* Second Language AcquisitionPrepared By:Edward Valcárcel Melgarejo Docente de Educación en Idiomas Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa
* CHAPTER 1 KEY ISSUES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION OBJECTIVES 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the internal factors influencing the learning process. 2. Integrate knowledge of second language acquisition research and diverse cognitive style.
* What is Second Language Acquisition? SLA as a Uniforms Phenomenon SLA is not a uniform and predictablephenomenon. There is no single way inwhich learners acquire a knowledge of asecond language. SLA is the product ofmany factors pertaining to the learner on theone hand and the learning situation on theother.
* SECOND LANGAGE ACQUISITIONVS FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Second language acquisition stands incontrast to first language acquisition. It is thestudy of how learners learn an additionallanguage after they have acquired theirmother tongue. The study of language leanerlanguage began with the study of firstlanguage (L1) acquisition.
* What is the Study of Second Language Acquisition?It is the study of: how second languages are learned; how learners create a new language system with limited exposure to a second language; why most second language learners do not achieve the same degree of proficiency in a second language as they do in their native language; and why some learners appear to achieve native-like proficiency in more than one language.
THE CENTRALITY OF SYNTAX AND MORPHOLOGY COMPETENCE VERSUS PERFORMANCEA distinction is often made beween competenceand performance in the study of language.According to Chomsky competence consists ofthe mental representation of linguistic ruleswhich constitute the speaker-hearer’sinternalized grammar. Performance consists ofcomprehension and production of language.
* Competence Vs. Performance According to Chomsky (1965), competence consists of mental representations of linguistic rules that constitute the speaker-hearer’s internal grammar. This internal grammar is implicit rather than explicit. It is evident in the intuitions, which the speaker-hearer has about the grammaticality of sentences. Performance consists of the use of this grammar in the comprehension and production of the language.
*Language transfer*L1 helps L2*L1 makes difficult *THE ROLE OF THE FIRST LANGUAGE
* Contrastive analysis is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors. The ultimate goal of contrastive analysis is to predict areas that will be either easy or difficult for learners.
* AGE: Do adults learn a L2 in the same way as children.* APTITUDE* MOTIVATION: Intrinsec and Extrinsec.* PERSONALITY AND COGNITIVE STYLE: What kind of personality is most successful in learning a L2? What role does inhibition play in SLA? *INDIVIDUAL LEARNER DIFFERENCES
* The effect that instruction has on the route of learning and* The effect that it has on rate of learning.Order of grammar.Does formal instruction help learners to perform inall types of situations? Why?* Accelerating the whole process.* Learn more rapidly. *THE ROLE OF FORMAL INSTRUCTION
*THEMATIC NUCLEUS 2THE ROLE OF THE FIRST LANGUAGE
* The Role of the First Language Language Transfer Introduction Foreing accents in SLA. Transferring L1 features into the L2.
*Habits: Different stimuli produced differente responses from a learner.*What is a habit?*The stimulus elicits the response.*Imitation and reinforcement. *Behaviourist Learning Theory
*Errors: old habits get in the wayof learning new habits.*Interference was the result ofwhat was called proactiveinhibition. *Behaviourist Learning Theory
* Contrastive AnalysisHypothesis: The Psychological Aspect There are two positions that developed with regard to CA: (1) strong (2) weak. The strong version (predictive) maintained that all L2 errors can be predicted. The weak version (explanatory) maintained that a contrastive analysis can be used to identify which errors are the result of interference..
*Contrastive AnalysisHypothesis: The Linguistic Aspect Structuralist linguists: description of the different categories that make up the patterns of a language. Procedure:oDescription of the two languages.oSelection of items or areas for comparisonoComparison.oPrediction of areas which can cause errors.
*The ability of Contrastive Analysis topredict errors.*Contrastive Analysis doesn’t haveanything relevant to offer to languageteaching. *Criticisms of the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
*Four types of errors.1. Interference-like errors: reflect native language structure.2. First language developmental errors: are found in first language acquisition data.3. Ambigous errors: can not be categorized.4. Unique errors. *Empirical Research and the predictability of errors
*The attack on behaviourist accountsof language learning which was givenimpetus by chomsky`s (1959) reviewof Skinner`s Verbal Behaviour; *Theoretical Criticisms
*Is Contrastive Analysis useful for the teacher?*The final set of criticisms concerns whether Contrastive Analysis is of any practical worth to language teachers. *Practical Criticisms