More Than Bricks and Mortar:Determining How the Psychological Qualities ofHome Places Influence Resident Well-beingStephanie Wilkie, Q-Pei Tan, Joanne O’LynnDepartment of PsychologyUniversity of Sunderland U.K.
Research QuestionsHow does home influenceresident well-being? (Study 2)Limitation: Housing is not home.- A range of places are considered homeLimitation: Psychological qualities not explored.- Implied link after urban regenerationWhat are the key qualities ofhome places? (Study 1 and 2)Limitation: Overlap between terms and lack ofconsensus regarding key qualities.- Social/Personal /Physical framework- Between 6 – 15 characteristics- Absence of people-place conceptsLimitation: Absence of a general measure ofhome qualities.- Qualitative methods dominate- Existing measures too specialized
Housing- Physical structure- QualityInfluences on well-being- Lack of control- Incivilities- QualityDampNoiseDifferentiating Housing & Home (LO1)Home- Physical + Activity +MeaningInfluences beyondhousing quality- Urban regenerationAutonomyHavenStatus
N = 129 and N = 96Home Residence (52-58%)Items (41 to 22 to 14)PD-S: Feeling safe is one of theappeals of this place.PD-L: The layout of the place workswell for my needs.PA: I would like to live here the restof my life.PI: Many of my happiestmemorieshave occurred here.Organizing Qualities with Established Concepts(LO2)PlaceDependence(Social and Lifestyle)Behaviour: Centrality &commitmentPlaceAttachmentAffect: Emotional bondsPlace IdentityCognition: „Who I am‟TerritorialityOwnership & ControlHome
Relative Importance Varied2.83.894.735.181234567Place Attachment Place Identity Territoriality Place Dependence5.366.366.546.918.0912345678910Place Attachment Place Identity Lifestyle PlaceDependenceTerritoriality Social PlaceDependenceStudy 1 Study 2
Satisfaction with HomePlace DependenceLayout Style Belonging Safe Comfortable57%
What are the key qualities of home? (RQ1)Limitation 2: No general measure- Not an alternative measure of satisfaction.Limitation 1: Need for clarityReduction of categories and terminologicalvariation.- Four factors consistent with commonperson-place concepts and applicable toa range of home places.- Place dependence is the key construct forconsidering a place home.- Physical qualities associated with homeare focused on goal support.
Subjective(Diener)Life SatisfactionJudgment of overall quality of lifeHow does home influence resident well-being?(RQ2)PsychologicalSelf-determination Theory(Deci & Ryan)Basic Psychological Needs- Autonomy- Competence- RelatednessVitality- State measure- Feel alive and energetic
Life Satisfaction & Vitality35%Place Dependence24%Place Dependence
Potential Applications (LO3)Post-occupancyEvaluationValue-added Approach- Important to satisfaction- Provides an additionalmeasure to assess projectoutcomesDesign & UrbanRegenerationPhysical + Social- Compliments traditionalquality measures- Integrate „soft‟ benefits ofregeneration into the planningprocess- Tool for agencies (e.g. socialhousing)Clinical & CounselingHome not a happy place- Forced relocation- No home or negative- Encourage bonds withother locations
Integrating the Qualities of Home into Person-Place Theories (LO4)Sense ofPlacePlaceDependencePlaceIdentityPlaceAttachmentWhat comes first?•Attachment or Identity•Both sub-ordinate to anotherHome or Place?•Is home just a special type ofplace?
HOMEn.1. A place where one lives; a residence.2. The physical structure within which one lives, such as a house or apartment.3. A dwelling place together with the family or social unit that occupies it; a household.4. a. An environment offering security and happiness.b. A valued place regarded as a refuge or place of origin.5. The place, such as a country or town, where one was born or has lived for a longperiod.6. The place where something is discovered, founded, developed, or promoted; asource.7. A headquarters; a home base.“”