Serengul SmithLearning and Teaching Strategy LeaderPaula C. Bernaschina Academic Writing and Language Learner Development UnitVanessa Hill Liaison Librarian Learning ResourcesAdam EdwardsLiaison Manager Learning Resources
AELooking at the broader issues surrounding provision of information literacy trainingHow we have been inspired to change the way we teach and address the problemsWhat we have done and how we are developing our provision
AE and VH identified a number of issues regarding provision of user education:Not embeddedworkshopstraditionally provided at request of academic staff on ad hoc basiswhich leads to inconsistent provisioncomplex module structureNo central coordination of skills within the SchoolInconsistent provision: rarely see all first year students Repetitive: Impossible to develop progressive programme of information literacy training, so end up repeating what we’ve already covered for 2nd and 3rd yearsBad timing: Insufficient timeWrong time, so not relevant to studentsLack of information skills:Students know how to use technology, but lack ability to find, evaluate and use the information foundTeaching methods: tradition of monotonous demos and death by powerpoint(More next slide)Therefore great opportunity for us to work with Paula and Serengul to integrate academic, professional and information skills into the employability skills framework devised by the School.
Teaching skills: librarians not taught to teachToo genericTools basedDidactic: follow instructions correctlyToo muchUninspiring: bore students/death by PowerpointFear of not knowing: Librarians fear teaching subjects they are unfamiliar with, so over complicate. What we need to remember is that we are teaching information skills and not the subject
Student research is finding…Book or journal with the answersRight amount of factsRight number of references Reporting back to teacherEasy option: use Google and Wikipedia as easyAlso fearof plagiarising and criticising information, also students who have never written more than 500 wordsBehaviourist librarians reinforce this
VH had concerns about the way we present our sessions.Inspired by ‘Teaching information literacy in HE workshop’. Attended at CILIP.We teach 3-5 times too muchWhen planning sessions we need to consider what will make the biggest difference given time limitWe try to clone our expertiseWe can’t distil our own experience into a one hour session. We don’t need to show students how to search databases, but we do need to show them how to appreciate the value of academic resources, search effectively, evaluate the information found and how to use it ethically ie. information skills not teachingDiscussion is powerful:Find out how the students already find info, what they already know, what they wantLearn/discover together: don’t plan searches/demos in advancePeer learningWe can learn a lot about student’s understanding from the questions they askLearning by doing is empowering:No demos…students exploreEncourage active participation through a variety of activities eg. trying things out, getting feedback, solving problems, peer discussion, reflecting on mistakes etcUninvolved students are less likely to learnStudents should be learners, not the taught:Our role to support and facilitateDisciplinary context is a key influence on student learning ie. one method does not fit all….devised different sessions for PDE studentsProblem basedGames: Inspiration from LILAC 2011Fun,Quick, Simple,Easy to grasp and play,Meet a specific need or objective
Meanwhile working with SS (LTSL) and PB (from LDU)School plan: easier to approach staff if our contribution is part a school planeasier to get appropriate time(We have integrated info lit training and academic writing and other skills in to the wider employability skills framework devised by EIS)Structure: avoid overlap and duplication by identifying specific programmes rather than modulesvery little overlap this yearAgreed menu of sessionsIdentified key learning elements for each level eg. search strategy, evaluating information, citation searchingCreateda menu of key learning objectives for each level in bite-size chunks eg. Thinking about resources, devising keywords, evaluating resources. Can be mixed and matched.MappingMapped these against CBI employability skills framework eg. finding and evaluating information = problem solvingPlagiarism and search strategy = communications and literacyFinding info for projects = self-managementAnd created into bite sized chunks/modules which can be used to build workshopsAvoid duplication between Library & Learner Development ie. coordinate content
This shows how we initially mapped our sessions against the CBI employability guidelines.This has changed as workshop components have developed.We’ve withdrawn some areas such as Plagiarism (supplied by LDU), understanding reading lists (covered by Summon searching) and What is LR? (covered by generic student induction)
This is where we are at now.Also incorporates ‘Team working’ in the activities/games, ‘Self-management’ in searching/gathering/evaluation and ‘Application of numeracy’ in understanding Dewey order in library.
Those who attended average 65%, rather than 50 % for non attendees ie. 15% higherAttendees 7/10 for bibliography, rather than 5/10 ie. 20% difference
Roll-out framework for 2nd and 3rd years and PGsWe have developed workshops and activities for subsequent years so appropriate for level and not repetitiousImprove attendance: any ideasRevalidation: working with academics to embed information/academic literacy into the curriculum
In order to ensure that the new IT programme is compliant with the National Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, the programme outcomes have been formulated on the basis of various external and internal qualifications and skills descriptors.
VH 14:25Any questions
HEA STEM seminar-2013 Embracing employability in HEIs
HEA STEM EmbracingEmployability in HEIs School of Science and Technology 20 Feb 2013
Participating Institutions• Higher Education Academy• Middlesex University• Aberystwyth University• University of Bedfordshire• Manchester Metropolitan University• University of Tasmania• Teesside University• University of Surrey• Jewish Care
Seminar Agenda09:00 Registration and Coffee09:30 Welcome09:40 Keynote I – Prof. Martin Loomes. Dean of School of Science and Technology (SAT)10:20 Keynote II – Dr. Mark Ratcliffe. Discipline Lead, Computing at Higher Education Academy11:00 Coffee Break11:15 First Talk – Dr. Andy Bardill. Product Design “Engaging employers in curriculum delivery”11:45 Second Talk - Dr. Neville Hall. Biomedical Sciences “Do stakeholders have a role to play in curriculum development and delivery?”12:15 Lunch 13:30 Third Talk- Dr. Serengul Smith, Dr. Paula Bernaschina, Adam Edwards and Vanessa Hill. “Superhighways into the Curriculum and Employability: A Three-Way Collaboration” 14:15 Breakout discussion on approaches and ideas at different institutions 15:15 Feedback and ideas to take awa 16:00 Close – Coffee and Tea
“Superhighways into the Curriculum and Employability: A Three-Way Collaboration” Serengul Smith Adam Edwards– Principal Lecturer – Liaison Manager– Programme Leader – Library and Student Support Paula C. Bernaschina Vanessa Hill– Academic Writing and Language – Liaison Librarian– Learner Development Unit – Library and Student Support
Employers view… The CBI Higher Education Task Force indicates that employers are least satisfied with new graduates’ – self-management, – communication skills and – business awareness (CBI, 2009) According to the CBI, ‘62% of entrants to the IT sector require managerial and professional business skills almost immediately’. CBI higher education taskforce report – Stronger together: Business and universitiesin turbulent times, 2009, http://highereducation.cbi.org.uk/uploaded/CBI_HE_taskforcereport.pdf CBI - Confederation of British Industry
Our ChallengeThere is a clear indication that science and engineering students, ingeneral, lack employability skills (King 2002) and they have themisconception that these skills are not necessary in industry.Students often arrive at university – with a limited perception of a career they wish to pursue – lacking a clear view of the IT sector’s needsHow can we make sure that our programmes include specific skillsets required by industry and cope with the changing needs of thejob market?
To tackle this problemIn the School of Science and Technology (SAT), we have formed anintra-university team and our collaborative work has aimed at:• Integrating the specialist input, appropriate for the science and engineering students’ needs, offered by central units directly into the curriculum;• Ensuring that staff are aware of the relevance of the sessions to their modules and, by tying sessions into module related case studies and projects bring together the expertise and experience of subject specialist staff and skills and support specialists.
There is no one approach for embedding employability across a curriculum. Thereare various methods, which may be adopted (York and Knight 2006):• Employability through a whole curriculum• Employability through a core curriculum• Employability related modules within a curriculum• Work-based or work related learning within a curriculum• Work-based or work related learning incorporated as one or more components in a curriculumOur approach to embedding employability within the existing programmes in theSchool of SAT has utilised two of the above methods.
The CBI EmployabilityCompetencies The CBI defines employability as “A set of attributes, skills and knowledge that all labour market participants should possess to ensure they have the capability of being effective in the workplace – to the benefit of themselves, their employer and the wider economy”Slide 9 19/03/2013
Step 1• CBI* employability guidelines were mapped onto LDU and LR academic and professional development activitiesCBI* employability guidelines Mapping carried out by LR Mapping carried out by LDU 19/03/2013
Step 2Then, employability related modules were identified within thewhole curriculum by clustering the existing SAT programmes basedon the shared 1st year modules Split into Modules clusters selected EIS 7 Programme Clusters 8 ModulesProgrammes formed identifiedSlide 11 19/03/2013
Step 3 In the final stage, the selected modules’ leaders identified relevant and appropriate lab, seminar activities and assessed work for embedding to be implemented. Subsequently, the module leaders scheduled these sessions within the normal module timetable. This means that all students take these sessions as part of their study, and these are also tied into their module content, assessment and practical work.Slide 12 19/03/2013
Academic Writing and LanguageAWL work is informed by an eclectic range of theoretical and practical positionsAcademic literacies Discourse Analysis(e.g. Lea & Street, 1998; Lillis, 2003) (e.g. Fairclough, 1992)Linguistic ethnography Writing development(e.g. Rampton, et al. 2004) (e.g. Elbow, 1998; Deane & O’Neill, 2011)Argument studies English for Academic Purposes(e.g. Mitchell & Andrews, 2000) (e.g. Jordan, 1997; Alexander, et al. 2008)Situated learning Corpus Linguistics(Lave and Wenger, 1991) (e.g. Sinclair, 1991; Biber, et al 1998)Genre Analysis Functional systemic linguistics(e.g. Swales, 2004) (Halliday, 1995) Slide 13 19/03/2013
Academic Writing and LanguageMission ...to empower students to make the effective language choices they need for the creation of knowledge and the achievement of discipline-specific tasks at university.Slide 14 19/03/2013
• Focus has grown from academic literacy to also include workplace literacy• Not separate entities but rather a development from one to the other• The link between academic work and future professional workSlide 15 19/03/2013
Delivery We have found that embedded support is a more efficient and effective way to assist students as those who usually need help tend to be the ones who are least likely to seek assistance.Slide 16 19/03/2013
Creating awareness• At this stage in our initiative emphasis has been placed on: – Free writing (Elbow, 1998) – Reflective writing (Moon, 2000) – Teamwork (Tuckman ; Belbin )Slide 17 19/03/2013
Free writing Agonising over the structure of the sentence and their choice of words instead of allowing their ideas to flow and getting caught up in the creative process hinders the writing process (Elbow, 1998).Slide 18 19/03/2013
Free writing• Students were introduced to this strategy and given the opportunity to practice it.• In a survey presented at the end of one of the modules, 48% responded to the statement I did free-writing to warm up before writing the coursework’.Slide 19 19/03/2013
Reflective writing Reflective thinking and writing have been associated with the deep learning (Biggs, cited King, 2002) in various learning taxonomies (Moon, 2000) and have been seen as important in UK universities over the last decade.Slide 20 19/03/2013
Reflective writing• Helps students to develop and refine the connections between their prior knowledge and newly gained knowledge• Assists them to make critical connections between theory and practice.Slide 21 19/03/2013
Reflective writing• The concept of metacognition is discussed and students are introduced to Kolbs experiential learning theory (Kolb and Kolb, 2005).• Much of the coursework contains the need for reflection.• Students sometimes confuse being reflective with being descriptive.Slide 22 19/03/2013
Teamwork “A team is not a bunch of people...but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them.” Dr. R. M. BelbinSlide 23 19/03/2013
TeamworkStudents take part in a team building exercise•Tuckmans model of team development•Belbin’s team role theory•Communication issuesSlide 24 19/03/2013
Get the ball rollingMove from “ …lifting and transporting textual substance from one location, the library, to another, their teacher’s briefcases.”To “…searching, analyzing, evaluating, synthesizing, selecting, rejecting…” Kleine 1987
Inspiration• Less is more• Cloning• Discussion• Learning by doing• Learners, not the taught• Games http://advedupsyfall09.wikispaces.com/Sara+Woodard Deep Learning
Collaboration and coordination • School plan • Structure • Menu • Mapping
CBI Employability Guidelines Self- management Application of IT Problem solvingApplication of Communication numeracy and literacy Business and Team working customer awareness
Initial mapping of Library workshops •What is Learning Resources? •Thinking about resources Problem solving •Understanding reading lists •Evaluation Application of IT •Searching resources Communication •Plagiarism and literacy •Search strategy
Where we are now •Thinking about resources Problem solving •Evaluation Application of IT •Searching resourcesCommunication and •Search strategy literacy Team working •Group work Self-management •Managing search and results Application of numeracy •Understanding Dewey
Measurable impact?• CCM2426 students survey• 70 attendees, 39 non-attendees• Most common mark 60%• Most common mark bibliography 5/10 http://www.flickr.com/photos/uiowa/8037646993/sizes/c/in/photostream/
Measurable impactMarks Attendees Non-attendeesMark 55% or less 36% 56%Mark 60% or more 64% 44%Bibliography 5 or less 41% 54%Bibliography 6 or more 59% 46%
What they used and whySearch tools used Attendees Non-attendeesGoogle 70% 85%Wikipedia 19% 36%Summon 60% 67%Library catalogue 46% 30%Evaluation criteria Attendees Non-attendeesCurrent 76% 75%Relevant 74% 75%Academic authority 64% 56%
What next?•Roll-out framework•Develop activities•Improve attendance•Revalidation
The New IT Programme DevelopmentMoving on from embedding the CBI Employability Skills Set intoour existing programmes, The Skills Framework for theInformation Age (SFIA) has been explored and subsequentlyembedded into the new IT Programme. SFIAPlus is managed by a consortium comprising BCS, IET, IMIS, itSMF and e-skills UK. www.SFIA.org.uk.
Why SFIA?• SFIA is a model for describing and promoting high-level IT skills standards.• The SFIA Skills are consistent with the long-term professional needs of IT graduates.• SFIA is also a bridging tool, between HE and the industry, which aims to enable students to have a better understanding of the employers’ needs. SFIA is managed by a consortium comprising BCS, IET, IMIS, itSMF and e-skills UK. www.SFIA.org.uk.
In the initial stage of the IT programme development process,three categories of the QAA’s National Subject Benchmarks(QAA, 2007, p.12) on Computing have been utilised to form thebasis of the IT programme outcomes.These are :• subject-related cognitive abilities,• subject-related practical abilities and• additional transferable skillsSlide 43 19/03/2013
SFIA Based Role DescriptionsKevin StreaterExecutive Director, Employer EngagementIT & Telecoms The Open University
Why SFIA?Therefore, the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA,2011) has been adopted in the context of Information Technologyto represent a range of industry defined IT and employability skillswithin the proposed programme. SFIA is managed by a consortium comprising BCS, IET, IMIS, itSMF and e-skills UK. www.SFIA.org.uk.
BCS and SFIAplusBritish Computer Society (BCS) supports degree programmesthat are influenced by research, industry and marketrequirements and actively promotes the professional skillsdescribed by SFIA through their accreditation.SFIAplus is a three dimensional matrix covering the whole ofIT, divided into 6 categories,19 sub-categories and 96 skills.Slide 47 19/03/2013
Mapping onto SFIA• The learning outcomes of the new IT degree programme have been mapped onto SFIA as shown below.
Breakout discussion on approaches andideas at different institutions Group 1 Group 2 • How students can maximise • Core skills (writing, their potential through communication and volunteering? information) • led by Sonia, Judy and Ed • led by Adam, Vanessa and Paula Group 3 • Work Placements and Employer Engagement • led by Bryan and Carl