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RF Exposure and Limits A Basic Overview
Background <ul><li>Recent developments in the electronics industry have led to the widespread use of radio frequency (RF) ...
Guidelines <ul><li>Several documents can be found that discuss guidelines for limiting RF and microwave exposure. </li></u...
Considerations <ul><li>To determine whether the maximum exposure levels and durations are exceeded, full consideration sha...
Definitions <ul><li>Maximum Permissible Exposure limits are defined in terms of power density (units of milliwatts per cen...
Health Canada Exposure Limits for Persons Not Classed As RF and Microwave Exposed Workers (Including the General Public)  ...
FCC Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields  (OET Bulletin ...
ETSI Evaluating Compliance with ETSI Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields  (Official Jo...
EION Calculations <ul><li>Calculations are made with a 1.85 Meter parabolic Dish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All other antenna’s...
EION Calculations <ul><li>Far Field (Large Antenna) </li></ul><ul><li>S = PG/4  R 2 </li></ul><ul><li>= (126 mW)(5623)/4 ...
Is Wireless Safe? <ul><li>The FCC, ETSI and Health Canada RF standards have been developed by experts in science, medicine...
Statements Regarding RF Safety (1 of 2) <ul><li>&quot;A scientific review by WHO concluded that, from the current scientif...
Statements Regarding RF Safety (2 of 2) <ul><li>&quot;On the basis of current safety standards for radio frequency radiati...
Reference <ul><li>Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields O...
Thank You This concludes the presentation. Should you require additional assistance please contact us at: 613-271-4400 Or ...
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RF Exposure and Limits

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RF Exposure for health issues for EION Wireless products

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RF Exposure and Limits

  1. 1. RF Exposure and Limits A Basic Overview
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Recent developments in the electronics industry have led to the widespread use of radio frequency (RF) devices in various areas, including telecommunication, radio and television broadcasting, radar, industrial processing, medical applications and consumer products. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic fields extend over large areas when generated for communication, broadcasting and radar devices, but generally spread only over small areas when used in industrial, medical and consumer devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection and scattering of electromagnetic waves and simultaneous RF emissions by more than one source frequently results in a complex condition known as “multi-path” propagation and spatially non-uniform fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there are very powerful RF sources in use for broadcasting, Radar and other industrial uses, most telecommunications applications involve very low power in comparison. Most fixed place wireless systems are not adjacent to a user and thus very low fields intensity results. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Guidelines <ul><li>Several documents can be found that discuss guidelines for limiting RF and microwave exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, each government has its own recommendations (FCC, Industry and Health Canada, ETSI etc.). A major independent source of guidelines is the IEEE which works with governments. </li></ul><ul><li>In a field where technology is advancing rapidly and where unexpected and unique problems may occur, these regulations and guidelines cannot cover all possible situations and blind adherence to rules cannot substitute for the exercise of sound judgement. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years test’s have been performed on biological organisms, including humans, animals and cell systems. In most cases, the recommendations made by governments are several magnitudes lower than the threshold for damage. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Considerations <ul><li>To determine whether the maximum exposure levels and durations are exceeded, full consideration shall be given to such factors as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) occupancy of areas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) actual duration of exposure and time averaging (including ON/OFF times of the RF generators, direction of the beam, duty factors, sweep times, etc.); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) spatial characteristics of exposure, i.e., whole body or parts thereof; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) uniformity of the exposure field, i.e., spatial averaging. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e) Power levels and distance from the radiator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In certain instances and over a specific frequency range, higher exposure levels are permitted for short durations. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to the public is potentially 24 hours a day for 7 days a week, compared with 8 hours a day, 5 days a week for RF and microwave exposed workers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions <ul><li>Maximum Permissible Exposure limits are defined in terms of power density (units of milliwatts per centimeter squared: mW/cm2), electric field strength (units of volts per meter: V/m) and magnetic field strength (units of amperes per meter: A/m). </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna Surface. The maximum power density directly in front of an antenna (e.g., at the antenna surface) can be approximated by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S=4P/A Where: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P = power input to the antenna (in appropriate units, e.g., mW) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A= physical area of the aperture antenna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Far-Field Region. The power density in the far-field or Fraunhofer region of the antenna pattern decreases inversely as the square of the distance. The power density in the far-field region of the radiation pattern can be estimated by the general equation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S = PG/4  R2 where: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S = power density (in appropriate units, e.g. mW/cm2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P = power input to the antenna (in appropriate units, e.g., mW) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G = power gain of the antenna in the direction of interest relative to an isotropic radiator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R = distance to the center of radiation of the antenna (appropriate units, e.g., cm) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Health Canada Exposure Limits for Persons Not Classed As RF and Microwave Exposed Workers (Including the General Public) (Health Canada – Safety Code 6) <ul><li>A power density of 10 W/m2 is equivalent to 1 mW/cm2 </li></ul>616 000 / f 1.2 50 15000-150000 6 50 1500-15000 6 f / 30 300-1500 Averaging Time (min) Power Density (W/m2 ) Frequency (MHz)
  7. 7. FCC Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields (OET Bulletin 65 Edition 97-01) <ul><li>A power density of 10 W/m2 is equivalent to 1 mW/cm2 </li></ul>30 1.0 1500-100,000 30 f / 1500 300-1500 Averaging Time (min) Power Density (S) (mW/cm2 ) Frequency Range (MHz)
  8. 8. ETSI Evaluating Compliance with ETSI Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields (Official Journal of the European Communities, EN REC519) <ul><li>A power density of 10 W/m2 is equivalent to 1 mW/cm2 </li></ul>0,08 Whole body average SAR (W/kg) 2 Localised SAR (head & trunk) (W/kg) 4 Localised SAR (limbs) (W/kg) 10 10GHz-300GHz 10MHz-10GHz Power Density, S (W/m2 ) Frequency Range (MHz)
  9. 9. EION Calculations <ul><li>Calculations are made with a 1.85 Meter parabolic Dish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All other antenna’s are calculated to have less exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Calculation is made for the Libra Plus Product Line (5.725-5.850 GHz)@ 126 mW (21 dBm) output power. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter Type Classification is Mobile as opposed to Portable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means the transmitter is at least 20 cm away from Human body. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. EION Calculations <ul><li>Far Field (Large Antenna) </li></ul><ul><li>S = PG/4  R 2 </li></ul><ul><li>= (126 mW)(5623)/4  (39.7m) 2 Here P = Output power </li></ul><ul><li>= .036 W/m 2 @ 39.7 Meters G = Gain Antenna </li></ul><ul><li> S = Power density </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna Surface (Large Antenna) </li></ul><ul><li>S = 4P/A </li></ul><ul><li>= 4 (126 mW)/1.85 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>= .188 W/ m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Recall: FCC and ETSI Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields (OET Bulletin 65) Limit is 10W/m 2 or 1 mW/cm 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Is Wireless Safe? <ul><li>The FCC, ETSI and Health Canada RF standards have been developed by experts in science, medicine, engineering, public health and other fields </li></ul><ul><li>The standards establish levels for safe human exposure to RF energy. These safety levels have substantial built-in margins of protection against any known harmful effects. </li></ul><ul><li>EION Wireless products are designed, manufactured and tested such that they operate within regional and internationally recognized safety standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless technology has been around for the past sixty years and during this time studies have been performed to assure the public of the safety of this technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The established judgment of expert panels, government agencies, standards bodies and public health authorities around the world is that radio signals from wireless devices are safe. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Statements Regarding RF Safety (1 of 2) <ul><li>&quot;A scientific review by WHO concluded that, from the current scientific literature, there is no convincing evidence that exposure to RF shortens the life span of humans, induces or promotes cancer.“ -- World Health Organization, October 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;There is no substantiated scientific evidence that exposure to electromagnetic energy (EME) emitted by mobile phones or transmission towers poses a significant public health risk.&quot; -- Committee on EME Public Health Issues Government of Australia, February 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;No substantive evidence has been found showing that health can be adversely affected as a result of electromagnetic waves whose exposure level is below the guideline limits.&quot; -- Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Government of Japan, April 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;There is no substantive evidence that adverse health effects, including cancer, can occur in people exposed to levels at or below the limits on whole body average SAR (specific absorption rate) recommended by INIRC (IRPA/INIRC 1988) or at or below the ICNIRP limits for localized SAR set out in this document.&quot; -- International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection, April 1996. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Statements Regarding RF Safety (2 of 2) <ul><li>&quot;On the basis of current safety standards for radio frequency radiation, the use of such handheld radio telephones does not present a health hazard... scientific data relating to cancer and exposure to electromagnetic radiation at the (microwave) frequencies used by handheld radiotelephones are few and inconsistent. There is however need for further research.&quot; – UK National Radiological Protection Board, April 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The new guidelines we are adopting are based substantially on the recommendations of those agencies (Environment Protection Agency & Food and Drug Administration and other federal health and safety agencies), and we believe that these guidelines represent a consensus view of the federal agencies responsible for matters relating to the public safety and health.&quot; -- U.S. Federal Communications Commission, August 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Scientific research to date has found no conclusive evidence that low power microwave radio communication signals adversely affect human health.&quot; -- US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, August 1995. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reference <ul><li>Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields OET Bulletin 65 Edition 97-01 August 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada Limits of Human Exposure to Radio frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz Safety Code 6 99-EHD-237 </li></ul><ul><li>Official Journal of the European Communities, EN REC519 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thank You This concludes the presentation. Should you require additional assistance please contact us at: 613-271-4400 Or visit our website at: www.eionwireless.com

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