Responsible Electronics 2013: Student Workers

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Presentations from the EICC conference Responsible Electronics 2013, Oct 1-3 in California.

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Responsible Electronics 2013: Student Workers

  1. 1. The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition Welcomes you to Sponsored by Exhibitors
  2. 2. Student Workers An honest discussion of the current situation in China and neighboring countries. Presenting tools and incentives designed to help companies better understand how student workers can play a positive role in the electronics supply chain
  3. 3. EICC Asia Network Student Workers Project with LESN and Nanjing University Co-Leads: Ernest Wong, HP Cindy Feng, Dell
  4. 4. EICC Asia Network Charter • Be the channel to collect voice from Asia to EICC • Promote EICC and the code of conduct in Asia • Address regional issues by leveraging the local expertise • Develop new Asia-based chapters and assist strategic direction • Share information and best practices in the region
  5. 5. Student Workers Project • To promote responsible management of student workers in EICC supply chain through: – Enrich the audit tools • Key questions to address managing student workers – Provide tool kits • Help suppliers evaluate the risk level of vocational schools – Share the best practices
  6. 6. Deliverables • Integrate HP Student Workers audit tool into EICC VAP audit protocol – Underway with VAP team • Develop a toolkit for suppliers to – Assess risk level of vocational training schools – Guidelines for gap analysis about the practices of student workers management – Case studies about best practices of factories and school
  7. 7. Toolkit Schools Factory Recruitment When and how to arrange student interns How to avoid under-aged students; Other recruitment procedures including body-check Pre-work training Guidance training to students and teachers Orientation to students and teachers During work In-factory follow-up by teachers; How to resolve issues and disputes Educational opportunities Work load and working hour arrangements; How to resolve issues and disputes Educational opportunities Dormitory and living arrangement After internship Educational opportunities How to enhance positive collaboration with school Others Educational capacity development Educational capacity development
  8. 8. Toolkit Implementation Phases • Phase 1: Policy and Guidelines Research and Review, Case Nomination (2.5 months) – Preparation and confirmation of project contracts and documents (complete) – Research Framework Design: EICC task group need to agree on the Framework, the scale and nature of the legal and policy review (just as recommendations or as a basic guideline?) (complete) – Issue finding survey, legal and policy Review: a short paper as result, will be used as introduction to the toolkit (complete) – Meantime: nominating and confirming cases (complete) – Discussion and finalize the legal and policy review (complete) • Phase 2: Case survey, interviews and research (3 months) – 2-3 days on site for each case. 1 day before and after for preparation and data logging, case reports writing (in progress) – EICC task group review case reports: reports will be reviewed during this period not only at the end. Should schedule a review meetings every 2 months (2 weeks) • Phase 3: Final Report (2 months) – Report writing and review (4 weeks)
  9. 9. Toolkit Status • Survey Preliminary Information – Generally expected responses – Some innovation at supplier sites – Different challenges and needs between brands and manufacturers or suppliers • Desktop research – Over 60 laws related to student workers issue • Local regulation contains clearer law • Raises questions about conflict of law where students travel from province to province or city to city • Cases Studies – 4 Brands have nominated suppliers • Acer, Best Buy, Dell, HP – 2 have confirmed dates • Integrate into the best practice tool kit – Purpose is to identify successes – Provide resources for schools and factories over internship’s time-span
  10. 10. Thank you! 谢谢!
  11. 11. The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition Welcomes you to Sponsored by Exhibitors
  12. 12. China’s Human Capital Challenge and What Can Be Done About It October 2, 2013 Scott Rozelle, Prashant Loyalka, James Chu
  13. 13. Today’s Talk 1. China’s human capital challenge 2. What is REAP? 3. Vocational high schools in China 4. Tools to Improve: how the EICC can participate in improving vocational high schools in China 13
  14. 14. China’s economy grew by more than 20 times from 1978 to 2010 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 In 2000 US$ GDP (billions US$) GDP per capita (US$) 14
  15. 15. Growth was fueled by the movement of cheap, unskilled, rural labor into low-cost, labor-intensive industries 15
  16. 16. How Expensive are Chinese Workers? Manufacturing Wages 1994-2008 (USD/year) 497 1180 3481 367 481 433 1075 2849 2338 4231 2018 1638 2833 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 China India Indonesia Philippines Thailand China Thailand Philippines India Indonesia China 16
  17. 17. Implications • China continues to grow: RISING DEMAND • Size of labor force falls: FALLING SUPPLY Rising wages in the future Changing industrial structure By 2025 to 2030  $6 to $8 to $10/hour
  18. 18. 497 1180 3481 367 481 433 1075 2849 2338 4231 2018 1638 2833 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 China India Indonesia Philippines Thailand Source: International Labor Organization LABORSTA Database China Thailand Philippines India Indonesia ChinaHow Expensive are Chinese Workers? Manufacturing Wages 1994-2008 (USD/year)
  19. 19. But, with higher wages, can China move itself up the productivity ladder?
  20. 20. “Textile worker” in high wage countries “made to order” Gucci shoe factory To do his job, he needs to be competent in math, language, English and computers …
  21. 21. Will these young women … who are working in China’s textile plants now … be able to do the job in a modern high fashion textile plant? Unfortunately, most barely know how to read and write …
  22. 22. This is an auto mechanic … in Palo Alto …
  23. 23. Question: “Will these boys be able to do the jobs that need to be done in the future economy?” None of these students have ever touched a computer or surfed the web
  24. 24. The High School Gap % of students that go to high school Today Millions of poor, rural kids not going on to high school! 26
  25. 25. Today’s Talk 1. China’s human capital challenge 2. What is REAP? 3. Vocational high schools in China 4. Tools to Improve: how the EICC can participate in improving vocational high schools in China 27
  26. 26. REAP seeks to address this human capital gap.
  27. 27. The Rural Education Action Program is a Research Organization/NGO/Government Organization/Policy Action partnership Collaborators in ChinaAt Stanford University
  28. 28. We are committed to finding solutions to the help bridge the gap … cost effective … scalable … efficient solutions … to help all kids realize their educational dreams Our Vision Education/ health / nutrition gaps
  29. 29. Help brian
  30. 30. To understand the barriers keeping the rural poor from closing the gap and learn what can be done REAP works in two ways 1. REAP identifies problems in education, health and nutrition … and then designs and implements new program interventions and conducts the evaluations 2. REAP partners with NGOs, Foundations and government agencies who are trying to implement projects – REAP advises – They carry out – REAP evaluates We call this “action research”
  31. 31. REAP partners
  32. 32. REAP partners Academic organizations Corporations (CSR groups) Foundations Competitive Grant-making Agencies US, European and other foreign firms companies
  33. 33. REAP Experiments (Projects) in China’s Poor Rural Areas (and Migrant Communities) >30
  34. 34. REAP’s Three “Action Platforms” Keeping Kids in School Technology and Human Capital Health, Nutrition and Education
  35. 35. So what is the key to “action research”? Two things: 1. The rigorous / but simple way that we demonstrate IMPACT … 2. Our commitment to scaling up … through engagement in policy …
  36. 36. Find solutions by helping 100s and 1000s … … and work with the government to help 1,000,000s … Our ultimate goal:
  37. 37. REAP has touched the lives of millions of China's poorest and most needy children
  38. 38. From Results to Policy Action
  39. 39. Today’s Talk 1. China’s human capital challenge 2. What is REAP? 3. Vocational high schools in China 4. Tools to Improve: how the EICC can participate in improving vocational high schools in China 45
  40. 40. The High School Gap % of students that go to high school Today Millions of poor, rural kids not going on to high school! 46
  41. 41. One reason students do not go on to high school is that they face a highly competitive education system • China has limited spots & highly competitive entrance exams for both academic HS & college. • And poor, rural students score lower on tests… 47
  42. 42. Vocational schools are an alternative, parallel track (versus academic high school) in China 48 Vocational high school (non competitive) Academic high school (competitive)
  43. 43. Vocational schooling in a nutshell • 3 years, full-time learning • Overseen by multiple ministries, mainly Ministry of Education and Ministry of Human Resources – This is a problem… one that we will discuss later • First two years of classroom learning, last year internships • Purpose is to teach both basic and technical skills so student is ready for workforce
  44. 44. Policymakers are very interested in vocational schooling • Their strong interest has resulted in – the expansion of vocational high school enrollments from 11.7 million to 22.1 million in the last decade 50
  45. 45. Annual investments in vocational school of 140 billion yuan (22.6 billion dollars) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Billions(inYuan) 51
  46. 46. PROBLEM • In general, vocational schools aren’t teaching kids (and some are even hurting kids) • This is bad for the kids…. – They will not be ready for the future workplace • Bad for China – Wasting money • Bad for companies working in China – May hire student workers who do not meet compliance standards (i.e. school does not take care of its students properly) – Lower productivity from student workers – In the long term, lack of skilled laborers to hire 52
  47. 47. Our Study: We collected information on 10,071 academic and vocational high school students in one non-poor, eastern province (Zhejiang) and one poor, western province (Shaanxi). SHAANXI ZHEJIANG 53
  48. 48. A baseline survey… • We collected information from: • Students in computer majors in vocational high schools (they take a lot of computer classes—this is their SPECIFIC skill) • Regular students in non- elite, academic high schools (they take one computer class) 54
  49. 49. At the end of the year, we gave the “same” math (general skills) and computer (specific skills) exams Start of the year End of the year 55
  50. 50. FINDING 1: Vocational students are losing in both specific and general skills -0.32 -0.16 -0.35 -0.3 -0.25 -0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 MATH COMPUTER Vocational High School Academic High School 56
  51. 51. Of course, this lack of learning may not be the fault of vocational schools • Perhaps vocational school students are simply unprepared to learn well. • We are not comparing “apples to apples” because kids who go to vocational school are different from kids who go to academic high school. • But, it could also be that vocational schools are of very low quality. • Which interpretation is right? 57
  52. 52. To answer this question, we matched vocational and academic high school students on many traits to create “twins” Vocational high school student Academic high school student 58
  53. 53. FINDING 2: For poor students especially… attending a vocational high school reduces general skills by 0.29 SD with no gains in specific skills. -0.35 -0.3 -0.25 -0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 MATH COMPUTER DROPOUT Chart Title VET Academic High School 59
  54. 54. Here’s how teachers and principals explained the situation… • “Do I like this school? I am planning to leave as soon as I can.” • “I’ve been a principal for 30 years now so I don’t even care if I’m fired… I can tell you that of every dollar going to vocational high school, half of that lines somebody’s pockets.” 60
  55. 55. But nothing explained what was happening better than going to a school and seeing what kids were “learning” 61
  56. 56. Vocational high schools are not a viable alternative path (yet) • Taken together, our findings indicate that vocational high school fails to build necessary general skills and does little to improve specific skills. • Challenge: what can be done? Reporting on these results will lead to “war” … lots of entrenched interests … how do you make changes in dysfunctional institution? 62
  57. 57. Today’s Talk 1. China’s human capital challenge 2. What is REAP? 3. Vocational high schools in China 4. Tools to Improve: how the EICC can participate in improving vocational high schools in China 63
  58. 58. One way to improve vocational schooling is to differentiate between “good” and “bad” schools – Evaluating schools is NOT an old idea – High schools – number of students who go on to top-tier colleges and college entrance exams – Junior high schools – number of students who go on to top-tier high schools and high school entrance exams • But vocational high schools are not evaluated well • Multiple ministries means multiple (non-standard) evaluation metrics • Metrics primarily look at inputs—things that can be falsified and do not necessarily translate to outputs (student learning, quality work in factories like those for EICC members) 64
  59. 59. No standard evaluation = no quality control = low quality • A student asked: “Professor, can you tell me which vocational high schools are good? I don’t know which one to attend.” • Good schools (teach kids and provide high quality workers) do not receive additional encouragement • Bad schools (do not teach kids and provide low quality workers) are not penalized. 65
  60. 60. Our objectives • Evaluate vocational schools in Henan on a common standard – Find out which are good (are helping kids learn), which are bad (are not) • Create a credentialing system: factories can partner exclusively with good schools in the future – Win-win-win! • Student gets better education • Government spends money more effectively • Factories hire better workers 66
  61. 61. Also… policy impact!
  62. 62. What we plan to do… • Evaluate 200+ vocational schools around Zhengzhou, Henan • Evaluate them on non-falsifiable outputs – How much are kids learning? • Specific skills • Basic skills – Dropout rates – Internship performance • And a series of other inputs – Teacher quality, teaching practices, finances, facilities, governance – Compliance standards (e.g. proper practices to care for students, arrange internships) 68
  63. 63. Cohort 1: first year students 1st year • Classroom learning (both basic and technical skills) 2nd year • Classroom learning (primarily technical skills) 3rd year • Internship 69 October 2013: Baseline May 2014: Endline
  64. 64. Cohort 2: second year students 1st year • Classroom learning (both basic and technical skills) 2nd year • Classroom learning (primarily technical skills) 3rd year • Internship 70 October 2013: Baseline May 2014: Endline July 2014: Follow-up @ internship
  65. 65. In some schools, students will acquire knowledge and skills…
  66. 66. In other schools, students will not be learning much at all…
  67. 67. Ultimate goal: An “EICC Compliance Standard” for Vocational Schools • The plan: – Once we identify the “good” versus “bad” schools, we make the rankings available to EICC members. – We ask the government to jointly offer an “EICC compliant” benchmark to the top 10% of schools – EICC members can choose to partner these EICC compliant schools… schools that teach students AND meet compliance standards – Finally, we allow schools to voluntarily apply for an evaluation to become EICC compliant – This motivates lower-performing schools to “shape up”
  68. 68. Thank you! reap.stanford.edu 74
  69. 69. The Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition Welcomes you to Sponsored by Exhibitors

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