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Doing Better for Families? The role of family policy in demographic change -  21 march 2011 Olivier Thévenon OECD, Social ...
Family Policies in OECD countries: A diversity of aims <ul><li>Poverty reduction and income maintenance of families </li><...
Key work, family and child outcomes Source: OECD (2011),  Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
But women work part-time more frequently (2008) Source: OECD Family Database
Gender gap in employment rates remain large Source: OECD Family Database
Maternal employment decreases with number of children Source: OECD Family Database
Fertility rates are higher where female employment rates are also higher 1980  2009 Source: OECD Family Database
Variable “Investments” in families Source: OECD Family Database
In-kind spending for families have almost doubled since 1990. Source: OECD (2011),  Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
Various profiles of spending over childhood Source: OECD (2011),  Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
Variable Parental Leave Policies 1. Numbers refer to the total of weeks of parental leave that women can take after matern...
Father-specific entitlements  are limited Source: OECD (2011),  Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
Childrens’ enrolment rates  in formal care Source: OECD Family Database
Proportion of children aged 6 to 11 years attending OSCH services , 2008 Source: OECD Family Database
Family Policy Patterns in OECD countries Source: Thévenon (2011), « Family Policies in OECD countries: A Comparative Analy...
Which policies to enhance child development? <ul><li>Is maternal employment conflictual with child well-being? : </li></ul...
Promoting female employment and gender equality <ul><li>Long (low paid) leave have negative impact on labour market outcom...
What drives fertility trends? <ul><li>Fertility trends are influenced by social norms, economic cost of children, migratio...
Conclusion: what works best? <ul><li>Investing in early childhood can be positive for child development, female employment...
Thank you for your attention! More information: <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.oecd.org/els/social/family <...
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Doing Better for Families? The role of family policy in demographic change

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Presentation by Olivier Thévenon on the occasion of the public hearing on The role of family policy in demographic change on 21.03.2011

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Doing Better for Families? The role of family policy in demographic change

  1. 1. Doing Better for Families? The role of family policy in demographic change - 21 march 2011 Olivier Thévenon OECD, Social Policy Division www.oecd.org/els/social/family/ European Economic and Social Committee
  2. 2. Family Policies in OECD countries: A diversity of aims <ul><li>Poverty reduction and income maintenance of families </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting early childhood development </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering parental (female) employment </li></ul><ul><li>Improving gender equity </li></ul><ul><li>Larger recognition of interdependence of inequality with poverty-alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling people to have children at the time they want (Raising birth rates?) </li></ul><ul><li>=> Policies aim at reducing potential conflicts between these issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key work, family and child outcomes Source: OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
  4. 4. But women work part-time more frequently (2008) Source: OECD Family Database
  5. 5. Gender gap in employment rates remain large Source: OECD Family Database
  6. 6. Maternal employment decreases with number of children Source: OECD Family Database
  7. 7. Fertility rates are higher where female employment rates are also higher 1980 2009 Source: OECD Family Database
  8. 8. Variable “Investments” in families Source: OECD Family Database
  9. 9. In-kind spending for families have almost doubled since 1990. Source: OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
  10. 10. Various profiles of spending over childhood Source: OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
  11. 11. Variable Parental Leave Policies 1. Numbers refer to the total of weeks of parental leave that women can take after maternity leave Source: OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
  12. 12. Father-specific entitlements are limited Source: OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris.
  13. 13. Childrens’ enrolment rates in formal care Source: OECD Family Database
  14. 14. Proportion of children aged 6 to 11 years attending OSCH services , 2008 Source: OECD Family Database
  15. 15. Family Policy Patterns in OECD countries Source: Thévenon (2011), « Family Policies in OECD countries: A Comparative Analysis », Population and Development Review , 37(1):57-87.
  16. 16. Which policies to enhance child development? <ul><li>Is maternal employment conflictual with child well-being? : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal employment within the 6 months after childbirth can have a negative impact, but the association is small and not universally observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relation is smaller for parents with low levels of educational attainment and is more likely to be counterbalanced by the positive association of maternal income and formal childcare participation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both formal childcare participation and parenting activities are often more significant than maternal employment in determining cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal childcare and pre-school participation generally is positively associated with cognitive development of children </li></ul><ul><li>Making workplace practices more conducive to breastfeeding (e.g. via part-time work, breastfeeding facilities or extending maternity leave) may have positive effects on child development. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Promoting female employment and gender equality <ul><li>Long (low paid) leave have negative impact on labour market outcomes of the most vulnerable (low skilled) women. </li></ul><ul><li>Combining different elements, possibly including greater opportunities for flexible use of leave, increased payment rates for shorter duration, and an increase in the non-transferable paternal entitlement to paid leave will increase chances of more equal leave sharing between mothers and fathers. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support for (public and private) childcare providers and parents is key to reduce barrier to employment participation for many parents with young children </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the provision of Out-of-School-Hours care services which are still in a developmental stage (not in Sweden, Hungary or France). </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate transition to full-time work after a period of part-time work would further reduce family poverty risks and promote labour supply and gender equity. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What drives fertility trends? <ul><li>Fertility trends are influenced by social norms, economic cost of children, migrations, economic development/fluctuations and policies. </li></ul><ul><li>At high GDP levels, further economic development is likely to stimulate a slight increase of fertility rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Steeper increases in fertility rates are observed in countries where the participation of women in the labour market have significantly risen and contributed to economic growth.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the impact of economic development per se might be small, unless accompanied by better opportunities for women to  combine work with family </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility rates respond positively to increase in income transfers to families, extension of paid leave and childcare services </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion: what works best? <ul><li>Investing in early childhood can be positive for child development, female employment, gender equity and fertility. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive interaction between these outcomes if parental employment is accompanied by reasonably short and well-paid leave individual entitlements, expansion of childcare facilities, tax design that guarantees economic return from work and more flexible workplace practices (=> think about policy tools all together!) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity of support over childhood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase spending in early childhood to reduce difference in investments for children attending pres-schools or compulsory education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that childcare services are available when leave benefits run out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support should not stop when children enter to school: OSH and flexible working time should be promoted. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention! More information: <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.oecd.org/els/social/family </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OECD (2011), Doing Better for Families , OECD, Paris, released the 28th of April. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OECD Family Database: www.oecd.org/els/social/family/database </li></ul></ul></ul>

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