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Key trends in academic libraries


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Key trends in academic libraries by Arnold Hirshon, Associate Provost & University Librarian Case Western Reserve University and Chair, EIFL Management Board.
EIFL General Assembly, 21 November 2016.

Published in: Education
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Key trends in academic libraries

  1. 1. Trends… and how to use them Arnold Hirshon Associate Provost & University Librarian Case Western Reserve University EIFL General Assembly 21 November 2016 Chișinău, Moldova
  2. 2. budget staffing technology ecosystem factors & resources educational institutional functions Research Learning Space (facilities) Research Services Content Learning Services library roles service opportunity (selective) • digital scholarship • digitization stations • new media • visualizations & infographics • data integration/ management • copyright compliance • GIS & location services • Data analytics • info discovery systems • e-books & e-journals • open content • digital repositories • purchase on demand • self-publishing • special collections • student engagement • outcomes based learning & assessment • critical thinking • digital literacy • knowledge contexts • active learning • collaborative & active learning spaces • quiet study • Inviting spaces • leisure & relaxation • innovation hubs & makerspaces the library ecosystem
  3. 3. knowing about the trends without making plans is just navel gazing choosing from the trends and then making things happen is hard! identifying trends is easy
  4. 4. the relevance of these trends to your country some of the trends may not appear to be particularly relevant to your country today most will become relevant to your consortium and your libraries over time taking action will require you to adapt the ideas to meet the special conditions of your local resources and cultural differences
  5. 5. How to Select From Among Many Ideas
  6. 6. how to identify trends, where to find them, & separating the gold from the dross anecdotes anecdata literature reviews delphi panels of experts twitter and crowdsources observational studies empirical and historical data the best way to predict the future is to create it
  7. 7. trending library buzzwords
  8. 8. some “anecdata” the future of the university IS the future of the library Traditional academic publishing. University presses and peer-reviewed journals may continue to exist, but that their structures and prestige will be unrecognizable. We will increasingly find ways to publish quality work without a prohibitive paywall or years-long review queues. — Jeanne-Marie Jackson [Assistant Professor of English, Johns Hopkins University] phenomena that seem crucial today but will be forgotten in 50 Years MOOCs: [by 2066] no one will know what you are talking about. … they will barely register as a historical blip. — Tressie McMillan Cottom [assistant professor of Sociology, Virginia Commonwealth University and Faculty Associate, Harvard University Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society] The library as we know it. — Greg Britton [Editorial Director at Johns Hopkins University Press] Source: The Chronicle of Higher Education
  9. 9. more anecdata: What makes you optimistic about the next 50 years? Today’s students are engaged on campus and in the world, and they hold themselves — and the colleges and universities they attend — to high standards. — Mariko Silver [President, Bennington College] The global circulation of students and scholars, English as the lingua franca of science will allow for great exchange of ideas across borders, and the great reduction of global poverty together will vastly expand the pool of potential learners and knowledge producers. — Dalton Conley [Professor of Sociology, Princeton University] There is very little that makes me optimistic about the next 50 years in higher education. — Richard Grusin [new media scholar, author, Professor of English at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, and former Director of the Center for 21st Century Studies.] Source: The Chronicle of Higher Education
  10. 10. Yet More Anecdata: Two Opposing Views Emphasize active, student-centered learning with adaptable spaces with “extreme flexibility” for students to work independently and in groups. Let students take ownership of the building, moving whiteboards and chairs on the elevator. Eliminate the stationary reference desk. Repurpose libraries as collaborative learning and technology centers, with dining areas. Transform from being a “book warehouse” to an inviting cultural and academic hub of campus. It's Not Too Late to Save the Stacks Why we still need to keep books in our campus libraries By Ann E. Michael (October 19, 2016 the/238106?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en&elqTrackId=04df21144ab24e0a8e463def5f7e49f a&elq=84323d16e04e4017861be680f167f182&elqaid=11191&elqat=1&elqCampaignId=4313 Students benefit when instructors force them into the stack. The tall rows of silent spines may be intimidating, but they also open up possibilities and discoveries. New college students have … have no coaching in how to research the less- than-obvious, the open-ended. … Some of them have never stood, befuddled and overwhelmed, in a library aisle. Students benefit when instructors force them into the stacks. The tall rows of silent spines may be intimidating, but they also open up possibilities and discoveries.
  11. 11. 2015: 18 tech trends transforming academic libraries Trends • Craft the user experience • Deliver mobile content • Record scholarly research • Manage research data • Provide open access to funded research • Rethink library space design New Media Consortium Challenges • Integrating research libraries into curriculum • Improving digital literacy • Competing with other sources of information • Hiring, training and retaining staff who have the right skills, such as in data mining and web development • Keeping up with the pace of technological change is forcing libraries to think big • Information filtering using new tools for sorting, analyzing, and prioritizing Tech Developments • Library makerspaces for students and faculty to create, tinker, and collaborate • Services to develop their own online resources • Infographics creation to create compelling messages • The Semantic web to relate pieces of information online • Location-based services to discover and interact with content, such as indoor mapping • Machine learning to "learn" from large datasets to perform extremely complex tasks
  12. 12. sources of library trends: 2016 • Research data services (RDS) • Data policies and data management plans • Professional development for librarians providing RDS • Digital scholarship • Collection assessment • ILS and content provider/fulfillment mergers • Evidence of learning: Student success, learning analytics, credentialing • New directions with the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education; Critical information literacy and fluency • Altmetrics • Emerging staff skillsets positions. familiarity with technology and technical support, focus on the user experience, support for virtual services, digital humanities, and knowledge management. emerging technologies, data analysis and visualization, and geographic information systems • Open Educational Resources (OER) Or New Media Consortium Which of the important developments in technology will be most important to academic and research libraries worldwide within the next five years? • Consumer Technologies: drones, real-time communication tools, robotics, wearable technology • Digital Strategies: location intelligence, makerspaces, preservation & conservation technologies • Internet Technologies: bibliometrics and citation technologies, blockchain, digital scholarship, Internet of Things, syndication tools • Learning Technologies: adaptive learning technologies, microlearning technologies, mobile learning, virtual and remote laboratories • Social Media Technologies: crowdsourcing; online identity; social networks, virtual worlds • Visualization Technologies: 3D printing, gis/mapping, information visualization, mixed reality, virtual reality • Enabling Technologies: affective computing, artificial intelligence, big data, electrovibration, flexible displays, mesh networks, mobile broadband, natural user interfaces, near field communication, next- generation batteries, open hardware, speech-to- speech translation, virtual assistants, wireless power Ithaka Survey: If you received a 10% increase in your library’s budget next year in addition to the funds you already expect to receive, in which of the following areas would you allocate the money? Please check up to three areas that you would invest in. • New employees or redefined positions • Consortia, shared infrastructure, and other types of cross-institutional collaboration • Digital preservation • Print journal subscriptions • Employee salary increases • Tools for discovery (OPACs, indices, federated search, etc.) • E-books • Facility expansion and renovations • Employee travel and professional development • Online or digital journals • Print preservation and collection management • Technology, systems, and infrastructure • Rare materials and special collections • Print monographs • Publishing or scholarly communication initiatives
  13. 13. What are the Changes? What should you do? Content. The library’s role as a repository for knowledge is changing as libraries manage both physical and digital collections. • Manage investment in ebooks and third-party digital collections • Transition to “just-in-time” acquisition models • Explore alternative access models for scholarly literature • Right-size print collections while repurposing library space Space. Good space is more important than more space. • Host experimental classrooms, collaborative study rooms, and sophisticated technology Research. Librarians help students and faculty master new tools to manipulate information. • Develop new roles for library staff in teaching and research support • Understand the implications of digital technology for information services Learning. The library has become the central meeting place on many campuses, increasingly playing the role traditionally filled by the student center. • Create flexible informal study and meeting spaces EAB: Redefining the Academic Library Summary compiled from
  14. 14. some Delphi takeaways Research • Growth of data policies and data management plans • Changing relationships with faculty Content & information discovery • Increasing streaming and on-demand services • Better accessibility of research content & more competition among discovery system options • Users becoming content providers, and libraries becoming publishers • Need clear collection strategies to drive decision-making about format, delivery, and access Digital scholarship & strategies • Digital scholarship centers are expanding • More data analysis, visualization, use of geographic information systems and mapping • Libraries as makerspaces Technology • Social media is having increased influence • Uncertain futures for institutional repositories Learning • Expanded use of open educational resources • Libraries as learning environments • Radical redesign of library information literacy programs: adaptive, micro, and mobile Planning, Organizational Design, & Assessment • Greater focus on the user experience • Developing cultures of innovation, experimentation (e.g., design thinking], and assessment • Increased use of strategic metrics and altmetrics • Rethinking the library’s organizational design and librarian roles Library Spaces • Redesigning library spaces
  15. 15. where are we today? where are we going tomorrow?
  16. 16. the library today • not a warehouse of old books • people still read books (including printed books) • students do go to the library to do more than just study • all content is not available for free on the Internet • not all students are tech savvy • many students are not fully information or tech literate
  17. 17. tomorrow: increasing the library’s value in academic success an idea incubator for entrepreneurship & sustained innovation + + = scholarly content and resources services for research & scholarship space to think & collaborate
  18. 18. Campus libraries must diversify services and to become more inviting • increased importance supporting undergraduate students • faculty see the library as a partner • few faculty use libraries to preserve their own research data (80% do it themselves, and only 10% rely on libraries to do so) The library's role on campus must change • more outward facing, welcoming, personal, open and friendly services • Work with instructors to better incorporate the library into courses • Provide big data services: store, manage, access the imperative to change April 19, 2016. How universities get students through their 'library anxiety‘ – EAB{E436A215-3C81-4D74-9958-AD490795F57D} to cope with Library Anxiety: the stress students experience when walking into their campus libraries because lack adequate research skills, fear asking for help, and overwhelmed by their information choices "Academic libraries are less about what they have for people. They're more about what they do for and with people.“ - Sari Feldman, Past President, American Library Association
  19. 19. Charting a Strategic Path to the Future Ensuring the Library’s Value Today
  20. 20. content trends
  21. 21. new content strategiesMovingfrom… • librarian-predicted content to automatically available demand- driven by faculty & students Movingto… • applying data analytics to determine demonstrable need for evidence-based decisions Movingbeyond… • “access versus ownership” to continuous content licenses equals the new form of “ownership” faculty impact factors demand-driven requests circulation data journal & database usage interlibrary loan statistics
  22. 22. Sci-hub: piracy, or the ultimate open access?
  23. 23. Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone By John Bohannon Apr. 28, 2016 In increasing numbers, researchers around the world are turning to Sci-Hub, which hosts 50 million papers and counting. … [Over] 6 months … Sci-Hub served up 28 million documents. … The papers cover every scientific topic … The publisher with the most requested Sci-Hub articles? … Elsevier [for which] Sci-Hub provided half-a-million downloads … in one recent week. Article: Bohannon J (2016) “Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone.” Science 352(6285): 508- 512. Dryad data package: Elbakyan A, Bohannon J (2016) Data from: Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone. Dryad Digital Repository.
  24. 24. “an Elsevier report in 2010 … estimated > 1 billion downloads for all publishers … Sci-Hub may be siphoning off under 5% of normal traffic. … Many are concerned that Sci-Hub will prove as disruptive to the academic publishing business as the pirate site Napster was for the music industry …” “’I don’t endorse illegal tactics,” says Peter Suber, director of the Office for Scholarly Communications at Harvard University … However, “a lawsuit isn’t going to stop it, nor is there any obvious technical means. Everyone should be thinking about the fact that this is here to stay.’” John Bohannon. “Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone.” Science 352(6285)
  25. 25. An “anonymous publisher lays the blame on librarians for not making their online systems easier to use and educating their researchers. ‘I don’t think the issue is access—it’s the perception that access is difficult.’” Article: Bohannon J (2016) “Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone.” Science 352(6285): 508- 512. Dryad data package: Elbakyan A, Bohannon J (2016) Data from: Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone. Dryad Digital Repository.
  26. 26. Article: Bohannon J (2016) “Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone.” Science 352(6285): 508- 512. Dryad data package: Elbakyan A, Bohannon J (2016) Data from: Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone. Dryad Digital Repository.
  27. 27. “Open” Access? The Sci-Hub Effect all downloads: percentage from Sci-Hub, and not from EIFL databases Sci-Hub download data included 28 million download request events from the server logs of Sci-Hub from 1 September 2015 through 29 February 2016. There re 2.7 uncompressed GB of data separated into 6 data files, one for each month, in tab-delimited text format. The dataset has been downloaded 2,588 times (as of 19 Nov 2016) Statistics based on server log data supplied by Alexandra Elbakyan, the neuroscientist who created Sci-Hub in 2011 as a 22-year-old graduate student in Kazakhstan.
  28. 28. Usage participating countries in
  29. 29. 5R activities for free and perpetual permission rights to: 1. Retain content creation, ownership, and control (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage) 2. Reuse content in many ways (e.g., classroom, study groups, websites, videos) 3. Revise, adapt, adjust, modify, or content (e.g., translate into another language) 4. Remix original or revised content with other material to create something new (e.g., mashups) 5. Redistribute or share copies of the original content, revisions, or remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)
  30. 30. Open textbooks provide real savings for students, create measurable positive impact on student success, and enable faculty to reclaim their courses The Open Textbook Library: free, peer-reviewed, and openly-licensed academic textbooks with high ratings and freely available comments Provide access to a suite of materials, including slide decks, data collection tools, and instructional support Resource documents available • Guidebook to Research on Open Educational Resources Adoption • Modifying an Open Textbook: What You Need to Know
  31. 31. library space trends
  32. 32. yesterday’s library of the future
  33. 33. today’s library goal: inviting campus destinations to study, collaborate, actively learn, research, have fun, and relax
  34. 34. space goals for making the library invaluable the library as an information exploratorium • student-centered active learning spaces for both individual and collaborative work • open, active, adaptable, extremely flexible and highly mobile • approachable kiosks and counters (not off-putting service desks) • a variety of comfortable and ergonomic seating and work tables • reliable WiFi and infinite electrical sockets everywhere • whiteboards everywhere: mobile and on every surface (walls, tables) • natural light (as much as possible) students become the owners of the space, moving tables, chairs, and whiteboards as and when they wish
  35. 35. digital signage mobile whiteboards collaboration rooms multifunctioning walls variable seating what students are seeking
  36. 36. the new model for learning spaces library spaces converge to adapt to student study habits combines the coffee shop, library, student center, dormitory, & classroom Source: EAB (Education Advisory Board) 24/7 Access Comfortable furniture Power supply Informal environment Wireless network Collaborative work Caffeinated beverages Reconfigurable furniture Laptop computers
  37. 37. the library as a fun place cafés therapy dogs games and puzzles adult coloring books
  38. 38. seating at Case Western Reserve University’s Kelvin Smith Library
  39. 39. seating at Northeastern University
  40. 40. seating & lighting at North Carolina State University
  41. 41. seating at Northeastern University
  42. 42. services at North Carolina State University
  43. 43. services at Northeastern University
  44. 44. research today: digital scholarship
  45. 45. digital scholarship centers: common services • video and audio studios • equipment loans • large scale visualization systems • statistics and geospatial services • visualization hardware & software • digitization & editing stations for all formats (images, audio, video) • teleconferencing • 3D Printing & other maker spaces
  46. 46. Case Western Reserve University Digital Scholarship Center
  47. 47. visualization labs at the North Carolina State University Digital Scholarship Center
  48. 48. digital scholarship projects: examples • Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States (University of Richmond) • Brazil: Five Centuries of Change (Brown University) • Dutch Art in the World (University of Iowa) • Mapping Senufo: Art and Place in a Dynamic West African Region (Emory University) • Women’s Writers Project (Northeastern University) • Dramatic Museum Realia exhibit (Columbia University)
  49. 49. digital scholarship: the future of the institutional repository >80% of faculty preserve, organize, and manage their own data; only 10% rely on libraries to do so* * Ithaka faculty survey, 2015 Subject or discipline repositories are seen as stable, but individual affiliations change Funder requirements to deposit into an open access repository Institutional repositories make research conducted at the university visible Institutional repositories make university research visible and permanently preserves it Few institutions have true preservation-level institutional repositories Meta-indexing or federated repositories?
  50. 50. research: scholar’s hubs and research information systems
  51. 51. why scholar’s hubs are important: institutional global rankings • Times Higher Education: World University Ranking • Quacquarelli Symonds (QS): World University Rankings • Shanghai Jiao Tong University: Academic Ranking of World Universities • Scimago • U.S. News and World Reports: Best Global Universities
  52. 52. Times Higher Education Index library content, research impact, & global rankings to improve an institution’s global ranking, increase the exposure of the faculty’s research to the world
  53. 53. Hong Kong University
  54. 54. applying the trends: library planning and design and organizational assessment
  55. 55. Planning = Experimentation ExecutionCommunication Assessment Refinement library trends: application cycle 1. understand the trends 2. understand your needs 3. understand your resources 1. Assign individual responsibility 2. Identify resource gaps 3. Modify the organizational design regularly monitor progress against success metrics design thinking
  56. 56. strategic planning Strategic plans reflect your choices concerning library trends. Without a strategic plan, you neither know where you are going, nor know how to evaluate whether you are achieving success.
  57. 57. experimentation ask for bad ideas o no sacred cows o empower people to think and create bold, and even outlandish, ideas move beyond benchmarks o go beyond benchmarks o apply diagnostic internal quantitative and qualitative analyses to see if and how a benchmark applies to your organization
  58. 58. experimentation: understand your organization’s current culture and its agility Place a check next to every word that describes how it currently feels to work in your organization today. Total up the number in each quadrant to determine which best describes your organization today. Organizational health is a predictor of strong performance. A 2015 analysis showed that organizations with both speed and stability have a 70% chance of being ranked in the top quartile by organizational health. This is a much higher proportion than among companies that focused only on one or the other. Survey and quadrant at
  59. 59. experimentation: Harvard Law Library Haystacks H20
  60. 60. design thinking in libraries Empathize Define Ideate Prototype Test Refine model adapted from Stanford University’s “Crash Course in Design Thinking” see the world through the eyes of your customer define the problem or opportunity identify possible solutions experiment with a model of the solution test the experiment in real time modify, and experiment again
  61. 61. other new roles for the academic library
  62. 62. facilitator of campus partnerships Humanities Center Interactive Commons Libraries Maker Spaces Research Admin. Teaching & Learning Center Info Tech Researchers common project intake processes communication & shared resources
  63. 63. personal librarian and first year experience programs • assign a library staff member to teach each first year student one-on-one how to do research • hold special events throughout the year so they learn about the library in different ways, and see it as a friendly place
  64. 64. choosing trends and moving forward no library can do everything choosing what to do is a careful balancing act “Everything in moderation, including moderation.” - Oscar Wilde μηδέν άγαν "Moderation in all things." - Aristotle “Doctrine of the Mean” - Inscription on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi - Seven Sages of Greece (either Cleobulus or Solon)
  65. 65. “Cheshire Puss, would you tell me which way I ought to go from here?” “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat. “I don’t much care where,” said Alice. “Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat. “ – so long as I get somewhere,” Alice added as an explanation. “Oh, you’re sure to do that, if you only walk long enough.” said the Cat. Arnold Hirshon Associate Provost & University Librarian Case Western Reserve University thank you