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Road Safety and Bus Rapid Transit!
!   Workshop on Quantifying the Environmental, Social and
Economic Benefits from Bus Rapid Transit Systems!
A SPAD Academy & Asia LEDS Partnership Workshop!
June 24 – 25, 2014!
!   Binoy Mascarenhas, Manager, Urban Transport, EMBARQ
India!
!   bmascarenhas@embarqindia.org!
2	
  
Why	
  BRT?	
  
Is	
  it	
  really	
  safer?	
  
India	
  has	
  the	
  highest	
  number	
  
of	
  road	
  fatali7es	
  in	
  the	
  world	
  
3	
  
People	
  killed	
  on	
  Indian	
  roads	
  in	
  2013	
  
Source:	
  NaQonal	
  Crime	
  Records	
  Bureau	
  (2009)	
  
“Accidental	
  Deaths	
  &	
  Suicides	
  in	
  India.	
  NCRB	
  
Who	
  are	
  the	
  vulnerable	
  road	
  users?	
  
4	
  
Source:	
  NaQonal	
  Crime	
  Records	
  Bureau	
  (2009)	
  
“Accidental	
  Deaths	
  &	
  Suicides	
  in	
  India.	
  NCRB	
  
54%	
  
41%	
  
The	
  “other”	
  vehicle	
  involved:	
  
5	
  
20%	
  
19%	
  
16%	
  
14%	
  
13%	
  
9%	
  
7%	
  
Car	
  /	
  Jeep	
   Two-­‐wheeler	
  
Bus	
   Unknown	
  
Truck	
   Van	
  
Autorickshaw	
   Others	
  
Case	
  of	
  Bangalore	
  
In	
  16%	
  	
  &	
  23%	
  of	
  pedestrian	
  &	
  
motorcyclist	
  fataliQes	
  resp.,	
  
the	
  impacQng	
  vehicle	
  is	
  a	
  bus	
  	
  
32%	
  
28%	
  
23%	
  
8%	
  
Truck	
   Other	
  2-­‐wheeler	
  
Bus	
   Car/Jeep	
  
Hit	
  a	
  fixed	
  object	
   Van	
  
Tractor	
   Autorickshaw	
  
Motorcyclist	
  fatali7es	
  Pedestrian	
  fatali7es	
  
Source:	
  	
  Bengaluru	
  Road	
  Safety	
  &	
  Injury	
  
PrevenQon	
  Programme:	
  Injury	
  snapshots	
  
and	
  acQvity	
  profile	
  –	
  2009	
  -­‐	
  NIMHANS	
  
More	
  data	
  on	
  city	
  bus	
  crashes	
  
6	
  
In	
  Mumbai,	
  
2012	
  
In	
  Chennai,	
  
2008	
  
In	
  Bangalore,	
  
2007	
  
ProporQon	
  of	
  
fatal	
  crashes	
  that	
  
involved	
  a	
  bus	
  
Who	
  is	
  most	
  vulnerable	
  in	
  a	
  bus	
  crash?	
  
7	
  
Pedestrian	
  
Motorcyclist	
  
Bus	
  occupant	
  
Pedestrian	
  
Motorcyclist	
  
Bus	
  occupant	
  
Mode	
  of	
  vicQm	
  
in	
  a	
  fatal	
  crash	
  
involving	
  a	
  bus	
  
Chennai	
  2008	
  –	
  MTC	
  buses	
  Bangalore	
  2007	
  –	
  BMTC	
  buses	
  
61%	
  of	
  all	
  fatal	
  crash	
  vicQms	
  in	
  Bangalore	
  and	
  
89%	
  in	
  Chennai	
  are	
  from	
  just	
  these	
  3	
  groups!	
  
Overcrowding	
  is	
  a	
  big	
  issue	
  
8	
  
Data	
  Source:	
  Padmanaban	
  J.,	
  Rajaraman	
  R.,	
  
Narayan	
  S.,	
  Ramesh	
  B.,	
  “Analysis	
  of	
  Fatal	
  Crashes	
  
involving	
  MTC	
  buses”,	
  iCRASH	
  Conference,	
  2010	
  
Which	
  wheel	
  of	
  the	
  bus	
  is	
  most	
  predominantly	
  involved	
  
in	
  run-­‐over	
  crashes?	
   Case	
  of	
  Chennai	
  
Three	
  main	
  issues	
  
	
  
•  Overcrowded	
  buses	
  
•  Lel-­‐rear	
  side	
  blind-­‐spot	
  
	
  
•  Rear	
  overhang	
  	
  Right	
  
rear	
  
Qre:	
  
19%	
  
Lel	
  
rear	
  
Qre:	
  
63%	
  
Right	
  
front	
  
Qre:	
  
5%	
  
Lel	
  
front	
  
Qre:	
  
13%	
  
Lel	
  
side:	
  
76%	
  
Rear	
  side:	
  
82%	
  
AcQvity	
  at	
  the	
  Qme	
  of	
  the	
  fatal	
  crash	
  
Pedestrian	
   Motorcyclist	
  
10	
  
Case	
  of	
  Bangalore	
  
Source:	
  	
  Bengaluru	
  Road	
  Safety	
  &	
  Injury	
  
PrevenQon	
  Programme:	
  Injury	
  snapshots	
  
and	
  acQvity	
  profile	
  –	
  2009	
  -­‐	
  NIMHANS	
  
57%	
  27%	
  
8%	
  
Crossing	
  the	
  
road	
  
Walking	
  on	
  
the	
  road	
  
Standing	
  on	
  
the	
  road	
  
Working	
  on	
  
the	
  road	
  
Playing	
  on	
  the	
  
road	
  
Sleeping	
  on	
  
the	
  road	
  
Unspecified	
  
40%	
  
15%	
  
13%	
  
12%	
  
7%	
  
Hit	
  from	
  back	
  
Hit	
  from	
  side	
  
Head	
  on	
  
collision	
  
Skid	
  &	
  fell	
  
Hit	
  a	
  fixed	
  
object	
  
Nose	
  to	
  tail	
  
collision	
  
Others	
  
Overturn	
  
Hit	
  a	
  
pedestrian	
  
How	
  does	
  BRT	
  make	
  things	
  safer	
  
Direct	
  impact	
  on	
  the	
  3	
  vulnerable	
  groups	
  
•  Separates	
  buses	
  from	
  all	
  other	
  motor-­‐vehicles	
  	
  
•  Moves	
  buses	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  path	
  of	
  pedestrians.	
  
BRT	
  median	
  improves	
  safety	
  while	
  crossing	
  
•  AutomaQc	
  doors	
  &	
  more	
  frequent	
  services	
  
prevent	
  passengers	
  from	
  falling	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  bus	
  
	
  
	
  
11	
  
Motorcyclist	
  
Pedestrian	
  
Bus	
  occupant	
  
	
  
Other	
  corridor	
  impacts	
  
•  BRT	
  involves	
  	
  a	
  complete	
  re-­‐design	
  of	
  the	
  road,	
  which	
  allows	
  for	
  correcQng	
  prior	
  design	
  flaws,	
  
improving	
  road	
  condiQons	
  and	
  introducing	
  traffic	
  calming	
  features	
  
•  Reduced	
  no.	
  of	
  lanes	
  for	
  mixed	
  traffic	
  induces	
  lower	
  speeds	
  
•  Moving	
  buses	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  kerbside	
  allows	
  Qghter	
  intersecQon	
  design	
  
•  Reduces	
  conflict	
  points	
  across	
  minor	
  intersecQons	
  
•  Beoer	
  managed	
  fleet	
  and	
  beoer	
  trained	
  drivers	
  result	
  in	
  safer	
  driving	
  
City-­‐level	
  impact	
  
•  Affects	
  modal	
  shil	
  away	
  from	
  private	
  transport;	
  reduced	
  motorisaQon	
  results	
  in	
  fewer	
  accidents	
  
	
  
The	
  last	
  point	
  explained	
  …	
  
12	
  
R² = 0.69
0
10
20
30
40
0 20 40 60 80 100
Annualtrafficfatalities/
100000population
Daily VKT/ capita (urban roads)
City	
  level	
  impact	
  of	
  BRT	
  through	
  mode	
  shil	
  and	
  reduced	
  motorisaQon	
  
Credit:	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta,	
  EMBARQ	
  
13	
  
PotenQal	
  road	
  fataliQes	
  
averted	
  on	
  account	
  of	
  
the	
  BRT	
  
Some	
  direct	
  evidence	
  from	
  BRT	
  corridors	
  
Case	
  of	
  TransMilenio	
  BRT	
  in	
  Bogota,	
  Colombia	
  
A	
  high	
  quality	
  public	
  transport	
  system	
  can	
  save	
  lives	
  
Credit:	
  Dario	
  Hidalgo,	
  EMBARQ	
  
Further evidence from Macrobus in Guadalajara,	
  Mexico …"
0	
  
500	
  
1000	
  
1500	
  
2000	
  
2500	
  
3000	
  
3500	
  
4000	
  
4500	
  
5000	
  
0	
  
50	
  
100	
  
150	
  
200	
  
250	
  
Jan-­‐07	
  
Mar-­‐07	
  
May-­‐07	
  
Jul-­‐07	
  
Sep-­‐07	
  
Nov-­‐07	
  
Jan-­‐08	
  
Mar-­‐08	
  
May-­‐08	
  
Jul-­‐08	
  
Sep-­‐08	
  
Nov-­‐08	
  
Jan-­‐09	
  
Mar-­‐09	
  
May-­‐09	
  
Jul-­‐09	
  
Sep-­‐09	
  
Nov-­‐09	
  
Jan-­‐10	
  
Mar-­‐10	
  
May-­‐10	
  
Jul-­‐10	
  
Sep-­‐10	
  
Nov-­‐10	
  
Jan-­‐11	
  
Mar-­‐11	
  
May-­‐11	
  
Monthly	
  citywide	
  crashes	
  (excluding	
  the	
  BRT	
  corridor)	
  
Monthly	
  crashes	
  on	
  the	
  BRT	
  corridor	
  
Citywide crashes
Crashes on the BRT
corridor
Before BRT
During BRT
construction During BRT operation
Credit:	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta,	
  EMBARQ	
  and	
  EMBARQ	
  Mexico	
  
… and from Metrobus, Mexico City, Mexico
:	
  77%	
  
19%	
  
Insurgentes:	
  BRT	
  
66%	
  
32%	
  
E.	
  Molina	
  curbside	
  busway	
  /	
  mixed	
  
traffic	
  
Vehicle	
  collisions	
  
Pedestrian	
  
accidents	
  
Accident comparison on open bus corridor vs BRT corridor	
  
Credit:	
  Nicolae	
  
Duduta,	
  EMBARQ	
  
and	
  EMBARQ	
  
Mexico	
  
 Counter-­‐
flow	
  
busway	
  
Curbside	
  
buslane	
  
Open	
  
system	
  
	
  Centre	
  
lane	
  BRT	
  
16	
  
SAFEST	
  
LEAST	
  
SAFE	
  
Safety	
  impact	
  analysis	
  
of	
  different	
  bus	
  
systems	
  
Case	
  of	
  Mexico	
  
Credit:	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta,	
  EMBARQ	
  
and	
  EMBARQ	
  Mexico	
  
17	
  
But	
  how	
  to	
  design	
  the	
  
safest	
  BRT	
  system?	
  
We’ve	
  established	
  that	
  BRT	
  improves	
  safety	
  
City	
   Corridor	
  
length	
  
Year	
  
of	
  
audit	
  
Year	
  op	
  
began	
  
Alignment	
  	
  
of	
  BRT	
  	
  
Sta7on	
  loca7on	
  
w.r.t.	
  bus	
  	
  
Ticke7ng	
   Bus	
  restric7on	
  
New	
  Delhi	
   5.8	
  km	
   2011	
   2008	
   Median	
   Lel	
  side	
   On	
  bus	
   All	
  kinds	
  of	
  
buses	
  
Bhopal	
   23.4	
  km	
   2013	
   2013	
   Median	
  &	
  
kerbside	
  
Lel	
  side	
   On	
  bus	
   Only	
  BRT	
  bus	
  
Indore	
   11.6	
  km	
   2011	
   2013	
   Median	
   Right	
  side	
   At	
  staQon	
   Only	
  BRT	
  bus	
  
Ahmedabad	
   63.0	
  
km*	
  
2011	
   2009#	
   Median	
   Right	
  side	
   At	
  staQon	
   Only	
  BRT	
  bus	
  
Surat	
   33.0	
  
km^	
  
2013	
   2014^	
   Median	
   Right	
  side	
   At	
  staQon	
   Only	
  BRT	
  bus	
  
Rajkot	
   10.5	
  km	
   2013	
   2012	
   Median	
   Right	
  side	
   At	
  staQon	
   Only	
  BRT	
  bus	
  
18	
  
*As	
  of	
  April	
  2013
^	
  This	
  is	
  the	
  first	
  phase	
  length	
  which	
  partly	
  began	
  operaQons	
  in	
  2014
#	
  First	
  phase	
  started	
  in	
  the	
  year	
  2009
Between	
  2011-­‐13,	
  EMBARQ	
  India,	
  through	
  a	
  grant	
  from	
  Bloomberg	
  
Philanthropies,	
  conducted	
  road	
  safety	
  audits	
  on	
  Indian	
  BRT	
  corridors	
  in	
  
India’s	
  BRT	
  story	
  has	
  so	
  far	
  been	
  a	
  tryst	
  of	
  two	
  models	
  of	
  BRT	
  
19	
  
•  Lel-­‐side	
  staQon	
  
•  Split	
  plaxorms	
  
•  Bus	
  doors	
  on	
  the	
  lel	
  
•  Step-­‐up	
  boarding	
  
•  Open	
  staQons	
  
•  On-­‐board	
  QckeQng	
  
•  Median	
  staQon	
  
•  Single	
  plaxorm	
  
•  Bus	
  doors	
  on	
  the	
  right	
  
•  Level	
  boarding	
  
•  Closed	
  staQons	
  
•  Off-­‐board	
  QckeQng	
  
New	
  Delhi	
  
Bhopal	
  
Ahmedabad	
  
Indore	
  
Surat	
  
Rajkot	
  
The	
  Delhi	
  &	
  Bhopal	
  BRT	
  model	
  
Open,	
  low-­‐level	
  staQon	
  plaxorm	
  on	
  lel	
  side	
  of	
  bus	
  docking	
  area	
  
20	
  
21	
  
The	
  Ahmedabad,	
  Indore,	
  Surat	
  &	
  Rajkot	
  BRT	
  model	
  
Closed,	
  bus-­‐floor-­‐level	
  staQon	
  plaxorm	
  on	
  right	
  side	
  of	
  bus	
  docking	
  area	
  
22	
  
So	
  which	
  model	
  is	
  safer?	
  
Safety	
  advantages	
  of	
  Ahmedabad	
  model	
  
•  Bus	
  drivers	
  (seated	
  on	
  the	
  right)	
  find	
  it	
  easier	
  to	
  dock	
  the	
  bus	
  closer	
  to	
  plaxorm	
  
•  Level-­‐boarding	
  allows	
  for	
  safer	
  access	
  
•  Closed	
  staQons	
  induce	
  commuters	
  to	
  enter	
  and	
  exit	
  from	
  designated	
  points	
  
•  Having	
  only	
  BRT	
  fleet	
  on	
  the	
  bus	
  lanes	
  allows	
  for	
  greater	
  control	
  on	
  driver	
  
behaviour	
  –	
  Centrally	
  managed	
  system	
  
–  Also,	
  less	
  turning	
  movements	
  for	
  the	
  BRT	
  lanes	
  required	
  at	
  intersecQons	
  
	
  
However,	
  when	
  planning	
  for	
  an	
  overtaking	
  lane	
  with	
  this	
  model,	
  certain	
  precauQons	
  
to	
  be	
  taken…more	
  on	
  the	
  later	
  
23	
  
In	
  our	
  assessment,	
  we	
  found	
  that	
  the	
  Ahmedabad	
  model	
  has	
  some	
  safety	
  
advantages	
  over	
  the	
  other	
  kinds	
  of	
  systems	
  
24	
  
Kerbside	
  or	
  Median	
  side	
  
Which	
  is	
  a	
  safer	
  loca7on	
  for	
  the	
  BRT	
  lanes?	
  
25	
  
The	
  transiQons	
  from	
  median	
  lane	
  to	
  kerbside	
  lane	
  and	
  vice	
  versa	
  creates	
  
safety	
  issues	
  
In	
  Bhopal,	
  the	
  BRT	
  corridor	
  changes	
  from	
  median	
  lane	
  to	
  
kerbside	
  lane,	
  and	
  then	
  back	
  again	
  
Designed	
  BRT	
  bus	
  turning	
  path	
  
Actual	
  mixed	
  traffic	
  right	
  turning	
  path	
  
Safety	
  disadvantages	
  of	
  kerbside	
  bus	
  lane	
  
•  Buses	
  move	
  closer	
  to	
  the	
  path	
  of	
  pedestrians	
  and	
  slow	
  moving	
  traffic	
  
•  Frequent	
  breaks	
  may	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  provided	
  for	
  property	
  accesses	
  
•  Footpath	
  spill-­‐over,	
  street-­‐vendors,	
  parking,	
  etc.	
  more	
  likely	
  to	
  encroach	
  
kerbside	
  lane	
  than	
  median	
  lane	
  
•  IntersecQons	
  will	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  wider	
  to	
  accommodate	
  bus	
  turning	
  (lel	
  turns)	
  
•  ComplicaQons	
  at	
  intersecQon	
  as	
  mixed	
  traffic	
  would	
  have	
  to	
  make	
  a	
  lel	
  turn	
  
across	
  bus	
  lane.	
  More	
  unsafe	
  than	
  mixed	
  traffic	
  making	
  a	
  right	
  across	
  a	
  BRT	
  
lane,	
  because	
  typically,	
  right	
  turns	
  are	
  separated	
  from	
  straight	
  movement	
  
through	
  signal	
  phasing.	
  
26	
  
If	
  kerbside	
  bus	
  lane	
  is	
  unavoidable,	
  then	
  we	
  recommend	
  guardrails	
  
along	
  the	
  footpath	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  bus	
  lane	
  
27	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
28	
  
Case	
  for	
  a	
  different	
  approach	
  
to	
  BRT	
  in	
  Asia	
  
Is	
  the	
  Indian	
  (and	
  perhaps	
  the	
  Asian	
  context)	
  
different	
  from	
  globally	
  successfully	
  BRT	
  ci7es?	
  
InternaQonally	
  successful	
  BRT	
  model:	
  Bogota,	
  Colombia	
  
InternaQonally	
  successful	
  BRT	
  model:	
  Istanbul,	
  Turkey	
  
Abundant	
  property	
  development	
  along	
  the	
  road	
  edge	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   31	
  
Frequent	
  
property	
  gates	
  
High	
  right	
  /	
  U-­‐
turn	
  demand	
  
High	
  	
  pedestrian	
  
volume	
  and	
  
crossing	
  demand	
  
Requirement	
  for	
  
parking	
  /	
  waiQng	
  
area	
  
Cars	
  are	
  not	
  the	
  dominant	
  motor-­‐vehicle	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   32	
  
Motorbikes	
  dominate	
  the	
  
mode	
  share	
  
Safety	
  features	
  for	
  cars	
  
may	
  not	
  work	
  for	
  
motorbikes	
  
Much	
  higher	
  pedestrian	
  volumes	
  	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   33	
  
Traffic	
  discipline	
  cannot	
  be	
  taken	
  as	
  a	
  given	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   34	
  
Bicycles	
  are	
  not	
  the	
  only	
  NMT	
  mode	
  	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   35	
  
Auto-­‐rickshaws	
  as	
  the	
  feeder	
  system	
  to	
  BRT	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   36	
  
Inconsistent	
  road	
  width	
  and	
  immovable	
  obstacles	
  
37	
  
38	
  
Designing	
  for	
  safe	
  BRT	
  in	
  this	
  context	
  
What	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  done	
  differently?	
  
The BRT corridor will have multiple uses!
39	
  
Thoroughfare	
  
for	
  mixed-­‐traffic	
  
Pedestrians	
  &	
  
cyclists	
  
Mixed	
  traffic	
  
lanes	
  
Footpath	
  
On	
  –street	
  parking	
  /	
  
waiQng	
  area	
  
Street	
  uQliQes	
  
Trees	
  
Property	
  
accesses	
  
Turning	
  
lanes	
  
Signals	
  &	
  
street	
  lights	
  
BRT	
  movement	
   BRT	
  lanes	
  
Planning for all uses

Allocation of road space!
www.embarqindia.org	
   40	
  
Good design leads to the optimisation of road space!
42	
  www.embarqindia.org	
  
BRT and pedestrian / NMT movement!
§  BRT imposes restrictions on established crossing patterns for pedestrians & NMT "
§  If alternatives are not provided, it can lead to safety issues"
Much like a Traffic Impact Assessment study, a Pedestrian/NMT Impact
Assessment study should be an essential component of BRT planning"
Refuges need to be disabled
friendly"
43	
  
Need for a refuge area and
speed humps"
If distance between successive intersections is very large, a mid-block
pedestrian crossing should be provided"
www.embarqindia.org	
   44	
  
Similar design with table-top crossing"
www.embarqindia.org	
   45	
  
Changing the position of bollards can help resolve the problem of
motorcyclists using the pedestrian crossing, and still allow for
wheelchair access"
BRT and local MV movement!
www.embarqindia.org	
   47	
  
§  BRT imposes restrictions on right turns across the median into intersecting
side roads and property gates"
§  Motorists are prone to drive in the wrong direction to avoid a lengthy detour
or use pedestrian crossings to make turns"
We recommend that a mid-block U-turn opportunity be provided if distance
between 2 successive intersections is very large"
U-turns can be provided in conjunction with pedestrian crossing"
www.embarqindia.org	
   48	
  
The U-turn movement can share the signal phase with the pedestrian crossing"
www.embarqindia.org	
   49	
  
Extending these features to BRT station design"
www.embarqindia.org	
   50	
  
BRT station generates a high volume of pedestrians

A wide refuge is an essential component of station design"
www.embarqindia.org	
   51	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
BRT station access!
www.embarqindia.org	
   52	
  
BRT and minor intersections!
www.embarqindia.org	
   53	
  
•  All	
  BRT	
  intersecQons	
  MUST	
  be	
  signalised	
  if	
  cross	
  movement	
  and	
  right	
  turns	
  are	
  permioed	
  
•  Wherever	
  possible,	
  we	
  recommend	
  that	
  the	
  BRT	
  segregaQon	
  conQnue	
  through	
  a	
  minor	
  
intersecQon,	
  such	
  that	
  straight	
  /	
  right	
  movement	
  is	
  not	
  possible	
  
•  But	
  however,	
  the	
  nearest	
  U-­‐turn	
  must	
  not	
  be	
  too	
  far.	
  
Restricting right turns across minor intersections"
www.embarqindia.org	
   54	
  
Restricting right turns across minor intersections"
www.embarqindia.org	
   55	
  
1
2
3
4
Simplify	
  intersecQon	
  design	
  where	
  possible	
  
The	
  most	
  prevalent	
  crash	
  
type	
  at	
  intersecQons	
  is	
  of	
  
right	
  turning	
  mixed	
  traffic	
  
colliding	
  with	
  straight	
  
moving	
  bus	
  
57	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
BRT	
  and	
  major	
  intersecQons	
  
One	
  opQon:	
  Replacing	
  right	
  turns	
  with	
  “around-­‐the-­‐block”	
  loops	
  
58	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
Retricted	
  right	
  turns:	
  2	
  alternaQves	
  
BUT	
  for	
  this	
  to	
  be	
  a	
  safe	
  soluQon,	
  2	
  necessary	
  ingredients:	
  
•  Block	
  sizes	
  are	
  not	
  very	
  large	
  
•  Traffic	
  discipline	
  is	
  high	
  
NOTE:	
  	
  
•  If	
  right	
  turns	
  are	
  not	
  permioed	
  from	
  both	
  arms	
  of	
  the	
  intersecQon,	
  then	
  a	
  U-­‐turn	
  will	
  require	
  
two	
  “around-­‐the-­‐block”	
  loops	
  
•  U-­‐turns	
  on	
  BRT	
  corridors	
  may	
  typically	
  have	
  high	
  demand	
  on	
  account	
  of	
  the	
  BRT	
  corridor	
  
eliminaQng	
  median	
  cuts.	
  Hence	
  this	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  acceptable	
  	
  	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  
Carsten	
  Wass,	
  
CONSIA	
  
OpQon	
  2:	
  SeparaQng	
  right	
  turns	
  via	
  signal	
  phasing	
  
60	
  
In	
  this	
  opQon,	
  5	
  phases	
  in	
  total	
  
OpQon	
  3:	
  Replacing	
  right	
  turns	
  with	
  aler-­‐intersecQon	
  U-­‐turns	
  
61	
  
Another major safety issue: Misalignment of lanes!
62	
  
Due	
  to	
  BRT	
  staQons,	
  lane	
  alignment	
  at	
  intersecQons	
  is	
  challenging	
  to	
  
design.	
  Care	
  should	
  always	
  be	
  taken	
  to	
  maintain	
  lane	
  alignment	
  
Another major safety issue: Lanes imbalance!
63	
  
Again,	
  due	
  to	
  BRT	
  staQons,	
  on	
  one	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  intersecQon,	
  lane	
  
misbalance	
  can	
  happen.	
  There	
  should	
  never	
  be	
  less	
  lanes	
  aler	
  the	
  
intersecQon	
  than	
  there	
  are	
  before,	
  vice	
  versa	
  is	
  relaQvely	
  okay.	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  
Carsten	
  Wass,	
  
CONSIA	
  
Handling	
  NMT	
  right	
  turns	
  at	
  intersecQons	
  
•  If	
  NMT	
  volumes	
  are	
  not	
  very	
  high,	
  then	
  it	
  is	
  beoer	
  for	
  NMT	
  to	
  cross	
  like	
  a	
  
pedestrian	
  during	
  the	
  pedestrian	
  signal	
  phase.	
  Thus,	
  NMT	
  makes	
  right	
  turn	
  in	
  
2	
  successive	
  signal	
  phases	
  
•  However,	
  if	
  NMT	
  volumes	
  are	
  high,	
  a	
  separate	
  scramble	
  phase,	
  “red	
  for	
  all	
  MV	
  
traffic”	
  may	
  be	
  preferable	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
Designing	
  for	
  safe	
  crossings	
  at	
  intersecQons	
  
65	
  
Safety issues with express stations!
This is a common crash type
in some Latin American
systems with an overtaking
lane, due to the unusual case
of overtaking from the left"
Image credit: ‘Traffic Safety
on Bus Corridors’, Nicolae
Duduta EMBARQ
Designing for express BRT service
A long station
length, with
adequate taper is
absolutely essential
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
IntegraQng	
  feeder	
  bus	
  with	
  BRT	
  terminal	
  
Image	
  credit:	
  ‘Traffic	
  Safety	
  on	
  
Bus	
  Corridors’,	
  Nicolae	
  Duduta	
  
EMBARQ	
  
EMBARQ	
  resources	
  on	
  BRT	
  and	
  bus	
  corridor	
  safety	
  
www.embarqindia.org	
   69	
  
The	
  final	
  version	
  of	
  both	
  these	
  publicaQons	
  will	
  be	
  out	
  later	
  this	
  year,	
  2014	
  
Thank you!!
!   Workshop on Quantifying the Environmental, Social and
Economic Benefits from Bus Rapid Transit Systems!
A SPAD Academy & Asia LEDS Partnership Workshop!
June 24 – 25, 2014!
!   Binoy Mascarenhas, Manager, Urban Transport, EMBARQ
India!
!   bmascarenhas@embarqindia.org!
!   EMBARQ helps cities make sustainable transport a reality!

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Road Safety and Bus Rapid Transit

  • 1. Road Safety and Bus Rapid Transit! !   Workshop on Quantifying the Environmental, Social and Economic Benefits from Bus Rapid Transit Systems! A SPAD Academy & Asia LEDS Partnership Workshop! June 24 – 25, 2014! !   Binoy Mascarenhas, Manager, Urban Transport, EMBARQ India! !   bmascarenhas@embarqindia.org!
  • 2. 2   Why  BRT?   Is  it  really  safer?  
  • 3. India  has  the  highest  number   of  road  fatali7es  in  the  world   3   People  killed  on  Indian  roads  in  2013   Source:  NaQonal  Crime  Records  Bureau  (2009)   “Accidental  Deaths  &  Suicides  in  India.  NCRB  
  • 4. Who  are  the  vulnerable  road  users?   4   Source:  NaQonal  Crime  Records  Bureau  (2009)   “Accidental  Deaths  &  Suicides  in  India.  NCRB   54%   41%  
  • 5. The  “other”  vehicle  involved:   5   20%   19%   16%   14%   13%   9%   7%   Car  /  Jeep   Two-­‐wheeler   Bus   Unknown   Truck   Van   Autorickshaw   Others   Case  of  Bangalore   In  16%    &  23%  of  pedestrian  &   motorcyclist  fataliQes  resp.,   the  impacQng  vehicle  is  a  bus     32%   28%   23%   8%   Truck   Other  2-­‐wheeler   Bus   Car/Jeep   Hit  a  fixed  object   Van   Tractor   Autorickshaw   Motorcyclist  fatali7es  Pedestrian  fatali7es   Source:    Bengaluru  Road  Safety  &  Injury   PrevenQon  Programme:  Injury  snapshots   and  acQvity  profile  –  2009  -­‐  NIMHANS  
  • 6. More  data  on  city  bus  crashes   6   In  Mumbai,   2012   In  Chennai,   2008   In  Bangalore,   2007   ProporQon  of   fatal  crashes  that   involved  a  bus  
  • 7. Who  is  most  vulnerable  in  a  bus  crash?   7   Pedestrian   Motorcyclist   Bus  occupant   Pedestrian   Motorcyclist   Bus  occupant   Mode  of  vicQm   in  a  fatal  crash   involving  a  bus   Chennai  2008  –  MTC  buses  Bangalore  2007  –  BMTC  buses   61%  of  all  fatal  crash  vicQms  in  Bangalore  and   89%  in  Chennai  are  from  just  these  3  groups!  
  • 8. Overcrowding  is  a  big  issue   8  
  • 9. Data  Source:  Padmanaban  J.,  Rajaraman  R.,   Narayan  S.,  Ramesh  B.,  “Analysis  of  Fatal  Crashes   involving  MTC  buses”,  iCRASH  Conference,  2010   Which  wheel  of  the  bus  is  most  predominantly  involved   in  run-­‐over  crashes?   Case  of  Chennai   Three  main  issues     •  Overcrowded  buses   •  Lel-­‐rear  side  blind-­‐spot     •  Rear  overhang    Right   rear   Qre:   19%   Lel   rear   Qre:   63%   Right   front   Qre:   5%   Lel   front   Qre:   13%   Lel   side:   76%   Rear  side:   82%  
  • 10. AcQvity  at  the  Qme  of  the  fatal  crash   Pedestrian   Motorcyclist   10   Case  of  Bangalore   Source:    Bengaluru  Road  Safety  &  Injury   PrevenQon  Programme:  Injury  snapshots   and  acQvity  profile  –  2009  -­‐  NIMHANS   57%  27%   8%   Crossing  the   road   Walking  on   the  road   Standing  on   the  road   Working  on   the  road   Playing  on  the   road   Sleeping  on   the  road   Unspecified   40%   15%   13%   12%   7%   Hit  from  back   Hit  from  side   Head  on   collision   Skid  &  fell   Hit  a  fixed   object   Nose  to  tail   collision   Others   Overturn   Hit  a   pedestrian  
  • 11. How  does  BRT  make  things  safer   Direct  impact  on  the  3  vulnerable  groups   •  Separates  buses  from  all  other  motor-­‐vehicles     •  Moves  buses  away  from  the  path  of  pedestrians.   BRT  median  improves  safety  while  crossing   •  AutomaQc  doors  &  more  frequent  services   prevent  passengers  from  falling  out  of  the  bus       11   Motorcyclist   Pedestrian   Bus  occupant     Other  corridor  impacts   •  BRT  involves    a  complete  re-­‐design  of  the  road,  which  allows  for  correcQng  prior  design  flaws,   improving  road  condiQons  and  introducing  traffic  calming  features   •  Reduced  no.  of  lanes  for  mixed  traffic  induces  lower  speeds   •  Moving  buses  away  from  the  kerbside  allows  Qghter  intersecQon  design   •  Reduces  conflict  points  across  minor  intersecQons   •  Beoer  managed  fleet  and  beoer  trained  drivers  result  in  safer  driving   City-­‐level  impact   •  Affects  modal  shil  away  from  private  transport;  reduced  motorisaQon  results  in  fewer  accidents    
  • 12. The  last  point  explained  …   12   R² = 0.69 0 10 20 30 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 Annualtrafficfatalities/ 100000population Daily VKT/ capita (urban roads) City  level  impact  of  BRT  through  mode  shil  and  reduced  motorisaQon   Credit:  Nicolae  Duduta,  EMBARQ  
  • 13. 13   PotenQal  road  fataliQes   averted  on  account  of   the  BRT   Some  direct  evidence  from  BRT  corridors   Case  of  TransMilenio  BRT  in  Bogota,  Colombia   A  high  quality  public  transport  system  can  save  lives   Credit:  Dario  Hidalgo,  EMBARQ  
  • 14. Further evidence from Macrobus in Guadalajara,  Mexico …" 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   4000   4500   5000   0   50   100   150   200   250   Jan-­‐07   Mar-­‐07   May-­‐07   Jul-­‐07   Sep-­‐07   Nov-­‐07   Jan-­‐08   Mar-­‐08   May-­‐08   Jul-­‐08   Sep-­‐08   Nov-­‐08   Jan-­‐09   Mar-­‐09   May-­‐09   Jul-­‐09   Sep-­‐09   Nov-­‐09   Jan-­‐10   Mar-­‐10   May-­‐10   Jul-­‐10   Sep-­‐10   Nov-­‐10   Jan-­‐11   Mar-­‐11   May-­‐11   Monthly  citywide  crashes  (excluding  the  BRT  corridor)   Monthly  crashes  on  the  BRT  corridor   Citywide crashes Crashes on the BRT corridor Before BRT During BRT construction During BRT operation Credit:  Nicolae  Duduta,  EMBARQ  and  EMBARQ  Mexico  
  • 15. … and from Metrobus, Mexico City, Mexico :  77%   19%   Insurgentes:  BRT   66%   32%   E.  Molina  curbside  busway  /  mixed   traffic   Vehicle  collisions   Pedestrian   accidents   Accident comparison on open bus corridor vs BRT corridor   Credit:  Nicolae   Duduta,  EMBARQ   and  EMBARQ   Mexico  
  • 16.  Counter-­‐ flow   busway   Curbside   buslane   Open   system    Centre   lane  BRT   16   SAFEST   LEAST   SAFE   Safety  impact  analysis   of  different  bus   systems   Case  of  Mexico   Credit:  Nicolae  Duduta,  EMBARQ   and  EMBARQ  Mexico  
  • 17. 17   But  how  to  design  the   safest  BRT  system?   We’ve  established  that  BRT  improves  safety  
  • 18. City   Corridor   length   Year   of   audit   Year  op   began   Alignment     of  BRT     Sta7on  loca7on   w.r.t.  bus     Ticke7ng   Bus  restric7on   New  Delhi   5.8  km   2011   2008   Median   Lel  side   On  bus   All  kinds  of   buses   Bhopal   23.4  km   2013   2013   Median  &   kerbside   Lel  side   On  bus   Only  BRT  bus   Indore   11.6  km   2011   2013   Median   Right  side   At  staQon   Only  BRT  bus   Ahmedabad   63.0   km*   2011   2009#   Median   Right  side   At  staQon   Only  BRT  bus   Surat   33.0   km^   2013   2014^   Median   Right  side   At  staQon   Only  BRT  bus   Rajkot   10.5  km   2013   2012   Median   Right  side   At  staQon   Only  BRT  bus   18   *As  of  April  2013 ^  This  is  the  first  phase  length  which  partly  began  operaQons  in  2014 #  First  phase  started  in  the  year  2009 Between  2011-­‐13,  EMBARQ  India,  through  a  grant  from  Bloomberg   Philanthropies,  conducted  road  safety  audits  on  Indian  BRT  corridors  in  
  • 19. India’s  BRT  story  has  so  far  been  a  tryst  of  two  models  of  BRT   19   •  Lel-­‐side  staQon   •  Split  plaxorms   •  Bus  doors  on  the  lel   •  Step-­‐up  boarding   •  Open  staQons   •  On-­‐board  QckeQng   •  Median  staQon   •  Single  plaxorm   •  Bus  doors  on  the  right   •  Level  boarding   •  Closed  staQons   •  Off-­‐board  QckeQng   New  Delhi   Bhopal   Ahmedabad   Indore   Surat   Rajkot  
  • 20. The  Delhi  &  Bhopal  BRT  model   Open,  low-­‐level  staQon  plaxorm  on  lel  side  of  bus  docking  area   20  
  • 21. 21   The  Ahmedabad,  Indore,  Surat  &  Rajkot  BRT  model   Closed,  bus-­‐floor-­‐level  staQon  plaxorm  on  right  side  of  bus  docking  area  
  • 22. 22   So  which  model  is  safer?  
  • 23. Safety  advantages  of  Ahmedabad  model   •  Bus  drivers  (seated  on  the  right)  find  it  easier  to  dock  the  bus  closer  to  plaxorm   •  Level-­‐boarding  allows  for  safer  access   •  Closed  staQons  induce  commuters  to  enter  and  exit  from  designated  points   •  Having  only  BRT  fleet  on  the  bus  lanes  allows  for  greater  control  on  driver   behaviour  –  Centrally  managed  system   –  Also,  less  turning  movements  for  the  BRT  lanes  required  at  intersecQons     However,  when  planning  for  an  overtaking  lane  with  this  model,  certain  precauQons   to  be  taken…more  on  the  later   23   In  our  assessment,  we  found  that  the  Ahmedabad  model  has  some  safety   advantages  over  the  other  kinds  of  systems  
  • 24. 24   Kerbside  or  Median  side   Which  is  a  safer  loca7on  for  the  BRT  lanes?  
  • 25. 25   The  transiQons  from  median  lane  to  kerbside  lane  and  vice  versa  creates   safety  issues   In  Bhopal,  the  BRT  corridor  changes  from  median  lane  to   kerbside  lane,  and  then  back  again   Designed  BRT  bus  turning  path   Actual  mixed  traffic  right  turning  path  
  • 26. Safety  disadvantages  of  kerbside  bus  lane   •  Buses  move  closer  to  the  path  of  pedestrians  and  slow  moving  traffic   •  Frequent  breaks  may  have  to  be  provided  for  property  accesses   •  Footpath  spill-­‐over,  street-­‐vendors,  parking,  etc.  more  likely  to  encroach   kerbside  lane  than  median  lane   •  IntersecQons  will  have  to  be  wider  to  accommodate  bus  turning  (lel  turns)   •  ComplicaQons  at  intersecQon  as  mixed  traffic  would  have  to  make  a  lel  turn   across  bus  lane.  More  unsafe  than  mixed  traffic  making  a  right  across  a  BRT   lane,  because  typically,  right  turns  are  separated  from  straight  movement   through  signal  phasing.   26  
  • 27. If  kerbside  bus  lane  is  unavoidable,  then  we  recommend  guardrails   along  the  footpath  side  of  the  bus  lane   27   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 28. 28   Case  for  a  different  approach   to  BRT  in  Asia   Is  the  Indian  (and  perhaps  the  Asian  context)   different  from  globally  successfully  BRT  ci7es?  
  • 29. InternaQonally  successful  BRT  model:  Bogota,  Colombia  
  • 30. InternaQonally  successful  BRT  model:  Istanbul,  Turkey  
  • 31. Abundant  property  development  along  the  road  edge   www.embarqindia.org   31   Frequent   property  gates   High  right  /  U-­‐ turn  demand   High    pedestrian   volume  and   crossing  demand   Requirement  for   parking  /  waiQng   area  
  • 32. Cars  are  not  the  dominant  motor-­‐vehicle   www.embarqindia.org   32   Motorbikes  dominate  the   mode  share   Safety  features  for  cars   may  not  work  for   motorbikes  
  • 33. Much  higher  pedestrian  volumes     www.embarqindia.org   33  
  • 34. Traffic  discipline  cannot  be  taken  as  a  given   www.embarqindia.org   34  
  • 35. Bicycles  are  not  the  only  NMT  mode     www.embarqindia.org   35  
  • 36. Auto-­‐rickshaws  as  the  feeder  system  to  BRT   www.embarqindia.org   36  
  • 37. Inconsistent  road  width  and  immovable  obstacles   37  
  • 38. 38   Designing  for  safe  BRT  in  this  context   What  needs  to  be  done  differently?  
  • 39. The BRT corridor will have multiple uses! 39   Thoroughfare   for  mixed-­‐traffic   Pedestrians  &   cyclists   Mixed  traffic   lanes   Footpath   On  –street  parking  /   waiQng  area   Street  uQliQes   Trees   Property   accesses   Turning   lanes   Signals  &   street  lights   BRT  movement   BRT  lanes  
  • 40. Planning for all uses
 Allocation of road space! www.embarqindia.org   40  
  • 41. Good design leads to the optimisation of road space!
  • 42. 42  www.embarqindia.org   BRT and pedestrian / NMT movement! §  BRT imposes restrictions on established crossing patterns for pedestrians & NMT " §  If alternatives are not provided, it can lead to safety issues" Much like a Traffic Impact Assessment study, a Pedestrian/NMT Impact Assessment study should be an essential component of BRT planning"
  • 43. Refuges need to be disabled friendly" 43   Need for a refuge area and speed humps"
  • 44. If distance between successive intersections is very large, a mid-block pedestrian crossing should be provided" www.embarqindia.org   44  
  • 45. Similar design with table-top crossing" www.embarqindia.org   45  
  • 46. Changing the position of bollards can help resolve the problem of motorcyclists using the pedestrian crossing, and still allow for wheelchair access"
  • 47. BRT and local MV movement! www.embarqindia.org   47   §  BRT imposes restrictions on right turns across the median into intersecting side roads and property gates" §  Motorists are prone to drive in the wrong direction to avoid a lengthy detour or use pedestrian crossings to make turns" We recommend that a mid-block U-turn opportunity be provided if distance between 2 successive intersections is very large"
  • 48. U-turns can be provided in conjunction with pedestrian crossing" www.embarqindia.org   48  
  • 49. The U-turn movement can share the signal phase with the pedestrian crossing" www.embarqindia.org   49  
  • 50. Extending these features to BRT station design" www.embarqindia.org   50  
  • 51. BRT station generates a high volume of pedestrians
 A wide refuge is an essential component of station design" www.embarqindia.org   51   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 53. BRT and minor intersections! www.embarqindia.org   53   •  All  BRT  intersecQons  MUST  be  signalised  if  cross  movement  and  right  turns  are  permioed   •  Wherever  possible,  we  recommend  that  the  BRT  segregaQon  conQnue  through  a  minor   intersecQon,  such  that  straight  /  right  movement  is  not  possible   •  But  however,  the  nearest  U-­‐turn  must  not  be  too  far.  
  • 54. Restricting right turns across minor intersections" www.embarqindia.org   54  
  • 55. Restricting right turns across minor intersections" www.embarqindia.org   55  
  • 57. The  most  prevalent  crash   type  at  intersecQons  is  of   right  turning  mixed  traffic   colliding  with  straight   moving  bus   57   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ   BRT  and  major  intersecQons  
  • 58. One  opQon:  Replacing  right  turns  with  “around-­‐the-­‐block”  loops   58   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 59. Retricted  right  turns:  2  alternaQves   BUT  for  this  to  be  a  safe  soluQon,  2  necessary  ingredients:   •  Block  sizes  are  not  very  large   •  Traffic  discipline  is  high   NOTE:     •  If  right  turns  are  not  permioed  from  both  arms  of  the  intersecQon,  then  a  U-­‐turn  will  require   two  “around-­‐the-­‐block”  loops   •  U-­‐turns  on  BRT  corridors  may  typically  have  high  demand  on  account  of  the  BRT  corridor   eliminaQng  median  cuts.  Hence  this  may  not  be  acceptable       Image  credit:   Carsten  Wass,   CONSIA  
  • 60. OpQon  2:  SeparaQng  right  turns  via  signal  phasing   60   In  this  opQon,  5  phases  in  total  
  • 61. OpQon  3:  Replacing  right  turns  with  aler-­‐intersecQon  U-­‐turns   61  
  • 62. Another major safety issue: Misalignment of lanes! 62   Due  to  BRT  staQons,  lane  alignment  at  intersecQons  is  challenging  to   design.  Care  should  always  be  taken  to  maintain  lane  alignment  
  • 63. Another major safety issue: Lanes imbalance! 63   Again,  due  to  BRT  staQons,  on  one  side  of  the  intersecQon,  lane   misbalance  can  happen.  There  should  never  be  less  lanes  aler  the   intersecQon  than  there  are  before,  vice  versa  is  relaQvely  okay.   Image  credit:   Carsten  Wass,   CONSIA  
  • 64. Handling  NMT  right  turns  at  intersecQons   •  If  NMT  volumes  are  not  very  high,  then  it  is  beoer  for  NMT  to  cross  like  a   pedestrian  during  the  pedestrian  signal  phase.  Thus,  NMT  makes  right  turn  in   2  successive  signal  phases   •  However,  if  NMT  volumes  are  high,  a  separate  scramble  phase,  “red  for  all  MV   traffic”  may  be  preferable   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 65. Designing  for  safe  crossings  at  intersecQons   65  
  • 66. Safety issues with express stations! This is a common crash type in some Latin American systems with an overtaking lane, due to the unusual case of overtaking from the left" Image credit: ‘Traffic Safety on Bus Corridors’, Nicolae Duduta EMBARQ
  • 67. Designing for express BRT service A long station length, with adequate taper is absolutely essential Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 68. IntegraQng  feeder  bus  with  BRT  terminal   Image  credit:  ‘Traffic  Safety  on   Bus  Corridors’,  Nicolae  Duduta   EMBARQ  
  • 69. EMBARQ  resources  on  BRT  and  bus  corridor  safety   www.embarqindia.org   69   The  final  version  of  both  these  publicaQons  will  be  out  later  this  year,  2014  
  • 70. Thank you!! !   Workshop on Quantifying the Environmental, Social and Economic Benefits from Bus Rapid Transit Systems! A SPAD Academy & Asia LEDS Partnership Workshop! June 24 – 25, 2014! !   Binoy Mascarenhas, Manager, Urban Transport, EMBARQ India! !   bmascarenhas@embarqindia.org! !   EMBARQ helps cities make sustainable transport a reality!