increasing number of these types of hackers were being nabbed and criminally prosecuted.28 Although there are many examples to draw on, the most famous case and set of trials concerns hacker and phone phreaker Kevin Mitnick.29!roughout the 1980s and 1990s, he was arrested and convicted multiple times for various crimes, including computer fraud and possessing illegal long-distance access cods. Eventually the FBI placed him on the FBI’s “Most Wanted” list before they were able to track him down and arrest him in 1995, a&er a three-year manhunt. He was in jail for "veyears, although he spent over four of those as a pretrial detainee, during which time he was placed in solitary con"nement for a year.30Mitnickexplained in an interview why this extreme measure was taken: “because a federal prosecutor told the judge that if I got to a phone I could connect to NORAD (North American Aerospace Command) and somehow launch an ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile).”31Mitnick was unquestionably guilty of a string of crimes, although he never gained anything "nancially from his hacks. !e extreme nature of his punishment was received as a warning message within the wider hacker community. “I was the guy
Phreaks, hackers & trolls
Phreaks, Hackers & Trolls The Politics of Transgression and Spectacle. REMIX EMMA THOMPSON NATALIE SLACK
1950–1960s: Freaking and Phreaking. Phreaking is a slang term used which exploits weaknesses in the phone system to make long- distance calls for free, tap into other calls, take control of lines, get free phone services.Joe Engressia, also known as Joy Bubbles, was blind since birth with perfect pich. In 1957,at the age of eight, he discovered he could “stop” the phone by whistling at a certain pitch,later discovered to be a 2600 hertz tone, into the receiver. Which the eventually the mediashow cased the “whiz kid” which influenced others into his footstepsBy 1961, phreakers no longer had to rely on perfect pitch to make their way into the phonesystem. They were using Blue Box. This device was used to replicate the tones used by thetelephone switching system to route calls. enabling Blue Box users to act as if they were atelephone operator..
1970’s - Phreaking.Phreaking came into the public lime John Draper, famously known aslight after a particular article called "Capn Crunch,”. the only link to the“secrets of the little blue box” it was an sugary cereal was a plastic toy whistleinstant hit, because it revealed, in that was once a prize giveaway indetail, the practices of Phreaking. each cereal box. In the late sixties, he had discovered that the Capn Crunch toy whistles tone perfectly matched the 2600-hertz long distance trunk telephone signal. This enabled him to make free long distance phone calls around the world.
1980s To Make a Thief, Make an Owner; to Create Crime, Create Laws”—Ursula Le Guin.By the 1980s, Phreaking growing but was increasingly joined by agrowing number of computer enthusiasts, many of them preteensand teens, who extended the politics of transgression into newtechnological terrains.
1990’s – Hackers, Public enemy number 1 in the US. Throughout the 1990’s the Hacker underground was thriving, although there was an increasing number of these types of hackers being nabbed and criminally prosecututed. Case Study – Hacker and phone Phreaker Kevin Mitnick Throughout the 1980’s and 1990’s he was arrested and convicted multiple times for various crimes which included computer fraud and possession illegal long- distance access cods. He was eventually placed on the FBI “Most wanted” list and was part of a three year manhunt until he was arrested in 1995. He was in jail for five years, four of those years were as a pretrial detainee and was placed in solitary confinement for one year. Mitnick explained these extreme circumstances were taken because a federal prosecutor told the judge he could use the phone to connect to North American Aerospace command and launch a ICBM. He never gained anything financially for his hacking and believes his harsh treatment was used to send a message to the wider hacking community. He was released in 2002.
2000-2010, Good Grief! The masses have come to our internet.In the year 2000 the floodgates opened with cheap Internet connections. Added tothis a host of new social media technologies, including blogs, wikis, socialnetworking sites, and video-sharing sites,were being built and used by geeks and nongeeks to post messages, to sharepictures, to chatter aimlessly, to throw ephemeral thoughts into the virtual wind,and to post videos and other related Internet memes. Internet memes are viralimages, videos, and catchphrases under constant modification by users, and with apropensity to travel as fast as the Internet can move them.During this time post 9/11 mandated stiff punishments for Cybercrimes. Thisadded to the crackdowns during the 1980’s and 1990’s made a much morereserved hacker underground. Hackers like Kevin Mitnick are an endangeredspecies on cultural landscape of North America and Europe.
Trolls Trolls have transformed what were more occasional and sporadic acts, often focused on virtual arguments called “flaming or “flame wars, into a full-blown set of cultural norms and set of linguistic practices. Trolls work to remind the “masses” that have lapped onto the shores ofthe Internet that there is still a class of geeks who, as their name suggests,will cause Internet grief, hell, and misery; examples of trolling are legion. Griefers, one particular subset of troll, who roam in virtual worlds and games seeking to jam the normal protocols of gaming, might enact a relatively harmless prank, such as programming flying phalluses to pay a public visit in the popular virtual world Second Life during a high- profile CNET interview.
Trolling ExamplesCase Study 1. – World of WarcraftDuring a virtual funeral held in the enormously popular massively multiplayeronline game World of Warcraft, for a young player who had passed away in reallife, griefers orchestrated a raid and mercilessly killed the unarmed virtual funeralentourage.Case Study 2. – In the winter of 2007 and 2008, one group of trolls, bearing thename Anonymous, trolled the Church of Scientology after the church attempted tocensor an internal video featuring Tom Cruise that had been leaked. Eventuallywhat was simply done for the sake of trolling grew into a more traditional protestmovement.