Since 2006, we have rolled out comprehensive green building measures through the 1st and 2nd Green Building Masterplans to drive the green building movement in Singapore. These measures include govt taking the lead, incentives for private sector, training and capacity development to develop a green workforce, and public and international outreach programmes. The initial focus in the 1st green building master plan was on new building projects.Subsequently in 2009, we started focusing on existing buildings in the 2nd green building master plan.
Through studies and feedback from industry stakeholders, we realise that the barriers to greening our existing buildings here are similar to the challenges faced in other countries. To green an existing building in the tropics, one basic upgrading that a building owner needs to do is to retrofit his existing building cooling system. But, some building owners are reluctant to undertake retrofits, citing high upfront costs. They also feel that the payback period is too long. Most building owners are also not familiar with bdg retrofits because it happens usually once in 15-20 years. Hence, they may see it as risky and not confident that high energy efficiency retrofits are achievable. Finally, when it comes decision making, the Facility Managers have to compete for funds with other competing needs. The upfront capital cost is a major concern, especially for those building owners that are not financially strong, especially the MCST buildings. Next, I will share what BCA has done to address each these barriers.
In order to create greater awareness and reach out to the industry, BCA has been sharing many successful cases of building retrofits and the strong business case of greening existing buildings through seminars, conference, and in our BCA Academy courses. In addition, in July this year, we also reach out to a wider audience by sponsoring 4 advertorials on case studies of successful retrofit in the Straits Times.In the following few slides, I’ll share with you some of these examples.
The second key message is that we have a golden opportunity only once every 15 years to retrofit to high energy efficiency standards because the life span of central air con plant is typically 15 – 20 years. And the upfront capital cost of retrofitting an air con plant is only about 10% -20% of the total life cycle cost. While it is tempting to save on the upfront cost it would be penny wise and pound foolish.Because 80 – 90% of the life cycle cost is on energy and maintenance. The smart choice, is definitely to invest in an efficient plant when we retrofit our buildings.
In order to help building owners make the right choice to retrofit to high EE standards, BCA launched a $100 million incentive scheme in 2009, to co-fund the upfront cost. Some building owners came forward to green their existing buildings but the demand was not strong.Further, in 2011, in partnership with financial institutions, BCA launched the Building Retrofit Energy Efficiency Financing (BREEF) Scheme to provide financial assistance to owners of smaller buildings, esp the MCSTs, who are usually not financially strong, to upgrade their buildings to become more energy efficient. ESCOs who provide energy performance contracts can also apply for financing under this scheme.This is basically a default risk sharing scheme where BCA co-share 50% of the default risk with the banks and finance companies.
After getting feedback from the industry, we have recently enhanced the GM incentive scheme to make it more attractive to building owners. However, to enjoy the better incentive, the building owners must go beyond the minimum certified level and achieve higher Green Mark rating such as Gold, GoldPlus and Platinum.The scheme will now cover 35%-50% of the retrofit cost, up to a cap of $3 million per building project. With the enhanced incentive, we have received more enquiries and we hope more building owners would be encouraged to bring forward their retrofitting plans and to retrofit to higher standards of energy efficiency.
Right back in 2009, we have already mapped out a 4 phase approach to green our existing building stock in the 2nd Green Building Masterplan. For phase 1, we have introduced the minimum environmental sustainability standard for all new buildings in 2008. In phase 2, we have introduced the $100 million Green Mark incentive scheme for existing buildings.We are now at phase 3 and phase 4 and I would elaborate on these in subsequent slides.
On the 10 September this year, the proposed amendments to the Building Control Act was passed in Parliament. We adopted a 3-pronged approach to address the energy efficiency issues on existing buildings. They are:i) Imposing minimum Green Mark standard for existing buildings, as and when, they install or replace their cooling systems; ii) Requiring conduct of three-yearly energy audit on the building cooling systems; and iii) Requiring annual submission of building information and energy consumption data. This is a significant milestone for the green building movement in Singapore and would position us as one of the leading countries to take a proactive approach to green our existing buildings.
For a start, we will focus on office, retail and hotel building with gross floor area (GFA) of 15,000m2 or more. These building owners would have to meet the minimum Green Mark standard for existing buildings when installing or replacing its cooling systems.Mixed developments whose GFA of the commercial components, i.e. office, hotel, retail, is 15,000m2 or more, will also be subjected to the new provisions in the Act. This requirement is triggered off only when a building installs or replaces its cooling system. We have used this as a trigger point because the building cooling system contributes as much as 30 to 50% of the building’s total energy consumption and has a life-span between 15 and 20 years. Hence, it is a good opportunity for building owners to install or replace the building cooling system with an energy efficient one to reap the benefits of energy saving for the next 15 to 20 years.
With the new legislation, building owners would have to engage a professional mechanical engineer to ensure that the overall building design, taking into account the change to the cooling system and any other retrofitting necessary, e.g. the lighting or mechanical ventilation system, achieves the minimum Green Mark certified standard. After receiving design approval from BCA, the building owner will be given three years to complete the retrofitting works, which is a reasonable timeframe by industry standards. Upon completion of the works, the mechanical PE will need to re-assess the Green Mark score of the building to ensure that the as-built score meets the min. standards and the as-built score must be submitted to BCA for approval. This is to ensure that the works carried out on-site are the same as the design approved three years ago.
For an existing building meeting the minimum standards under the upcoming legislation, the overall building can achieve at least 25% improvement in energy efficiency as compared to the 2005 building code. Considering the many physical constraints faced by existing buildings, such as the size of chiller plant room has already been fixed, the 25% energy efficiency standard is a reasonably high standard.
The second legislative measure would require building owners to conduct three-yearly audits on the building cooling systems to ensure that the efficiencies of the systems are maintained to the minimum standards. This audit requirement will be applicable to two groups of buildings.The first group is existing buildings which have installed or replaced their building cooling systems to meet the minimum Green Mark Certified level under the first measure which I have just explained.The second group is new buildings (except industrial and residential ones) which are installed with the central chilled-water cooling system and have met the minimum Green Mark Certified level under the Building Control (Environmental Sustainability) Regulations imposed from December 2010. This refer to new buildings that are required to meet the Green Mark for New Buildings version 4 standard.
From our experience in assessing the performance of green buildings, the system performance of central aircon plant, including the energy efficient ones, may deteriorate over time if it is not properly operated and maintained. The aim of the three-yearly audit is to ensure that the cooling system continue to operate as efficiently as designed, throughout its life cycle, and continue to comply with the minimum standards.One of the pre-requisite reqm in Green Mark standard is the installation of accurate permanent measurement and verification instruments to monitor the efficiency of the aircon plant. This would allow the periodic audits to be conducted more easily as there is no need to mount temporary measuring instruments. Building owners and facilities managers will also be able to monitor and trend log key parameters relating to the efficiencies of the air-con plant on a real time basis.
While the requirement is a three-yearly energy audit on the cooling system, the building owners only need to carry out the audit upon receipt of BCA’s notice.Owners would have to engage a professional Mechanical engineer or Energy Auditor to conduct the energy audits.What is important here is not just the conduct of the energy audit, but the result of the audit must meet the minimum system efficiency standard. This means that if the owner has not been regularly maintaining his building cooling system, the energy audit result will probably fail. The owner will have to carry out appropriate remedial and maintenance works to bring the system back to the design standard.
Finally, it will be mandatory for building owners to submit energy usage data on an annual basis.However the information will be obtained primarily from the utility suppliers. This will reduce the need for building owners to submit the data individually to BCA.The data collected will form the basis of national energy benchmarks, which BCA will share with building owners.With this data, BCA will also be able to monitor energy consumption patterns of the building sector, and measure the effectiveness of various measures implemented, and fine-tune the measures, if necessary.
This slide shows the interface of the the online portal.The building owners can log into the BCA’s online portal to verify the data from the utility suppliers.
Upon logging into the system, the owner can compare the energy consumption of his building with other similar type of buildings and benchmark his performance.For example, he is able to see how energy efficient or inefficient his building is based on EEI as compared with other similar building types.
While it is important to upgrade the hardware of our building, it is even more important, to reach out within buildings, to the tenants and building occupants. This is because they contribute a significant portion of the total energy consumption. Going forward, BCA will be placing more emphasis on building users' behaviour and encourage greater adoption of good practices within buildings. Hence, we are introducing the latest suite of BCA Green Mark schemes such as GM for Retail and Supermarket, in addition to existing schemes, such as GM for Restaurant and Office Interior. Finally, I would like to conclude by saying that BCA cannot do this alone. We hope to forge greater collaboration with industry stakeholders, to move towards a green building movement that is truly holistic and sustainable.
Ang Kian Seng - The Next Challenge - Greening Existing Buildings in SG
The Next Challenge Greening ExistingBuildings in Singapore Ang Kian Seng Group Director, Research Executive Director, BCA Centre for Sustainable Buildings
Why Green our Built Environment?End-Use Electricity Consumption in Singapore (2005)
BCA Green Mark SchemeEstimated 10% to 15% 15% to 25% 25% to 30% > 30%Energy Savings
Singapore Green Building Roadmap at a glance Envelop Thermal Transfer Value (ETTV) CP24:1999 EE Standard for Bldg Services and equipment80’s – 2005 2005 2006 - 2007 2009(Energy (green buildings)conservation) Offered $20 million cash incentivesEnergy Efficient $50 million R&D fundsBuilding Awards Govt to take lead in green buildings(Oct 2001 to2005) Legislation (for new and MR bldgs) Comprehensive industry training Public outreach
Imposing Minimum Standards on Environmental Sustainability All New Buildings and Existing Buildings undergoing major retrofitting works (with GFA ≥ 2000 m2) to meet at least GM -Certified Standard (April 2008)
Green Mark Building Projects in Singapore1400 12741200 1180 1110 10191000800 736 625600 427400 367 239 127 201 161 164200 33 96 17 60 111 11 25 31 38 6 8 0 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 NB - Cumulative EB - Cumulative
Barriers to greening existing building Awareness & Capacity Knowledge Lack of Financing confidence
Training and Capacity Building- Green Collar workforce 540 2700 attended Green Mark attended Green Mark Manager Course Facilities Manager Course >200 190 attended Green Certified SingaporeMark Professional Course Certified Energy Manager Newly introduced a Certificate Course in Measurement and Verification for Central Chilled Water Plant Efficiency – 120 attended
Green Buildings Enhance Asset Value BCA- NUS PROJECT ON VALUATION OF GREEN COMMERCIAL PROPERTIESA saving of 10% in operating expense will translate intoa 2% increase in capital value.
Green Building Advertorials • 4 weekly advertorials on business case of greening existing buildings • In Straits Times July 2012
Once in 15 years Opportunity Upfront Capital •Invest in cost efficient 10% - 20% Chiller Plant Energy /maintenance cost 80% - 90%
Incentives & Financing Assistance S$100mil INCENTIVES FOR RETROFITTING EXISTING BUILDINGS (SINCE 2009) Building Retrofit Energy Efficiency Financing (BREEF) Scheme Provide financing to undertake energy efficiency retrofits
Enhanced Green Mark Incentive Scheme – Existing BuildingsUp toS$3Million Amended in July 2012Co-fund includes supply & installation ofenergy efficient equipment andprofessional services Enhanced GMIS-EB Qualifying CriteriaGreen Mark Requirement(Ver 3) + Air-conditioning Co-funding Rate Cap Amount System Efficiency Gold + 0.7 kW/RT 35% $1,500,000 Goldplus + 0.65 kW/RT 40% $2,250,000 Platinum + 0.6 kW/RT 50% $3,000,000
Four-Phased Approach to Green our Existing Building Stock Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Legislation – Incentive Energy Data Legislation – New Bdgs Scheme Submission Existing Buildings (April 08) (April 09) Minimum EE GMIS (Existing Yearly submission Minimum EE standards on energy for Existing Buildings Standards for New Buildings) scheme consumption to and meet GM Certified Building and co-fund upgrading Existing Buildings for energy BCA. undergoing major improvement. Building owners to New and retrofitted retrofitting submit energy existing buildings – (GFA of >2000m2) related building 3 yearly system information. efficiency audit
• Min. GM standard for existing buildings• Three-yearly energy audit on cooling system• Annual submission of building info & energy consumption data
Min. GM Standard for Existing Buildings• Phase 1 – Any hotel, retail building or office building – GFA > 15,000m2 Energy Consumptions in Buildings – Installing/replacing chilled- water cooling system. Cooling system – Must meet minimum GM Lift Cooling system Lighting Standard for Existing Equipment accounts forOthers much as Buildings as 50% of the building’s total energy• Lifespan of chilled-water consumption. cooling system is between 15 – 20 years
Min. GM Standard for Existing Buildings • Owner engages a PE(Mech). • PE (Mech) looks into the overall building design and ensures that the building can achieve at least Green Mark 50 points. Planning • Owner to submit the Green Mark design score, retrofitted design, drawings, computations for approval before commencement of the energy improvement works. • Owner must complete the energy improvement works within three years from the date of approval of the design score by BCA.Retrofitting • Submit the Green Mark as-built score (at least 50 points) (includingCompletion commissioning of the cooling system).
3-Yearly System Efficiency Audit Buildings involved New buildings (except industrial and residential) Existing buildings which with centralised chilled-water have undergone retrofitting building cooling system which and are required to meet min. are required to comply with the GM standard for existing enhanced Green Mark buildings. standards for new buildings implemented on 1 December 2010
Chiller Plant Load andEfficiency Audit 3-Yearly System Efficiency
3-Yearly System Efficiency AuditBCA serve Notice to buildingowner to carry out energyaudit Building owner engage PE(Mech) or Energy Auditor to carry out energy audit and comply with requirements Submit complying energy audit results to BCA by deadline stipulated in Notice
Annual Submission of Energy Data Purpose Sharing of data with MeasureBasis of the building owners effectivenessnational for pro-active of energyenergy improvement to efficiencybenchmarks the energy initiatives performance of buildings
Annual Submission of Energy DataSubmit to BCAthroughBuildingEnergySubmissionSystem (BESS) Useful links user submission manual technical guide demo-video
Annual Submission of Energy Data 1000 1000 1000Similar Building Similar Building EEI of Similar BuildingActivity Type Activity Type Your Activity Type(Lowest) (Average) Building (Highest)
Green Buildings with Green TenantsGM for Non-ResidentialBuilding GM for Office Interior GM for GM for Restaurants Supermarkets GM for Retail New New
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