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SENIORS -Safety-ENhancing Innovations for Older Road userS

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EGVIA - ERTRAC 1st European Conference Results from Road Transport Research in H2020 projects
29 November 2017 to 30 November 2017
Brussels

Published in: Automotive
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SENIORS -Safety-ENhancing Innovations for Older Road userS

  1. 1. First results Marcus Wisch, BASt On Behalf of the Consortium 1st Results Road Transport Research, Brussels, 29 November 2017
  2. 2. What stands SENIORS for and who are we? Safety ENhanced Innovations For Older Road UserS Key facts: Main Goal: Consortium: • To improve the safe mobility of the elderly (and persons with overweight) as car occupants and external road users (pedestrians, cyclists). • EC Horizon 2020, MG-3.4-2014, contract no. 636136 • Run time: June 2015 – May 2018 (36 months) • Budget: 2.9M€ (100% funding) • 8 European partners: Autoliv (SWE), BASt (DE), Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (IT), Ford (DE), Humanetics (DE), IDIADA (ES), LMU Munich (DE), Transport Research Laboratory (UK) Marcus Wisch 2/23
  3. 3. Focus Source: YouTube “Smart Car for Two Fat Dudes“ • Protection of the elderly (and overweight persons) as car occupants and external road users (pedestrians, cyclists / e-bike riders) • Study and evaluation of the reduction of injury frequency and types that can be achieved through innovative and appropriate testing tools and passive vehicle safety systems. Source: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety Marcus Wisch Source: GIDAS 3/23
  4. 4. Approach Safety of older road users • Benefit of new tools, tests and assessment procedures • Advantages of current and new safety systems Integrated benefit analysis Biomechanical testing Dummies / impactors Numerical models Injury criteria Injury risk curves Test procedures Assessment procedures ‡ Head-neck and pedestrian thorax will be early-stage research Quantification of needs • Literature (injury, behaviour, …) • Traffic Accident studies Prioritise • Future project activities IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS / PRIORITIES FOR OLDER ROAD USERS IMPROVED TOOLS CAR OCCUPANT • Better older thorax IRC • Addressing overweight • Active Human Body Model PEDESTRIAN/CYCLIST • Flex-PLI with UBM • Head-neck‡ • Pedestrian thorax‡ BENEFIT AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTS Marcus Wisch 4/23
  5. 5. Improve the protection of elderly road users (key transport modes) • Crash and hospital data analysis regarding older road users of several European databases • Derivation of specific measures incl. adaption of test and assessment procedures by: – Injury Risk Curves, – Modified or new test tools, – Adopted assessment procedures, etc. Objective 1) Marcus Wisch EU-28, CARE analysis 5/23 Hypothesis: Elderly in general and in particular male cyclists and female pedestrians are mostly affected.
  6. 6. Exemplary results for mid-aged and older road users Top level findings from Crash and Hospital data Marcus Wisch • Similar conclusions from different databases • Elderly suffer more often from higher injury severities compared with younger road users • Most important body regions: • Car Occupants: thorax • Pedestrians / Cyclists: head, thorax and lower extremities Pedestrians (n=360) Car Occupants (n=33,638) Note: Each column adds up to 100% by adding % for AIS 0 and AIS 96/23
  7. 7. Development of a generic crash sled test set-up and CAE model Generic Test Rig – Occupant Safety Marcus Wisch • Objective: To provide greater understanding of thoracic injury risk at AIS 2+ (moderate) and low risk (e.g. 5%) at AIS 3+ injury • Method: Perform paired sled simulations with HBMs and ATDs covering a wider range of loading conditions than is currently available in literature (e.g., belt and airbag usage, low-speeds) • Why generic: repeatable, reproducible, open source 7/23
  8. 8. Tests with Volunteers, Dummies and Post-Mortem-Human-Subjects Generic Test Rig – Occupant Safety Marcus Wisch à Required for enhancement of Crash Test Dummies and Digital Human Body Models 8/23 Volunteer PMHS Dummy
  9. 9. Development of a generic sled test set-up and CAE model Generic Test Rig – Occupant Safety Marcus Wisch • Application: - Hardware test fixture to be used for dummy, PMHS and volunteer tests - CAE sled model for Human Body Model (HBM) and dummy simulations 9/23
  10. 10. Understand the influence of age in pre-/crash occupant dynamics Objective 2) Source: University of Florence Source: AutolivMarcus Wisch • Two series of volunteer tests to understand differences in braking maneuvers (also link to active safety) à Focus on kinematics and muscle activities • Advancement of an Active Human Body Model 10/23
  11. 11. Identify the specific anthropometric and injury mechanism of elderly, including overweight/obese people, compared to younger people. Objective 3) Marcus Wisch Analysis of the correlation between chest geometry, age and weight/BMI: • Studies available from US; rarely data available related to pedestrians and cyclists • Findings, e.g.: 11/23 - The width of the lower rib cage is much larger than the upper portion in a person with a high BMI while no significant difference was found for normal BMI. θyounger < θolder Source: Modified from Kent et al. (2005) - Obesity seems to be the strongest predictor for rib angulation. So older and more heavyweight individuals tend to have more horizontally orientated ribs.
  12. 12. Identify the specific anthropometric and injury mechanism of elderly, including overweight/obese people, compared to younger people. Objective 3) • Identification of relevant age-related material properties from literature • Implementation in three human body models: THUMS V4, THUMS TUC, GHBMC Source: BASt Marcus Wisch 12/23
  13. 13. Identify the specific anthropometric and injury mechanism of elderly, including overweight/obese people, compared to younger people. Objective 3) Original 75yo35yo Marcus Wisch • SENIORS morphed rib cage models (THUMS TUC) • Choose best fitting geometry, representing an “adult” (35yo) and “elderly” (75+) occupant in most parameters (based on 995 CT scans) 13/23
  14. 14. Identify the specific anthropometric and injury mechanism of elderly, including overweight/obese people, compared to younger people. Objective 3) Marcus Wisch How to address the age-effect for age-related injury criteria? 1) Material properties (Cortical bone elasticity, costal cartilage thickness, ultimate failure strain, …) 2) Rib cage geometry (incl. rib angle diversity) 3) Adjust strain limit in rib fracture prediction tools Table-Top Tests Hypothesis: Geometry influences belt routing. As elderly have higher chest depth, the strains decrease; however, the aged materials lead to frailty. à Combination of all factors in one model was not feasible yet. 14/23
  15. 15. Develop and optimise test tools, procedures and assessment methods – Car Occupants Objective 4) Marcus Wisch • Tests with current and future crash test dummies: • HIII, • THOR, • Elderly, overweight dummy • Tests with current and future car occupant restraint system configurations 15/23
  16. 16. Develop and optimise test tools, procedures and assessment methods – Pedestrians and Cyclists Objective 4) Head Neck Impactor (HNI) Legform Impactor with Upper Body Mass (FlexPLI-UBM) Thorax Injury Prediction Tool (TIPT) Marcus Wisch à Latest results show the FlexPLI-UBM and the TIPT having a high potential. 16/23
  17. 17. Transfer knowledge and results to interested experts, regulatory bodies, consumer entities etc. Objective 5) Marcus Wisch Targeted for 2022 in Euro NCAP Roadmap 2025 “… with the FlexPLI, injuries to the pedestrian’s knee ligaments (ACL/PCL and MCL) as well as injuries to the tibia can be assessed. […] Two independent research studies (FlexPLI with Upper Body Mass; EC Seniors Project, Horizon2020, 2017); (aPLI; Isshiki, 2016) have shown the feasibility of replacing the current upper and lower legform tests with a revised test, using a leg impactor that represents the human leg with an upper body mass.” Source: Euro NCAP 2025 Roadmap In Pursuit of Vision Zero • Presentation of preliminary results at technical meetings of the ISO TC 22 SC36 WG5 & WG6 und towards Euro NCAP 17/23
  18. 18. Marcus Wisch Lessons learned so far The project challenges • Attempt to link 13 crash and hospital datasets succeeded partly only • Experimental tests, but also volunteer and PMHS tests require substantial planning, conduction and analysis time • Finite element (FE) Human Body Model (HBM) simulations are powerful, but still require a lot of manual work and improvements • The prediction of injury is not only about reading out injury risk curves (IRC) • Survive in a world of Active Safety and Automated Driving 18/23
  19. 19. Marcus Wisch First conclusions and limitations Crash and hospital data: Risk was greater for the 65+ than for the 25-64 age group. Effects of trauma injuries need to be investigated further. old mid-aged The most reliable variable for the comparison on accident situation between countries stays the number of fatalities. Combination of crash and hospital datasets is possible, but requires a broad understanding of the different patient inclusion criteria and definitions. Hardly BMI recording in statistics. 19/23
  20. 20. Marcus Wisch What next? Testing, crash test dummies and impactors as well as human body models: • Tests with ATDs are still required. However, HBMs offer great potential for traffic safety increase. Simulations even offer a possibility to cover a wider range of injury causing collision scenarios. • Additional PMHS and volunteer tests are required to further enhance HBM developments and to update injury risk curves. ATDs will also benefit. à SENIORS is facilitating this by making a well-defined and well-documented test environment publically available (Generic Test Rig). • If restraint loads can be lowered, this should be done whenever feasible; leading to a benefit for everybody, but even to a higher benefit for older persons! • In future experimental testing will partly be replaced / added by simulations. 20/23
  21. 21. Expected Project Achievements Modified Test and Assessment Procedures and Cost-Benefit Analysis: Marcus Wisch à Benefit estimation will be challenging due to indirect measures à Adapted procedures will lead to more innovative passive vehicle safety systems à Improvements for the elderly will also impact positively younger road users 21/23
  22. 22. Last, but not least Take-away messages Marcus Wisch à Passive Vehicle Safety is indispensable and has still potential! à Knowledge about crashes and biomechanics needs further enhancement! à Future requests the hybrid testing approach: Experiments and Simulations 22/23
  23. 23. For further information: www.seniors-project.eu Partners This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 636136. Project Coordinator: Marcus Wisch wisch@bast.de à Look out for our publications (Deliverables, Papers, Presentations etc.)

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