13th CFSI Workshop presentations - Day 1


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Presentations from Day 1 of the 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop in Brussels, March 17-18, 2014. Additional details available on conflictfreesourcing.org.

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13th CFSI Workshop presentations - Day 1

  1. 1. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect Welcome!
  2. 2. 8:00 - 9:00 a.m. Registration and Check-In 9:00 - 9:15 a.m. Welcome 9:15 - 10:00 a.m. Keynote Address Ms. Signe Ratso, Director, Trade Strategy and Analysis, Market Access, European Commission Directorate-General for Trade 10:00 - 10:30 a.m. Coffee Break 10:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. Panel Discussion: Good Regulatory Practice: Government Policy Frameworks Tyler Gillard, OECD; Patricia Jurewicz, Responsible Sourcing Network; others TBA What’s  right,  what’s  wrong,  and  what’s  needed  in  building  effective  regulations  on  conflict  minerals  around  the  world. 12:30 - 2:00 p.m. Lunch 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. In-Region Due Diligence and Traceability Deep Dive iTSCi, Better Sourcing Program, International Conference of the Great Lakes Region; Rwanda; Burundi What programs mean for downstream companies, what they provide, how companies use them, what risk mitigation responsibilities companies have if they use them, and how they relate to the OECD. 4:00 - 4:30 p.m. Coffee Break 4:30 - 6:00 p.m. Engaging in the Great Lakes Region Jennifer Peyser, Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade; Jean-Paul Meutcheho, Global Advanced Metals; Boukje Theuuwes, Philips; Bas van Abel, Fairphone Why are consumer brands and other downstream and companies engaged in conflict-free minerals projects in the Great Lakes Region? What are the opportunities for upstream and downstream companies to engage with each other, civil society, and government? How is this engagement making a difference? 6:00 pm – 7:30 pm Reception 2
  3. 3. 8:00 - 9:00 a.m. Registration and Check-In 9:00 - 10:30 a.m. Practical Reporting Guidance: What is  expected  from  companies  on  reporting?  What  are  companies’  options?  How  does   participating in the CFSI help downstream companies meet their obligations? 10:30 - 10:45 a.m. Coffee Break 10:45 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Conflict-Free Smelter Program Overview and Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Governance Overview of how interested companies can join the CFSI, how we engage with stakeholders and how the CFSI is managed. We’ll  also  provide  an  update  about  the  CFSP  and  related  smelter  outreach,  protocol  updates  and  training  developments. 12:00 – 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30 – 2:30 p.m. Compliance Best Practices Building on CFSI guidance, various paths to Reasonable Country of Origin Inquiry (RCOI) data, and Independent Private Sector Audit (IPSA) and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) frequently asked questions. 2:30 - 3:00 p.m. Closing Remarks 3:00-3:30 Coffee Break 3:30-4:30 p.m. EU Regulation Review (Industry attendees only) The  EC’s  Directorate  General  for  Trade  has  announced  that  it  will  put  forth  regulation  governing  conflict  minerals  in  early   March. After a prompt review of the regulation, experts will discuss their interpretation of the requirements and explain what this all means for your company. 4:30 - 5:30 p.m. Benchmarking  Companies’  Reporting  Progress (Industry attendees only) What is your company doing for this initial reporting period compared against what other companies are doing? What are you including in your report? What are others including? This industry-only session allows companies to compare their reporting plans to their peers and learn further best practices. 3
  4. 4. • Chatham House Rule: Participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed. • Respectful participation –Focus on issues, not individuals or organizations –Take a problem-solving orientation –Listen actively (limit side conversations) • Introduce yourself before speaking • Mobile phones off or silent 4
  5. 5. • No still photography or audio/video recording. • Want to live Tweet? Great! #CFSI #cfsiconf14 . However: ground rules still apply! • Members of the press are allowed in sessions, but must adhere to all ground rules and wear a name tag to identify themselves. • Please refer press inquiries to EICC Director of Communications Julie Schindall (available at registration). • Be mindful that space outside of sessions is considered public to the press. 5
  6. 6. • Meetings and programs should be conducted so as to eliminate questions regarding antitrust compliance. • Under no circumstances shall the meetings of this group be used as a means for competing companies to reach any understanding, expressed or implied, which tends to restrict competition, or in any way to impair the ability of members to exercise independent business judgment regarding matters effecting competition. • These guidelines apply not only to discussions during a formal meeting, but to all informal discussions as well. 6
  7. 7. • • • • 7
  8. 8. • CFSI will not allow solicitation from non-sponsoring companies. • All CFSI members and other attendees are asked to report solicitation; any companies found not to honor this policy will not be permitted to attend CFSI workshops for one year. 8
  9. 9. Go to www.PollEv.com/cfsipanel in your browser (computer or mobile device) or TEXT your response to +32 460 200 056 The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 9
  10. 10. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up-to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  11. 11. EU responsible trading strategy for minerals from conflict zones 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop Brussels, 17 March 2014 Signe Ratso European Commission Director, DG Trade
  12. 12. 1. Context 2. Objectives of the integrated EU approach 3. Draft Regulation 4. Accompanying measures 5. Impact on operators 6. Complementarity to US Dodd-Frank 7. Next steps Outline 16
  13. 13. Natural resources as a driver for development Extraction and trade often linked to conflict and instability UN/OECD/G8 statements to increase transparency in extractive industries Existing initiatives on responsible sourcing: o US Dodd-Frank Act Section 1502 o OECD Due Diligence Guidance o International Conference on the Great Lakes Region o Numerous public and private initiatives Context 17
  14. 14. European Parliament Resolution (2010) on conflict minerals EU communications on Commodity markets and raw materials (2011) and Trade, Growth and Development (2012) Public Consultation (March – June 2013) Internal impact assessment Integrated EU approach on responsible mineral sourcing proposed (5 March 2014) 18 Context
  15. 15. Context Operating environment for EU companies o 150,000-200,000 EU companies indirectly affected by US Dodd-Frank Act o 420 EU importers (traders, smelters/refiners, component manufacturers) o EU trade share of ores is about 35% (tin, tantalum, tungsten, gold) and 15-25% for the metals 19
  16. 16. Complementary objectives established on the basis of the public consultation o Break the link between mineral extraction, trade and the financing of armed conflict o Preserve and further develop a market in the EU for responsibly traded minerals from conflict regions o Improve the ability of EU operators to comply with existing due diligence frameworks (OECD DDG, US Dodd-Frank) Objectives 20
  17. 17. Main elements of the draft Regulation: o Voluntary self-certification by EU importers of tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold (ores, concentrates and metals) o Global scope o Obligations based on the OECD DDG (5-step framework) o Ex-post checks by EU Member States competent authorities o Publication of an annual EU list of responsible smelters/refiners Aim: to act at the most effective level of the EU supply chain and to facilitate the flow of due diligence information down to end users Draft Regulation 21
  18. 18. Additional measures to promote the take-up of the certificate and supply chain due diligence: o Public procurement incentives for companies selling products such as mobile phones, printers and computers containing tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold o Financial support to SMEs to promote the uptake of self- certification and to the OECD to promote due diligence among EU and non-EU smelters/refiners o Visible recognition for the efforts of EU companies who source responsibly from conflict-affected countries or areas Accompanying measures 22
  19. 19. Additional measures to promote supply chain due diligence: o Policy dialogues and diplomatic outreach with governments in extraction, processing and consuming countries to encourage a broader use of due diligence o Raw materials diplomacy including in the context of multi- stakeholder due diligence initiatives o Development cooperation with the countries concerned o Support by EU Member States through their own policies and instruments Accompanying measures 23
  20. 20. Impact on responsible EU importers: o Increased legal certainty and transparency through their self-certification to ensure that they do not contribute to the financing of armed conflicts o Easier compliance with Dodd-Frank obligations Impact on responsible smelters/refiners: o Increased public accountability and transparency of their practices through the publication of an annual EU list o Identification of those sourcing from conflict areas Impact on downstream users: o Facilitated flow of due diligence information down to end users and easier to source metals responsibly o Public procurement incentives to satisfy contractual due diligence obligations Impact on operators 24
  21. 21. Dodd-Frank indirectly responsible for due diligence efforts among EU downstream users Weakness in the present system is the flow of information from upstream to downstream Focus of the EU proposal on upstream and in particular on smelters/refiners Incentive-based EU approach corrects the current deficiency in order to open up the EU market for responsibly sourced minerals from conflict regions Complementarity to US Dodd-Frank 25
  22. 22. Draft proposal transmitted to the European Parliament and the Council Legislative discussion through ordinary legislative procedure Entry into force once legislative procedure is over Next steps 26
  23. 23. Further contact/information signe.ratso@ec.europa.eu http://europa.eu/rapid/press- release_IP-14-218_en.htm Submit discussion questions at www.PollEv.com/cfsipanel or text 100020 and your question to +32 460 200 056 27 Contact
  24. 24. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up- to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  25. 25. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect Good Regulatory Practice Tyler Gillard OECD Jean-Paul Meutcheho Global Advanced Metals Patricia Jurewicz Responsible Sourcing Network Submit discussion questions at www.PollEv.com/cfsipanel or text 100020 and your question to +32 460 200 056
  26. 26. Patricia Jurewicz Director, Responsible Sourcing Network 13th CFSI Workshop – Brussels, Belgium March 17, 2014 Good Regulatory Practice: Government Policy Frameworks
  27. 27. What’s Right Mandatory regulation for all companies in the same position OECD due diligence and public reporting Listing which companies are taking specific actions Same reporting date Incentives
  28. 28. What’s Wrong Voluntary schemes Opt-in approach Application only to entities importing unprocessed or processed ore Regulation that encourages companies to avoid the region
  29. 29. What’s Needed Brings all companies up to the same reporting standards Focuses on addressing the problem on the ground Incentivizes companies to source from conflict-affected and high-risk areas Complimentary regulation in different countries/regions Phase-in approach of additional minerals and regions
  30. 30. Thank you for being part of the solution Patricia Jurewicz Director Responsible Sourcing Network patricia@sourcingnetwork.org +1.510.735.8145
  31. 31. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect Good Regulatory Practice Tyler Gillard OECD Jean-Paul Meutcheho Global Advanced Metals Patricia Jurewicz Responsible Sourcing Network Submit discussion questions at www.PollEv.com/cfsi panel or text 100020 and your question to +32 460 200 056
  32. 32. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up- to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  33. 33. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect Afternoon panel preview and poll
  34. 34. Go to www.PollEv.com/cfsipanel in your browser (computer or mobile device) or TEXT your response to +32 460 200 056 The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 39
  35. 35. iTSCi: leading minerals traceability and due diligence in Central Africa Kay Nimmo, ITRI Representative to iTSCi Governance Committee kay.nimmo@itri.co.uk, http://www.itri.co.uk Karen Hayes, Director of Mines to Markets, Pact Inc khayes@pactworld.org, http://www.pactworld.org CFSI, Brussels March 2014
  36. 36. iTSCi Objectives Provide a joint industry programme from mine to smelter, meeting international requirements (OECD, UN) Provide information for end user smelter audit (CFSP) Allow relevant US and multi-national companies to report on due diligence, required by US law (SEC) Promote continued access to international markets for 3T mineral sector in the central African region
  37. 37. Monitored large scale global supply chain Conflict-free minerals to the international market o DRC [Katanga, Maniema, South & North Kivu] o Rwanda…   o And Burundi ! 12,000,000 kg minerals in the last year
  38. 38. A responsible upstream supply chain iTSCi Programme key reference is OECD Annex II: o No! serious HR abuses by any actor o No! Direct or indirect support to non- state armed groups o Managed formal security forces o Managed bribery and fraud o Encouraging transparency of payments iTSCi is not only “bag’n’tag” iTSCi is: o Practical application of OECD guidance o On the ground, at local level o And internationally o Through multi-partners, with joint responsibilities
  39. 39. Wide Partnership of Stakeholders Industry Civil Society Govern- ment MoU with Govts Govt agents implement data collection Govt can create local legislation on due diligence & traceability Govt chairs the local multi-stakeholder committees Companies share costs & information effectively Companies responsible for systems and policies Programme reports summary information on companies & incidents Programme provides authority & drives improved standards Participate in multi-stakeholder committees Incident monitoring and reporting Programme as basis for other actions & benefits Training Investment Capacity building Knowledge
  40. 40. Balanced Structure of Programme Governance Committee International Advisory Panel Independent Evaluators Field teams Secretariat In region Governments Local partners Government agents Local committees iTSCi Member Companies All activity in reference to due diligence guidance Ombudsman
  41. 41. Presentation Outline Describing the process; o Using membership to apply OECD guidance o Finding and approving conflict-free mines o Monitoring, incidents and mitigation for improvement o Support for other projects o Data gathering and analysis o Independent evaluation and assessment Describing related issues; o Input for CFSP audits o Impacts and benefits; trade or embargo o Other challenges, including funding Scope and success o From 2009; pre Dodd Frank o Future opportunities
  42. 42. SELECTING RESPONSIBLE COMPANIES COMPANY SUMMARY & MEMBERSHIP STATUS: licences, conflict mineral policies, due diligence plans, supplier evaluations etc. COMPILATION OF COMPANY DOSSIER: evaluation of role in the supply chain and extent of OECD understanding at joining
  43. 43. Full iTSCi Membership - upstream Open to all companies in the supply chain, inc. co-operatives Moves OECD from voluntary guidance into common industry standard Possibilities of suspension or other actions Challenge of formality of OECD guidance versus practical application Flexibility of expectations relating to company size and location o More focus on exporters and international traders Provisional full member application Independent evaluation & report Accepted full member
  44. 44. Documentation and information Information about the company; o Formation and background, shareholders and management structure Copies of authorisation documents; o Registrations, licences, permits etc Declarations and policies; o Conflict mineral policy and due diligence plan o Declarations on legality & political activity etc Information about suppliers and trade; o Past 3 years mineral production/trading history o Capacity and planned investment etc Checks against information e.g. in previous UN reports, and/or trade information – to determine risk and recommendations
  45. 45. Members committed to Due Diligence 89 accepted full members + 76 provisional members = 165 28 countries (language issues) All monitored for progress to standards of OECD Free market competition within common system and standards
  46. 46. SELECTING CONFLICT-FREE MINES + OTHER INFORMATION: Government validation reports, UN, civil society etc. Approved to receive tags BASELINE REPORTS: mine location, owners, operators, production, civil society, trade routes, taxes and security
  47. 47. Practicalities: geographic spread
  48. 48. Practicalities: roads and infrastructure
  49. 49. Practicalities: limited local resources
  50. 50. The complexity of local trade Mines are complex economic and social ecosystems Relationship is not as simple as it looks Creuseur Primary digger Négociant Official trader at the mine Entite de Traitment Official processor and exporter
  51. 51. Creuseur Primary digger Kaleremba Removes waste from pit Laveur Primary washer (multiple sites) Kinambuiste Secondary washer (multiple sites) Jigger Tertiary washer (multiple sites) Shashaleur ‘Petty  cash’  dealer,  no  official  status   Commissionaire Intermediate between mine and négociant – recognized but not legal Négociant Official trader at point of export from mine – in Nyabibwe town Transporteur Transporter (independent) Concasseur Rock crusher (independent)
  52. 52. How to do a mine baseline Work with local authorities to identify all mines in the area Baseline studies carried out by Pact staff and local partners over course of several visits Cannot  depend  on  a  ‘snapshot’  on  a  single  day  when  everyone   knows that outside inspectors are arriving Regular updates as mines constantly change and evolve
  53. 53. What’s  in  a  baseline Site details, concession, owner, operator, number of miners Number of pits/tunnels, minerals produced, grades, quantities (with history if possible) Details of all state actors present Details of security presence and provision Social issues, child labor Full profile of all official and informal taxes and payments
  54. 54. The master mine list Information from the baselines and monthly reports is put onto a master mine list – one for each DRC province and one for Rwanda Mines  remain  on  the  list  and  status  is  updated  as  they  are  ‘active’   or  ‘inactive’   GPS coordinates ensure that mines are known even if ownership, name or other details change ; codes are assigned to each site Used as a cross-reference for incidents where there are apparent contradictions in details of minerals, production levels, etc. Comprehensive overview of the project status at any time Today  for  instance…..  
  55. 55. Extent of iTSCi Implementation (to Mar 2014) Country Province Number ofsites Numberof miners Average production kg/mth DRC Katanga 170 sub-sectors covering 224 sites, 125 active 28,330 322,000 Maniema 35 sub-sectors covering 126 sites, 106 active 2,520 160,000 South Kivu 4 sub-sectors covering 11 sites, 8 active 700 40,000 North Kivu 7 sites, all active 4,060 20,000 (estimate) Rw All 233 companies covering 665 sites, 423 active 34,980 820,000 Total 1,033 primary production sites, 669 are active 70,590 1,362,000 A number of recent expansions underway
  56. 56. MONITORING AND SOLVING RISKS PROJECT COMMITTES: local stakeholders, or project Governance committee, to determine, agree and implement actions INCIDENT REPORTS: Reports from field staff, or any other source. Record of plan and actions until closed/resolved.
  57. 57. How to manage incidents
  58. 58. Example alerts in supply chain
  59. 59. Mitigation of incidents Most prevalent incident types are to do with errors in tagging. These are easily detected due to simple safeguards in the system Almost three quarters of incidents are resolved at local level
  60. 60. Local Committees play a key role
  61. 61. Cross-checks on production Tags have unique numbers which cannot be used twice Tags are of no value without the log book, and log books are assigned to known sites/individuals who can be traced in case of error or suspicion Production is compared to the baseline and tracked on the mine list In  Rwanda,  a  ‘due  diligence  list’  details  any  sites  where  there  are   questions about credibility of reported production. Companies are advised to carry out their own cross checks as well as those of iTSCi Mineral sampling programs are underway for all iTSCi sites Key is to have all mines in one area all in the system – reduce the need/incentive for smuggling Also, need to use common sense, look at the economics and viability of mineral trading in this situation
  62. 62. Practicalities: transport cost & time
  63. 63. Recording the supply chain at 5 points SUPPLY CHAIN DOCUMENTS (2): once exported, shipping and trade documents provided by supplier to smelters FIELD DATA RECORDS (3): in country data on minerals at the mine, processor and exporter, collated by the Programme • Date • Time • Mine name • Mine location • Tag number • Miner / cooperative • Weight • Price • Grade • Transport route • Transport method • Security • Staff present
  64. 64. Management of tags and logbooks Controls on issue; o Specified number based on mine baseline, production and use o Record of recipient to compare to user Controls on manual return; o Monitored for time to return & number in field o Monitored for missing tags or logbooks o Checked for incomplete information Returned to ITRI UK for manual entry into database o ~50,000 sheets per year o ~25,000 transactions per week o Further quality and duplicate checks o Analysis
  65. 65. Unique data-sets for artisanal mining Example; production per sector and variation
  66. 66. Mine production over time Example; technical and tax issues reducing tonnage at the Nyabibwe site in south kivu
  67. 67. Production per location Possible reference to assay sampling in the future
  68. 68. Data collection improvements Technology solution equivalent o For faster data collection Data transfer by phone network o Can be used on pda’s or phones Trialled in Rwanda with iTSCi staff Now trialled in Rwanda with GMD staff o Reshuffle of agents delayed use Small number of units provide by Promines for trial in Maniema o Electricity? o Phone signal?
  69. 69. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION GOVERNANCE FIELD ASSESSMENTS: field visits to evaluate progress and challenges, risks and recommendations COMPANY AUDITS: site visits to audit for progress on OECD implementation and minerals traceability. Local & international
  70. 70. Area Governance Assessments General  report  on  situation  to  provide  “verifiable, reliable, up-to-date information on the qualitative circumstances of mineral extraction, trade, handling and export from conflict-affected and high-risk areas” o Update on security and Annex II issues o Specific focus issues (e.g. tax payments) o Activities of Government and other partners o Progress and challenges At the start of the Programme and at regular intervals Support company assessments and decisions Relate individual incidents to overall picture of an area
  71. 71. Company site audit procedures Reference audit standards of OECD Step 4 o Evidence based approach etc o ISO 19011:2002(E), ISO 17021: 2006(E) Audit process defined o Opening/closing meetings and normal methods Audit checklist o Questions for iTSCi members - 106 due diligence vs 41 tagging procedures o E.G. questions for an iTSCi exporter – 72 vs 37 Audit report includes; o Comments on OECD Annex II & each step of OECD guidance o Production plausibility o Improvement actions “All  auditing should be to a standard of reasonable care with an expectation that company actions should be reasonable and in good faith in relation to company size, location and circumstance”
  72. 72. 5 Steps of OECD Company Due Diligence STEP 1: Establish strong company management systems STEP 2: Identify & assess risks in the supply chain STEP 3: Design & implement a strategy to respond to identified risks STEP 4: Carry Out Independent Third-party Audit of Smelter/Refiner’s  Due   Diligence Practices STEP 5: Report Annually On Supply Chain Due Diligence Company responsibility for due diligence, can be assisted by joint industry actions to simplify and reduce costs Practical challenges vs formality and the need for due diligence training
  73. 73. Independent Evaluators “Synergy is one of the leading social development consultants in the extractive sector, with the most highly experienced staff members in this field, and over a decade of experience working with businesses operating in challenging environments” Regional experience o Numerous extractive industry projects in DRC and Great Lakes in the region ASM experience o Specialist experience in extractive industries, with large scale and ASM operations Audit experience o Independent audit and assessment, including due diligence o Development of standards and assessments for e.g. Rio Tinto and EITI o Trained ISO14001 lead auditors Training experience o Sustainability and social assessments in region Team stability & continuity
  74. 74. INFORMATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN SEC audit requirements; o Opinion on conformance of company due diligence with internationally recognized standards (OECD) o Opinion on implementation of due diligence as per company policies o No opinion on the effectiveness of due diligence o No opinion on whether the minerals are conflict-free iTSCi upstream company audits CFS smelter audits Downstream company Conflict Mineral Report audit SEC compliance cfsp
  75. 75. Upstream & Downstream Common standards & understanding of system in the supply chain Allows cross checking of all information Overview of complete upstream supply chain in one Programme Effective sanctions
  76. 76. Complex management of information Management via a third party reduces competition issues Protection of commercial information versus publication Established through practical experience High risk ! Legal threats and concerns in addition to commercial factors
  77. 77. Mine Source information at Smelter Tags arriving at smelters declared and cross check versus information held from field records o Mine source, weights, tags as issued, transporter names and type etc o Any procedural or other issues managed through incident reports Tag report sent with a copy of mine baselines for validated source
  78. 78. More info checked by members & at smelter As relevant to CFSP audit protocol; o iTSCi accepted members list (or other due diligence report on companies) o iTSCi monthly field report (for e.g. comments on production changes) o iTSCi monthly incident list (for e.g. involvement of suppliers) o Independent governance assessment context reports (for trends and progress) o Independent audit reports on sample of suppliers (for recommended actions) o Government docs (e.g. certificate of origin or ICGLR) o Shipping docs (e.g. bill of lading etc) from trader Other iTSCi risk management tools; o Alerts on security occurrences o Information on suspended companies o Information on mines with varying production Leads to customer/supplier checks on risks Legal and commercial risks
  79. 79. Embargo or Engagement ? The  case  of  the  Kivu’s  and  smaller  countries o April 2011: downstream requirement for traceable & conflict free material o No  time  to  prepare  &  Kivu’s  considered  too  high risk for purchases o No due diligence system = limited market o No market = no cash = no progress Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia etc The case of dis-engagement in tungsten sector o January 2014: Smelters stop purchasing traceable and conflict-free mineral o Result  of  ‘africa-free’  downstream  market  disengagement o High risk, competitive issues & SEC reporting deadline o Due diligence system = but still limited market o Unresolved Purchase decisions have huge impact
  80. 80. Challenges for 3Ts markets ASM production is unpredictable, programme income is variable Low government capacity and resources, lack of donor support o (Pact has received support from US Department of State for related projects and from the Governments of South Africa and the Netherlands for direct iTSCi activities) External actors fail to understand ASM dynamics Cannot roll out in certain areas due to insecurity Unintended negative consequences for other areas and commodities Managing expectations: o System  cannot  go  ‘beyond  compliance’    without  resources  for  social   programming o Media and NGO focus o Original premise of conflict minerals lobby
  81. 81. More challenges for 3Ts markets Consumer fatigue, audit fatigue, cheaper and easier to walk away If standards are set too high and are too broad reaching, then ‘Conflict-free’  may  become  ‘ASM-free’  or  ‘Africa-free’ No solution to stocks and commercial risk issues are causing disengagement Loss of wolfram (tungsten) markets Initiatives established without any planning for financial sustainability will become redundant o Industry will only finance what is necessary for compliance. Beyond that is  that  is  a  CSR  or  philanthropic  ‘extra’   Individual quests for different options could fragment the landscape and undermine collective progress
  82. 82. Engagement not Embargo! Accurate statistics available for first time 635 incident reports, 80% closed with agreed local resolution Miners have a regular and openly competitive market for material Reduced fraud, reduced theft of minerals, direct benefits to miners, traders and mine owners Indirect benefits to community prosperity Reduced illegal taxation, increased legal tax revenue to government Livelihoods of well over a quarter of a million miners and their family members protected iTSCi 3Ts mines are now hubs where security and stability are becoming the  ‘norm’
  83. 83. Engagement not Embargo !
  84. 84. Engagement not Embargo !
  85. 85. Child labor and conflict minerals Child labor exists in mining areas but not because of conflict iTSCi has shone a light on the issue in 3Ts mines With support from GE, Pact carried out an in-depth study to understand the dynamics and propose practical positive interventions A good example of a concerned company going beyond compliance to address a related social issue OECD Working Group formed
  86. 86. The role of Government The tagging is carried out by Government, data is recorded by Government, system is monitored with full involvement of Government iTSCi is integral to building governance systems for long term management of the mineral sector by its national authorities iTSCi reinforces the authority of the state agents in the mines, depots Brings transparency in tax revenue – new partner project with the World Bank will use iTSCi as a trial for implementation of the EITI for the ASM sector in Burundi
  87. 87. Opportunities in 3Ts markets Peace accord could enable expansion into new areas if funding available Building on projects that deliver legal compliance gives a great platform for other initiatives and donor funding o Investment in stabilization of the operating environment o Building government capacity o Transparency in tax revenues (e.g. EITI) High level of consumer awareness, willingness to engage o Capitalize on this with tangible projects, not more standards and policy initiatives o Use success stories and positive publicity that connects both ends of the supply chain Social programs by participating members
  88. 88. Social programs by members
  89. 89. Complementary links to other projects iTSCi is the due diligence and traceability system for the Conflict Free Tin initiative (funded by the Dutch Government) iTSCi is the traceability system for Solutions for Hope iTSCi is used as the basis for issuance of ICGLR certificates iTSCi baselines complement DRC mine validation activity iTSCi supported by PROMINES (World Bank, DFID & GDRC) for additional Government agents training and provision of equipment iTSCi membership process and audits apply OECD implementation and train companies while doing
  90. 90. iTSCi – the phased concept 2009 - 2010: Phase 1 Moving from verbal to written due diligence o Collection of existing documents, but limited information 2010+: Phase 2 Moving from documents to tagging & adding OECD due diligence o Adding huge new areas in very successful market intervention 2013+: Phase 3 Moving to social and environmental improvements o Child labour o Basic health and safety standards o Maximising economic benefits through saving and business advice o Capacity  building  for  NGO’s,  mining  ass’s  and  Government  services o Supporting and extending the mutli-stakeholder actions o EITI transparency of tax payments
  91. 91. Programme funding: majority upstream Full (upstream) members; o Small joining fee o Small annual fee o Supply chain levy on tonnage of mineral o Locally provided start-up funds Associate (upstream) members; o Small annual fee to support Programme Occasional other funding; o EICC for 2010 pilot o ITRI o DBSA (South Africa) o MFA (Netherlands) Apple
  92. 92. In  conclusion…. Complex regulation and principles to be followed Joint industry Programme supports OECD standards Information provided enables responsible sourcing Bringing significant benefits to local communities, and Opportunities for business investment & further development Funding challenges are roadblock to expansion of base Programme Further funding is need for Phase 3 actions And  finally….  
  93. 93. Stay Engaged! 70,000 miners in 662 mines in the GLR are today working securely. They do not face threat, force, or abuse and the tin, tantalum and tungsten they produce does not fund conflict. This is possible due to international companies sourcing conflict free minerals through iTSCi and CFSI.
  94. 94. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up-to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  95. 95. www.PollEv.com/cfsipanel or TEXT 100020 and your question to +32 460 200 056 The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 102
  96. 96. Republic of Rwanda Due Diligence on Conflict Minerals Certification & Traceability Venant Nsanzimfura Coordinator of Certification Unit CFSI Workshop, Brussels, 17-18 March 2014
  97. 97. The Rwandan Mining Sector Rwanda – along with its neighbors - forms part of the central-African Kibaran belt richly mineralized in tin, tungsten, and tantalum ores (3Ts) Mining in Rwanda has continuously taking place since the 1930s Rwanda has also intermittently operated a tin smelter There are more than 200 mining companies and cooperatives currently active in Rwanda Mineral exports are important for national development Rwanda falls under the Dodd-Frank Act countries with due diligence requirements for 3T sourcing
  98. 98. The Rwandan Mining Sector 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 annualexports[t] wolframite coltan cassiterite
  99. 99. The Regional Certification Mechanism The RCM forms part of the ICGLR Regional Initiative on Natural Resources, approved by all heads of state in the Lusaka Declaration in 12/2010 The RCM aims for OECD Due Diligence compliance The RCM includes shared implementation responsibilities by national authorities and independent regional bodies National authorities: Mine Inspections, Mineral Traceability, Export Certification MINIRENA regulation no 02/2012 of 28/03/2012 Regional bodies: ICGLR Audit Committee, Independent Mineral Chain Auditor, ICGLR Secretariat, ICGLR Steering Committee
  100. 100. Mine Inspections Export controls Issue ICGLR certificate No certificate – no export Implementation by national authorities – control through independent audits Regional Certification Mechanism - Principle 107 Traceability
  101. 101. RCM Mine Inspections Preparation An ICGLR-compliant inspection template was developed in 2012 Pilot inspections and training took place in 2012 A dedicated GMD inspection unit was created Implementation Objective: Progressively roll out annual inspections of all mines in Rwanda Inspections have been implemented since 2013 by 6 inspectors 50 mine sites have been inspected and were found compliant with ICGLR standards (green or yellow-flagged)
  102. 102. Mineral Traceability Mineral traceability through iTSCi started in 2011 and has been progressively rolled out to all Rwandan mine sites since then 100% of Rwandan mineral exports are tagged The scheme currently is in transition from manual recording of traceability information in logbooks to automatic recording of traceability information through PDAs The iTSCi scheme has been independently assessed against ICGLR Chain of Custody standard compliance GMD plans to bring scheme into compliance very soon
  103. 103. Mineral Traceability Currently, more than 500 tagging sites are differentiated and overseen by 95 government agents (hiring 40 more)
  104. 104. Exports and ICGLR Certificates Certification Unit created in 2013 through MOU between RNRA and RBS; now fully operational Procedures developed in line with ICGLR standards Certificates were designed and printed, including full set of adequate security features ICGLR certificates are issued for single export containers certifying that due diligence has been performed for this container More than a certificate of origin 9 certificates issued since November 5, 2013
  105. 105. Exports and ICGLR Certificates Certification Procedure Performed by dedicated full-time staff upon application by exporter – due diligence assurance for mineral buyers! Verification of… full traceability documentation for the shipment tax conformance mine site status (not for red mines!) Subject to independent audit through ICGLR (to be established) Smelters should document reception of certificate
  106. 106. Challenges Companies which process wolframite (tungsten ore) have begun refusing to buy the minerals from Central Africa (including the DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi). Despite the fact that, since 2011, Rwanda and DRC are implementing the OECD due diligence recommendations in regards with conflict minerals and has implemented a minerals traceability mechanism ‘iTSCi’ in collaboration with ITRI, and the implementation of RCM, the major European and US companies which usually sourced tungsten from Rwanda have stopped buying from the country since three years.
  107. 107. Consequence: Reduction of motivation of upstream companies, despite the certification and traceability successes, local communities and business across the region, are being disrupted by the disengagement of tungsten smelters. it may undermine the work being done to promote due diligence. Fall in price because of fewer demand in the region. Weakening investment initiatives in wolfram mining.
  108. 108. Questions What do smelters need to know about the ICGLR certificate? Does the certificate give them what they need? What are their priorities? What are the challenges / gaps? Are there any differences for tin, tungsten, and tantalum smelters? How do we best communicate with smelters? (CFSP) How do we improve practical on-the-ground integration among due diligence schemes?
  109. 109. MURAKOZE - THANK YOU! Venant Nsanzimfura Coordinator of ICGLR Certification Unit Rwanda nsanzivenant@gmail.com
  110. 110. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up-to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  111. 111. Mineral Traceability in Burundi - Brussels March 2014 By Paul NDARIHONYOYE Ministry of Energy and Mines
  113. 113. I. GENERAL SITUATION CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 Entity: Republic of Burundi Area: 27,834 Km2 Population: 8.5 millions Capital City: Bujumbura • Agriculture is mainly the base of Burundian economy. • The country also produces gold, wolframite, coltan & cassiterite • Exploration for nickel, phosphates, REE, vanadium
  114. 114. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 • Burundi is an eastern neighbor to DRC • Burundi produces “conflict  minerals” • Burundi falls under the Dodd-Frank Act due diligence reporting BGR 2011
  115. 115. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 0 50 100 150 200 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Burundi Major Export Values [Mio USD] Tea (Comtrade) Coffee (Comtrade) Total 3T Gold II. MINERAL EXPORTS BURUNDI • Burundi is a developing country with negative trade balance • National exports are very important for development • Major exports: Coffee & Gold • 3T minerals also contributed increasingly
  116. 116. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Burundi Mineral Export Tonnages [t] Cassiterite Wolframite Coltan II. MINERAL EXPORTS BURUNDI (Cont.) • Wolframite most important for tonnage • Coltan most important for export value • Mineral exports plunged in 2013: quasi-embargo • Creates risk for smuggling of Burundian minerals into neighboring countries Civil war Production recovers
  117. 117. Artisanal mining is important for jobs and sustaining livelihoods Government of Burundi undertakes efforts to develop artisanal mineral sector & support due diligence: Formalization - formation of cooperatives (already registered: 21 for gold, 16 for 3Ts) Implementation process of EITI Cadastre system in development Commitment to ICGLR Regional Certification Mechanism: performed 5 mine inspections in 2013 Challenge: (lack of) mineral traceability CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 III. ARTISANAL MINING
  118. 118. Government engaged in discussions with 3T traceability providers since 2011 (on-going) MOU for Traceability signed and could begin in April 2014 Private sector committed to contribute OECD: it is a private sector responsibility to establish traceability as part of due diligence efforts Challenges: For some traceability providers, unclear if they will be accepted by CFSP For other traceability providers, costs are too high to be borne by private sector alone External 3rd party funding is not a sustainable solution Even with traceability in place, no guarantee for offtake from smelters/downstream (disengagement is cheaper)! CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 IV. MINERAL TRACEABILITY IN BURUNDI
  119. 119. Example: Rwanda – similar, but bigger 3T sector than Burundi Private sector finances traceability in Rwanda Same traceability system approach Comparison of quoted price for 3T traceability in Burundi and known costs from Rwanda: For wolframite, traceability costs per unit (ton) would be 10 times higher in Burundi Not sustainable for private sector CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 IV. MINERAL TRACEABILITY IN BURUNDI (Cont.)
  120. 120. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 10,000 10,500 11,000 11,500 12,000 12,500 13,000 13,500 Burundi Rwanda US$pertonofwolframite State Agency Due Diligence Service Provider IV. MINERAL TRACEABILITY IN BURUNDI (Cont.) Traceability fees
  121. 121. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 102.6 9.6 4.4 1.2 Burundi Mineral Export Value 2012 [Mio USD] Gold Coltan Wolframite Cassiterite IV. MINERAL TRACEABILITY IN BURUNDI (Cont.) • Gold generates more value than 3Ts in Burundi • Why are due diligence schemes not developed to include gold? • Create demand through responsible engagement
  122. 122. Conclusions Mineral traceability in its current design marginalizes small 3T producing countries Despite Government & private sector commitment This creates regional smuggling incentives (mineral price differences) & regional credibility risks Ideas for way forward: Regional consultations for private-sector funded traceability/ due diligence with harmonized costs per unit (ton) Improved coordination among upstream schemes to further reduce costs (or/and support from downstream) Engage responsibly in sourcing gold from central Africa and aim for combined 3TG due diligence /funding solutions CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014
  123. 123. CFSI_Brussels. Burundi Presentation, March 2014 NDARIHONYOYE Paul Geologist Advisor in charge of Mining Sector Cabinet of the Ministry of Energy and Mines. Contact: Phone: (+257) 79 344 491 (+257) 77 741 751 E-mail: pndari2008@gmail.com
  124. 124. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up-to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  125. 125. IntegratedDueDiligenceSolutionfor ConflictFreeMineralSupplyChains The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  126. 126. IntroducingtheBetterSourcingProgram In-region assurance scheme that is focused on delivering conflict free and human rights assured minerals to market Currently undergoing pilot in Republic of Congo Better Sourcing Program designed with an understanding of the needs across the entire mineral supply chain and to involve the entire supply chain • Good practice and transparency along the entire supply chain can help stimulate investment in the upstream, improve conditions for workers and communities, and can assist risk management for mining and processing companies • Ensure the compliance of upstream partners such as smelters and traders to international standards • Downstream, create a bridge from mine site to brands to demonstrate compliance with DF1502 • Provide an opportunity for brands to engage and invest directly in the progressive improvement of the lives of artisanal miners and communities • For investors: provide clarity in activities in the upstream and their investments, and provide consistent, relevant data about the social performance elements of their investments The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  127. 127. HowdoestheBetterSourcingProgramwork? Objective Deliver conflict free and human rights assured minerals to market in a manner that is robust, independent and business sustainable An enterprise approach that supports the professionalisation of local activities, and the progressive improvement of both the lives and working conditions of miners, and transparency of activities from upstream to downstream Ensure we remain invested in the region and guide end users towards an improvement of the circumstances of their mineral supply chain without discrimination on origin The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  128. 128. ConflictFreeStatusandProgressCriteria At the core of the program is effective implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance (5 steps) and meeting the requirements of the Conflict Free Smelter Program Achieved through enterprise adherence to the Better Sourcing status criteria and progressive improvement The Better Sourcing Standard Status criteria = minimum standard for export • Conflict Free • Free of human rights violations Status criteria are demonstrated through a) traceability; b) strong business management and risk assessments; c) transparency d) third party audit and on-going monitoring and advisory Progress criteria = everything else and gradual improvement • Working conditions • Health and safety • Environment • Social issues Progress criteria are demonstrated and reviewed through annual audits The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  129. 129. Fundamentals Robust and Credible • OECD DDG based standard out for public consultation in the coming weeks • Audit protocol will be released soon thereafter • Incorporating IT for efficiency: traceability data all the way up to the mine site is available prior to export The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014 Independent and transparent • UK registered company not affiliated with any particular industry • Partnerships with qualified service providers in traceability technology, advisory and monitoring • Strict transparency upstream aiming to support communication down the chain Market driven and business sustainable • Affordable entry point for small operations • Affordable ongoing fees (% of export) • Adjustment to the specific circumstances of • each individual supply chain Proactive improvement • On-going monitoring and advisory • Annual review of the program • Public and ongoing consultation at both local and international level
  130. 130. HowisComplianceDemonstrated? A focus on exporters and monitoring of identified mine sites • Collaboration needs to be established all the way up to the mining cooperative or company • Exporters must demonstrate that, along their supply chain, they have: • Informed and supported the baseline assessment by BSP, in full transparency • Implemented due diligence / supply chain validation systems as recommended through the baseline assessment (BSP) • Organisation-level management systems (policies, procedures, reporting, accountability) • Traceability and transparency systems across the supply chain – in particular set up a recognised traceability system from mine site to export • Local monitoring, consultation and oversight (including incident reporting) by the BSP Local Monitor (local credible NGO) • Conducted a risk assessment and risk mitigation planning • Have passed an independent 3rd Party Audit The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  131. 131. BetterSourcingSupplyChain&Partners Upstream business partnerships – an enterprise approach • Working in collaboration with upstream operators to help them adjust to international requirements • Supporting the implementation of a reliable traceability system • Building capacity and providing support to local implementation partners and stakeholders • Transforming behaviours – be proactive, rather than reactive to supply chain issues • Engagement at local level – inclusive consultation with local stakeholders Mid to downstream business partnerships • We expect transparency and full disclosure at export level to raise confidence downstream • On-going engagement with international buyers, smelters and manufacturers to promote Better Sourcing-validated supply chains The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  132. 132. 2014Focus:BuildingConfidencewithourPartners Demonstrating credibility and ability to implement Raising confidence downstream – bridging the communication gap Disclosure of facts and events / incident reporting in full transparency ahead of export Build Credibility • Robust standards undergo public consultation • 3rd party auditor is crucial - will NOT be any service provider to the BSP • Audit standard based on international best practice – will provide clarity to the audit process The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  133. 133. March2014ProgramUpdate Pilot in Congo Brazzaville (tantalum for Tantalex Ressources – Canadian listed company) • Baseline assessment conducted • Due diligence systems set up and risk evaluation prior to export • Results will be communicated to the receiving smelter and exports will be initiated subject to consultation with all relevant stakeholders including CFSI • Support to the implementation of the ICGLR RCM • Third party audit targeted for Summer 2014 Supporting the CFSI • Approval in principal from CFSI • BSP will liaise with the CFSI to ensure its approach remains faithful to CFSP audit objectives Looking forward • Second and third trading chains this year • Standard and Audit Protocol public consultation • Developed upstream enterprise management systems - closed consultation/independent review Looking for partners who share our vision from upstream to downstream • Establishing long term partnerships in region, with operators and local communities • Smelters can enquire about our approach and upstream supply chains we have identified, to ensure they fit with their compliance and commercial objectives • End-Users can support implementation directly through funding of support projects (improvement of working conditions, provision of technical equipment), or indirectly by promoting a Better approach to their suppliers The Better Sourcing Program – March 2014
  134. 134. Email: contact@bsp-assurance.com Website: www.bsp-assurance.com Twitter: @BetterSourcing The Better Sourcing Program – February 2014
  135. 135. European Union regulations, in-region traceability initiatives — a lot is going on in the conflict minerals space. Make sure you have the most up-to-date information about best practices on conflict minerals due diligence by attending our 13th Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative Workshop. Event Sponsors Event Exhibitors
  136. 136. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect Jean-Paul Meutcheho GAM Bas van Abel Fairphone Boukje Theeuwes Philips
  137. 137. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 144
  138. 138. The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect What’s  your  biggest  question,  concern,  or  hesitation   about sourcing from a conflict-affected or high-risk area?
  139. 139. • Why are consumer brands and other downstream and companies engaged in conflict-free minerals projects in the Great Lakes Region? • What are the challenges and opportunities for upstream and downstream companies to engage with each other, with civil society, and government? • How is this engagement making a difference on the ground? The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 146
  140. 140. Direct  Sourcing  or  “Closed  Pipe”  Projects: • Conflict Free Tin Initiative • Solutions for Hope • Conflict Free and Socially Sustainable Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade The Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative www.conflictfreesourcinginitiative.org | @EICCoalition | @GeSIConnect 147
  141. 141. NEGOTIANT NEGOTIANT COMPTOIR NEGOTIANT COMPTOIR INTL.TRADERS SMELTERS MAUNFACTURERS OEM Creuseur Creuseur Creuseur Creuseur Creuseur preneurs preneurs preneurs
  142. 142. MMR** AVX/SMELTER AVX Motorola SolutionsMINE* Mining conducted under concession from MMR Customer has traceable, transparent supply chain AVX take ownership of material directly from MMR The “closed  pipe”  Solutions  For  Hope  pilot provides a secure chain of custody that meets OECD Guidance and encourages responsible sourcing from the GLR * The diggers sell through their cooperative CDMC ** Mining Mineral Resources Solutions  for  Hope:  ‘Closed  Pipe’  Supply  Chain
  143. 143. Solutions for Hope: Tantalum Project Results • Over 147 metric tonnes mined (since 2011) • Pilot demonstrated credible, sustainable program • Expanding to other mines • Inspired CFTI, Kemet • Expanding to other areas, minerals
  144. 144. • CFTI is a public-private initiative to source conflict free tin • Participants: Dutch Ministry, Industry, NGOs • Goal: initiating a tightly controlled, verifiable conflict-free tin supply chain from mine to end-users • Timeline: Oct 2012: first mineral bags left the mine site Dec 2012: minerals exported to Malaysia Smelting Corporation Mid 2013: first refined tin sent to solder manufacturers
  145. 145. A multi-sector and multi-stakeholder initiative to support supply chain solutions to conflict minerals challenges in the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa. 153
  146. 146. Provides funding and coordination support to organizations working in the region to • develop verifiable conflict-free supply chains; • align chain-of-custody programs and practices; • encourage responsible sourcing from the region; • promote transparency; • bolster capacity of in-region civil society and governmental representatives 154
  147. 147. NGOs  (“Other  Orgs”)  (14) • Africa Faith and Justice Network • B.E.S.T. • CENADEP • DDI • Enough Project • Global Witness • IOM • IPIS • Jewish World Watch • Pact • Partnership Africa Canada • RESOLVE • Responsible Sourcing Ntwk • World Vision (unofficial) Governments (3) • US Dept. of State • USAID • ICGLR Supply Chain Actors (26) • Acer • Advanced Micro Devices • Apple • AT&T • Blackberry • Boeing • Dell, Inc. • Ford Motor Company • General Electric • Global Advanced Metals • H.C. Starck • HP • Intel • Microsoft • Motorola Solutions • Nokia • NVIDIA • PAMP • Panasonic • Qualcomm • Sony Corporation • Sprint • Telefonica • Toshiba • Toyota • Verizon 155 Industry Associations (4 representing >100 members) Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition Global e-Sustainability Initiative International Tin Supply Chain Initiative World Gold Council