City Structure and Urban Mobility

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By Shivanand Swamy, CEPT University. Transforming Transportation 2011. Washington, D.C. January 27, 2011.

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City Structure and Urban Mobility

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Work in Progress<br />CITY STRUCTURE & URBAN MOBILITY<br />POLICY OPTIONS<br />INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS<br />Prof. H.M. ShivanandSwamy<br />Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport, CEPT University <br />(An Initative of Ministry of Urban development, Government of India)<br />
  3. 3. CITY STRUCTURE & URBAN MOBILITY<br />Urbanisation is an inevitable outcome of development process.<br />How we structure them will determine how efficient the mobility is and how sustainable the outcomes are!<br />
  4. 4. Urban Landuse - Transport Scenario<br />Cities are Sprawling Network Inadequacies<br /> Declining Public Transport Low Investments<br /> Supply Side Focus Poor Enforcement<br />Multiple Institutions Education of People<br />Urban Transport Focus – Since 2006 (NUTP & JnNURM) <br />
  5. 5. OUR PROBLEM<br />VEHICLE OWNERSHIP (CARS/1000 popn)<br />Delhi – 117<br />Ahmedabad – 50<br />Bangalore - 50<br />Chennai - 45<br />Mumbai - 25<br />But increasing rapidly<br />Congestion<br /><ul><li>Accessibility
  6. 6. Mobility</li></ul>Air Quality<br />Urban Sprawl<br />8% of Population – 20% Incremental Vehicle Ownership of the state<br />
  7. 7. BEST BUS SYSTEM CITY -BANGALORE<br />
  8. 8. 760 sq.km) <br />HYDERABAD<br />BANGALORE (853 sq. kms)<br />AHMEDABAD (344 Sq.Km)<br />
  9. 9. Road Network Structure – Focus on Roads & not Network<br />Bangalore<br />Ahmedabad<br />A Result of Lagged / Disjointed Planning Response/<br />radials<br />rings<br />8<br />Hyderabad<br />
  10. 10. LEGEND<br />Major Rings and Radial Roads<br />BRTS Network<br />Subways<br />Flyovers<br />Widened ROW<br />Widened carriageway<br />Proposed ROBs,<br />RuBs, Flyovers<br />Proposed Elevated<br />BRT Corridor <br />One way BRT loop<br />River Bridges completed<br />ROBs completed<br />RuBs completed<br />NETWORK COMPLETION<br />
  11. 11. HYDERABAD<br />BANGALORE<br />AHMEDABAD<br />
  12. 12. Road Structure<br />Bangalore<br />Ahmedabad<br />At the micro-level / neighborhood<br />11<br />Hyderabad<br />
  13. 13. HYDERABAD<br />BANGALORE<br />AHMEDABAD<br />
  14. 14. MIXED LAND USE PRESENT<br />Streets on which Commercial activities are allowed<br />Jobs scattered <br />Trips distributed<br />
  15. 15. Avg Trip length (km) <br />Area of Urban Sprawl sqkm<br />URBAN SPRAWL LEADS TO INCREASE IN TRIP LENGTH<br />
  16. 16. Vehicle km per capita <br />Road Density km/sqkm<br />DENSER NETWORKS REDUCE VEHICLE KMS<br />
  17. 17. Vehicle km per capita<br />% Public Transport<br />LONGER TRIPS BRINGS MORE PEOPLE ON TRANSIT !<br />YES. <br />But in less mobility intensive cities, Transit supply has not been given priority.<br />
  18. 18. EFFECTIVE PLANNING – WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS? <br />Land Market Distortion<br />Landuse Planning Process<br />Integration (LUT)<br />Information<br />Agencies<br />Human Resources<br />Activity Schedule<br />Land Legislations<br />13 legislations<br />Information<br />Ownership Titles<br />Taxation<br />Registration<br />Stamp Duty<br />Permission<br />Publicly Owned Land Management<br />17<br />
  19. 19. Urban India-2031 Investment Requirements<br />
  20. 20. INDIA - URBAN TRANSPORTATION SCENE<br />2nd Largest urban system<br />60% GDP generated from urban areas<br /><ul><li>2001-281 million people in urban areas (28%)
  21. 21. By 2026, 535 million people (38% )
  22. 22. 5161 towns and cities</li></ul>7 megacities (4 million + population) - may increase to 14<br />28 cities with population 1-4 million<br />13 cities in 0.8 to 1.0 million range, will cross 1 million by next census <br />40 cities in 0.5 to 1 million population range and balance state capitals<br />No of Million + cities to increase to 70<br />19<br />“The journey so far and way forward”……..<br />
  23. 23. Note: Subject of minimum of 10 kms<br />
  24. 24. Note: Subject of minimum of 10 kms<br />
  25. 25. Note: Metro Subject of minimum of 10 kms<br />
  26. 26. Urban Transport Policy Options (Scenarios)<br />SCN 1: Sprawling Cities focused on Rail and Road Infrastructure<br />SCN 2: Relatively Compact Cities with Complete network<br />SCN 3: Compact, Complete network and transit focused, demand Mangers<br />Densities<br />Area under Roads <br />Trip Rate<br />Trip Length<br />Transit Share <br />Rapid Transit<br />Rail Share<br />Cities Classified 2031 population estimate <br />Jnnurm<br />SZ-1: Cities with Popn. >10 Million SZ-2 Cities with Population 4 -10 mil<br />SZ-3: Cities with Popn. 1-4 Million SZ-4 Cities with Population 0.5-1ml<br />SZ-5: Cities with Population less than 0.5 million Others: Non-JnNURM Cities<br />BUSINESS AS USUAL VERSUS MANAGED GROWTH<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Urban Transport Investment Requirements under three policy options<br />SCN 1:<br />Sprawling Cities focused on Rail and Road Infrastructure<br />SCN 2:<br />Relatively Compact Cities with Complete network<br />SCN 3:<br />Compact Cities with Complete network and transit focused<br />(US $556)<br />(US $ 376)<br />(US $ 275)<br />Better growth management can cut investment requirements by more than half<br />
  29. 29. Urban Transport Investment Requirements by Size Class<br />Population size in the year 2031<br />JnNURM Cities<br /><ul><li>SZ-1: > = 10 million
  30. 30. SZ-2: 4 to 10 million
  31. 31. SZ-3: 1 to 4 million
  32. 32. SZ-4: 0.5 to 1 million
  33. 33. SZ-5: < 0.5 million</li></ul>2. Non-JnNURM towns<br />% share<br />Larger Cities require disproportionate share of investments<br />
  34. 34. Urban Transport Investment Requirements under three policy options<br />SCN 1:<br />Sprawling Cities focused on Rail and Road Infrastructure<br />SCN 2:<br />Relatively Compact Cities with Complete network<br />SCN 3:<br />Compact Cities with Complete network and transit focused<br />Better growth management can cut investment requirements by more than half<br />
  35. 35. INDIA - URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS 2011-31<br />2011 - 2031 India Urban Infrastructure Requirements<br />Urban Transport –Billion US $ 375 Billion) <br />Average US $ 18 Billion<br />Average 15000 km roads/year<br />Average 7500 new buses/year<br />Average 100 kms of metro network/year<br />Average 200 Kms of BRT network<br />28<br />
  36. 36. PART 3<br />SOME GOOD PRACTICES<br />
  37. 37. Land Management<br />2 Stage Process Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976<br />Development Plan<br />Provides Overall Development Framework<br />Overall Direction of Urban Expansion<br />Landuse Zoning<br />City level road network<br />City Level Infrastructure (Utilities & Amenities)<br />Reservations of Land for other Public Purposes<br />Development Control Regulation/rules<br />Ahmedabad DP’s<br />1965,1975, 1987, 2002 ,2012<br />
  38. 38. Land Management Process<br />Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976<br />Town Planning Scheme (TPS)<br />A land readjustment tool to adapt land for urban use<br />Reconstitution of land holdings<br />Appropriation of land for public uses without acquisition <br />Local level road network<br />Local level social and physical infrastructure<br />Land Bank for Urban Poor<br />Infrastructure Cost Recovery<br />Land appropriation compensation adjusted against land value increments due to infra. provision<br />Land for Financing of infrastructure (15%)<br />
  39. 39. Town Planning Scheme<br />Under the Gujarat Urban Development and Town Planning Act-1976<br />Land Area for Public Purposes<br />Appropriation of land for public uses upto 50%<br />Road Network –upto 20%<br />Local level social and physical infrastructure (upto 5%)<br />Land for Economically Weaker Section Housing (upto 10%)<br />Land Bank for Financing of infrastructure (upto 15%)<br />
  40. 40. T.P Schemes in Ahmedabad<br />Airport and Cantonment<br />Around 63% of the total area of AMC is under Town Planning Schemes.<br />Walled City Area<br />464 Sq .Km<br />308 Sq .Km<br />
  41. 41. Density – 150 persons/ha<br />Area - 666 sqkm<br />Density – 125 persons/ha<br />Area - 800 sqkm<br />Density – 75 persons/ha<br />Area - 1333 sqkm<br />Density – 100 persons/ha<br />Area - 1000 sqkm<br />
  42. 42. URBAN TRANSPORT INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS<br />US $ 650 Ml /yr<br />US $ 450 Ml /yr<br />Density – 150 persons/ha<br />Area - 666 sqkm<br />Density – 125 persons/ha<br />Area - 800 sqkm<br />US $ 1000 Ml /yr<br />US $ 1350 Ml /yr<br />Density – 75 persons/ha<br />Area - 1333 sqkm<br />Density – 100 persons/ha<br />Area - 1000 sqkm<br />
  43. 43. 30<br />25<br />20<br />15<br />10<br />5<br />KM<br />0<br />5<br />10<br />15<br />20<br />25<br />30<br />0<br />5<br />10<br />15<br />20<br />25<br />30<br />5<br />10<br />15<br />20<br />25<br />30<br />Urban Road Network<br />Legend<br /> 90.m WIDE REGIONAL RING ROAD<br /> 60.m WIDE REGIONAL RADIALS<br /> 60.m WIDE RING ROADS<br /> 45.m WIDE URBAN ARTERIALS<br /> 35.m WIDE SUB-ARTERIALS<br /> BRTS<br />KM<br />
  44. 44. URBAN ARTERIALS<br />Urban Arterials <br />45 M CROSS SECTION<br />
  45. 45. thank you<br />

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