National policies towards older workers: Germany in comparison with other countries Cornelia Spross Gernan Federal Ministr...
Overview <ul><li>Current labour market situation of older workers – a brief introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Policies toward...
<ul><li>Current labour market situation </li></ul><ul><li>Changed labour market situation of older workers </li></ul><ul><...
1. Current labour market situation  Employment rate 55-64 years, 1999-2009 Source: Eurostat
1. Current labour market situation  Source: Eurostat, unemployment rate aftter ILO-criteria  Unemployment rate 55-64 years...
1. Current labour market situation  Source: Eurostat Average exit age, 2001 and 2008
1. Current labour market situation  <ul><li>Most progress: Scandinavian countries, also liberal countries  </li></ul><ul><...
2. Policies towards older people in Germany <ul><li>Special characteristics:  </li></ul><ul><li>Ageing of society as long-...
<ul><li>Main pension reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Pension reform (1992): Increase of age limits (Altersgrenzen) </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Main labour market reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Job-Aqtiv Law (2002) and Hartz-Reforms (2003)  </li></ul><ul><li>Dec...
3. Reforms in other countries  <ul><li>Great Britain: </li></ul><ul><li>Stable labour market situation,  but:  problem of ...
3. Reforms in other countries  <ul><li>Denmark: </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional high employment; Flexicurity  </li></ul><ul>...
4. Summary  <ul><li>All countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Various reforms against the demographic background and under „Europea...
4. Fazit <ul><li>Differences among the countries maybe due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Labour market situation  </li></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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National policies towards older workers: Germany in comparison with other countries

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Presentation by Cornelia Spross of the German Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs on the occasion of the LMO meeting of 3 Feb 2011

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National policies towards older workers: Germany in comparison with other countries

  1. 1. National policies towards older workers: Germany in comparison with other countries Cornelia Spross Gernan Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs [email_address]
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Current labour market situation of older workers – a brief introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Policies towards older people in Germany: Labour market measures vs. pensions reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Same problems, different ways: reforms and measures in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Current labour market situation </li></ul><ul><li>Changed labour market situation of older workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase employment rates/ exit age and decrease unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changed labour market orientation towards older workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of policies for promoting/ prolonging employment and combating unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also: Importance of “European background” (Lisbon-Strategy; EU-2020) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process observable all welfare states with differences in timing and reform process (Hofäcker et al. 2006; Maltby et al. 2004) </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Current labour market situation Employment rate 55-64 years, 1999-2009 Source: Eurostat
  5. 5. 1. Current labour market situation Source: Eurostat, unemployment rate aftter ILO-criteria Unemployment rate 55-64 years, 1999-2009
  6. 6. 1. Current labour market situation Source: Eurostat Average exit age, 2001 and 2008
  7. 7. 1. Current labour market situation <ul><li>Most progress: Scandinavian countries, also liberal countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather low use of early retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower pressure for reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different picture in conservative countries as welfare states “without work” (Esping-Andersen 1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong peculiarity of early retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure for reforms, but difficulties due to deeply rooted (acquired) attitudes (Ebbinghaus 2006; Ferichs 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which differences in reform paths can be detected among GER, UK and DNK? </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Policies towards older people in Germany <ul><li>Special characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Ageing of society as long-term challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of employment situation for older people (esp. 55-59) over past 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>But: Unemployment problem / Risk of long-term unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Previously high use of early retirement measures </li></ul><ul><li>Start reform process by end 1980s, but with rearward movements in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Stricter reforms since beginning 2000 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Main pension reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Pension reform (1992): Increase of age limits (Altersgrenzen) </li></ul><ul><li>Rentennachhaltigkeitsgesetz (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Pension reform (2007): Stepwise increase of pension age from 65 to 67 (starting 2012) </li></ul><ul><li>Gesetz zur Förderung der betrieblichen Altersvorsorge (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus on a) securing the financial stability of the pension insurance and b) on improving the access to private insurances </li></ul>2. Policies towards older people in Germany
  10. 10. <ul><li>Main labour market reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Job-Aqtiv Law (2002) and Hartz-Reforms (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing the maximum duration for receiving unemployment benefits for older people (2004 / 2006) (changed again: 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Gesetz zur Verbesserung der Beschäftigungschancen älterer Menschen (2007): Improvement of employment opportunities for older workers </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative 50plus (2006): Focus in reintegration of older (long-term) unemployed and introduction of several instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Perspektive 50plus (2005): Regional promoted projects </li></ul><ul><li>Limited success in terms of activation and placement efforts in favour of older (unemployed) persons </li></ul>2. Policies towards older people in Germany
  11. 11. 3. Reforms in other countries <ul><li>Great Britain: </li></ul><ul><li>Stable labour market situation, but: problem of inactivity (high use of disability benefit) </li></ul><ul><li>Pension reforms : Increase pension age for women (60 to 65 years); Reform of state and private system (2007); Workplace pension reform (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Labour market reforms : New Deal 50+ (1997), Welfare reforms (1999, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Early labour market orientation towards older people, but late focus on pension </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Reforms in other countries <ul><li>Denmark: </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional high employment; Flexicurity </li></ul><ul><li>Pension reforms : Reductions/ abolishment early retirement instruments/ Efterlon (1996, 1999, 2002) and disability benefit (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of labour market reforms since 1993, but without particular focus on older persons </li></ul><ul><li>Early labour market orientation towards older people with focus on activation (training, qualification); also focus on pension issues; interesting: retirement age </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4. Summary <ul><li>All countries: </li></ul><ul><li>Various reforms against the demographic background and under „European influence“ </li></ul><ul><li>Various reforms to improve employment situation/ to reintegrate unemployed persons  trend towards higher employment levels </li></ul><ul><li>Tight connections between labour market and pensions policies, but different foci </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Fazit <ul><li>Differences among the countries maybe due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Labour market situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A relieved labour market situation abetted the policy reversal, since it increased the scope of the political actors and the relevance of reforms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy-institutional factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive reforms were more possible in modernised/ liberalised governments with consensual negation patterns. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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