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Promoting diversity at the workplace: a strategy for inclusion and competitiveness


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Presentation by Isabella Biletta (Research Manager, Working Conditions and Industrial Relations Unit at Eurofound) on the occasion of the EESC LMO conference on Tapping the full potential of diversity in the workplace: culture, age, gender and disability aspects (Berlin, 21 February 2014)

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Promoting diversity at the workplace: a strategy for inclusion and competitiveness

  1. 1. Promoting diversity at the workplace: a strategy for inclusion and competitiveness Isabella Biletta EESC-Labour Market Observatory Conference, 21 February 2014, Berlin “Tapping the full potential of diversity in the workplace: culture, age, gender and disability aspects” 1
  2. 2. Managing Diversity: Why? 2nd Generation Disabled ♂ Diverse population/ workforce Foreing Background Workers ♀ Labour shortages Skills 2
  3. 3. Company examples: How? Employees US Steel KoṦice Performance Better Life Motivation Responsabilities Economic Financial Housing Carrefour 3
  4. 4. Managing Diversity at the workplace What’s needed? Changing paradigma • • • • Willingness and clear determination A leading figure at the top but even more convinced people all around Clear targets, discussion and involvement of all Adapt and adjust .. No definitive answer….on going dynamic process All involved
  5. 5. Focus : Young people with health problems /disabilities • • Often with mental health problems (psychosocial problems) Aged 15-24 years (generally) • Two distinct groups:   • Factors associated with vulnerability to exclusion in young people      • School leavers with no previous employment history Young people who develop an illness/injury during their early career and become disabled More likely to be involved in temporary or part-time work Greater risk of low earnings Lower training opportunities Often not entitled to unemployment benefit Vulnerable to health and behavioural problems Health – ill-health increasingly a factor in social inclusion Anna Ludwineck Active inclusion of young people with disabilities or health problems
  6. 6. Companies’ practices Finland NL Denmark The Specialist Job Bank -Vulnerable groups (long-term unemployed, young people, immigrants, people with disabilities) -Companies in need for temporary, seasonal staff De Overstap – Transition young people with disabilities (18 to 30 mostly with mental health problems) The Specialist young people (16-24) with Autism Spectrum Disorder including Asperger's syndrome -first employed at Job Bank’s premises - move to client companies vocational training, support for the transition from school to work, job maintenance Personal support for those who are in open employment (hiring a job coach) private IT company employing almost exclusively people with ASD (recognising their attention to details, high learning ability, patterns spotting etc) 2009, 176 people found placement in 2010, 189 200 new clients per year out of 250 clients 100 are in open employment, each coach has about 20 pupils Direct employment - the company employs 50 consultants with autism. The Specialist Foundation – providing training for young people with ASD, youth 3 year education programme, facilitating job placement with other IT companies full-time employment training during times of low demand At least collectively agreed wage. Individual pathways to the open LM over 50% of clients stay in open employment for longer than 6 months providing education for young people but also highlighting the opportunities for other companies based on its own commercial success For companies risk-free and flexible workforce during peak times Programmes is answering to the Ministry of Employment and Ministry of Social Affairs Role of the job coach who provides various services both to the youngster but also to employer. Assistance does not stop at the moment of employment providing education for young people but also highlighting the opportunities for other companies based on its own commercial success
  7. 7. Some observations  An integrated approach is essential with measures flexible to meet different needs (personalised and tailored)  Skills development, training and job placement – often involving a job coach or mentor or supported employment  After training ensure rapid placement in a real job if momentum is to be maintained and skills are to remain relevant  Empowering the individual to take control of their career path – individuals should be able to make real choices in this area  Employers may need support with the recruitment, training and retention of some young people, e.g. those with disabilities  Good projects evolve over time
  8. 8. Focus : Gender Persistent segregation • Not much achieved  Many countries still lacking behind the Lisbon target: 60% of ♀ employed  Medium term: EU 2020: goal 75% employment rate for ♀ and ♂ Not achievable without major increase in ♀ employment  Currently: only 1 country (SE) /♀ + 13 countries /♂ • Gender segregation at all levels  Segregated Labour markets  Polarised Occupations  Mono gendered Workplaces ‘Same Sex ‘Jobs = 3/5th ♀ + ♂ in Employment 8
  9. 9. Top Gender segregation Proportion of women in supervisory positions, EC12, EU15 and EU27, 1991 - 2010 (%) 35% 30% 25% 20% EC12 EU15 EU27 15% 10% 5% 0% 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 9
  10. 10. According to GMI Ratings’ 2013 Women on Boards Survey ‘progress on most measures of female representation continues to be slow’: 11% of board seats at the world’s largest companies, up from 1.7 pp. since 2009’ Women on boards: progress to date But Europe leads the change. More than half of the newly appointed female directors in the GMI survey were added in Europe. Quotas work, though more is needed to make change happen. Some examples in ‘How to engage senior men to promote women to senior decision-making positions..’ (DG Justice: gender equality url)
  11. 11. Persistent Gender segregation • Affecting BOTH ♀ + ♂   Experienced most < 0 WC working in ♀ dominated job Less satisfactory working mainly with members of same sex EWCS 2010 Gender analysis (tbp 2013) • Complexity : Job quality /Gender   ♂ Higher monthly pay / irrespective of Gender mix ♀ doing better : ‘avoiding long unsocial hours’, physical conditions EWCS 2010 Trends in job quality in Europe (2012 Green and Mustafa) • Wording  ♀ work less than ♂♀ less committed to work than ♂ ∑ working hours • Gender gap narrowing/increasing?    Achieving equality  Closing Gender gaps Pb: What’s measured? When comparing ♀ / ♂ situations Closing the gap could be due to worsening of ♂ situations 11
  12. 12. Cultural path dependency • Gender socially constructed  Intersection of institutional/ economic/ cultural environment  Gender perspective depends on relationship between Employment and other activity spheres • Gendered processes ♀ ‘Adaptive choices’  Ex: ‘old men club’ process • Life course perspective  Generation effect  Change of behaviour across the life course 12
  13. 13. Category of PT workers/ country group % Source; ESWT 04-05 13
  14. 14. Focus : Gender • On the shop floor: organizing gender diversity via working time flexibility • Women often give up pay increases/promotions and even employment when longer hours are demanded without making them flexibile. Flexible schedules catering to workers’ need are the single most pressing demand from women (but also men) on the shop floor. Project in Modena’s Engeneering district (IT)
  15. 15. For companies • Challenges For Collective Bargaining  NO homogeneous categories of « diverse » population  Various impacts for the overall workforce • For Social Partners  Both EO and TU: attempts towards diversification  Especially TU, the end of ‘industrial TU’  Pb of representation and visibility • Crisis  Dead end ?  Opportunity? What kind? For workers The importance of all stakeholders involvement Not business vs workers 15 Not government vs companies
  16. 16. Average well-being, by contract and job security, by gender (Eurofound, Fifth European Working Conditions Survey)
  17. 17. Concentration of workers in the public sector by country and gender Source: Women, Men and Working conditions in Europe: Secondary analysis of 5th EWCS data, Eurofound 2012 (tbp)
  18. 18. Diversity …. …Bees ‘do it’ 18
  19. 19. Many thanks….. • Fifth European Working Conditions Survey – Overview report • EWCS 2005: Working conditions in the European Union: the gender perspective • Trends in job quality in Europe 19
  20. 20. On Diversity…. • European Network of Cities for Local Integration Policies for Migrants (CLIP): Equality and diversity in jobs and services: case studies Equality and diversity in jobs and services: City policies for migrants in Europe • Working conditions of nationals with a foreign background • Women, men and working conditions in Europe • Active inclusion of young people with disabilities or health problems 20
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  22. 22. Isabella Biletta Anna Ludwineck Thank you for your attention! 22