Levels (99%) Congestion (88%) Long waiting times (82%) Long travel times (80%)
  24. 24. Financial Stress Revenues Costs Source, Souza, A, ANTP/BNDS 2007
  25. 25. Recommended Improvements* <ul><li>Completion of priority corridors, transfer stations, control and monitoring devices </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Technical definition of fares to avoid financial stress </li></ul><ul><li>Include high capacity BRT applications to improve commercial speeds on main corridors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong longitudinal segregation of the bus lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased prepayment (enclosed stations, and paid areas); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous adjustment of services taking advantage of the intrinsic flexibility of buses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of emergency response systems. ITS applied for oversight, but not to perform real time operational actions </li></ul>* Many already being considered and implemented by the municipality
  26. 26. Lessons Learned <ul><li>The São Paulo experience can be considered a good practice in implementation of transport reform in developing cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit services became more attractive as user cost and travel time was reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleet was renewed and several operational inefficiencies were trimmed down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration efforts continue, including coordination with the Metro and regional rail and bus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key elements of success were political commitment, coordinated effort of several agencies, technical preparation, and inclusion of existing bus companies as well as informal operators. </li></ul><ul><li>Several aspects need further attention to improve service quality and user perception. Effort is underway. </li></ul>
  27. 27. São Paulo vs. Santiago <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service changes were introduced gradually (as corridors and terminals became available) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing operators (formal and informal) were included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with Metro and regional rail occurred later in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transantiago was able to capture the benefits of a more open competitive tendering for bus operations and introduced stronger controls on the private operators </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. São Paulo vs. Bogot á <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>São Paulo achieved a citywide integration, Bogota only partial (20% of the public transport trips) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bogotá's transit provision still dominated by an inefficient operational scheme (“Guerra del Centavo” 80% of the trips ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TransMilenio corridors exhibit much higher capacity and commercial speeds (except Expresso Tiradentes) </li></ul>