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Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control Vol. V No. II September 2005 pp 18-23
Measurement Of Particulates At A Transboundary Location, Kaikhali In
Sundarban
I.Mukherjeea
, A.P.Mitrab
, C Sharmab
, T.K.Mandalb
, P.K.Guptac
, Ajay Singhd
, N.Chakrabortya
a
Power Engineering Department , 2nd
Campus, Jadavpur University,
Kolkata-700098
b
Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Physical Laboratory,
New Delhi-110012
c
Analytical Chemistry Section, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012
d
Bose Institute, Darjeeling, West Bengal-734101
Abstract
In order to assess the transboundary (land ocean interface) pollution scenario, a joint campaign by Jadavpur University
and National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi) on particulate monitoring was carried out from 24th
January to 9th
February 2004 at Kaikhali (22o
34/
N and 88o
37/
E) in Sundarban. The basic objective of the campaign was to determine
the background concentration of the particulates existing at a remote place with reference to the different local activities
prevailing in the area. The average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, TSPM and NRPM monitored during the campaign
were found to be 102.02µg/m3
, 73.53µg/m3
, 120.44µg/m3
and 18.42µg/m3
respectively. These results show a high
contribution of the finer fractions to their corresponding coarser ones that is indeed a matter of concern as far as health
effects are concerned. In the paper an attempt has been made to trace out the probable sources of the particulates and the
reasons for such a high contribution of fine particulates.
Keywords: PM10, PM2.5, TSPM and NRPM
Introduction
The increasing trend of air pollution and their adverse health effects (Dockery et al, 1993) is a matter of great
concern these days. To understand the air quality of a particular place it is very important to determine the
concentration of the criteria air pollutants, a work that is being carried out by various research groups,
namely Seung et al (2001), Lee et al (2002), Park et al (2002), Kuttler et al (2002), Yimin et al (2003),
Vallius et al (2003), Chaloulakou et al (2003), Zimmermann et al (2003), Qin et al (2003), Cao et al (2003),
Samanta et al (1998), Mouli et al (2004), Krishna et al (1995, 1997), Satheesh et al (1997), Jayaraman et al
(2001), Devara et al (1995), Naja et al (2004), Nair et al (2002), and many others. These measurements are
mostly related to urban and developed areas. However, determination of the Air Quality of the areas rich in
unique biodiversity and cultural heritage such as Sundarban can be rather more important for consideration
of their conservation. With this primary objective in mind a joint campaign on measurements of particulates
was carried out by Jadavpur University and National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi) at Kaikhali in
Sundarban in the winter months of January and February 2004. The winter period was selected to determine
the maximum limit of the particulates with the exception of certain other elevated values that may occur at
some other time of the year due to sudden surges. The other objective of the campaign was also to assess the
transboundary (land ocean interface) pollution scenario.
Site Description
The sampling site at Kaikhali (22o
34/
N and 88o
37/
E) is in Sundarban, which is generally characterized by
humid maritime tropical climate with a marked seasonality shared between heavy southwest monsoon rains
(June to September) and a dry relatively cool winter (November to April). The summer temperature ranges in
the area between 42-370
C whereas the winter temperature ranges between 29-9.20
C. The site is at an aerial
distance of approximately 100km from the nearest metropolis Kolkata and thus it is far away from any
industrial activities and also from heavy automobile exhaustions and may be considered to fall under the
classification of a rural cum residential area. The sampling site is an open area offering free passage to wind
movement and lies at land and ocean interface (and hence the name transboundary), at the confluence of
river Nabipukur with Matla that meet the Bay of Bengal eventually along with the rivers Bidyadhari and
Raimangal. Being a coastal place land breeze and sea breeze play an important role.
Measurement Methodology
The particulates were monitored using air samplers according to their respective aerodynamic diameters. The
basic mechanism of particulate sampling was based on centrifugal action (cyclone separation). The coarser
fractions (PM10, NRPM, TSPM) and the finer fractions PM2.5 were monitored respectively using the
Respirable Dust Sampler (RDS, Model APM 460, Envirotech) and Fine Particulate/Dust Sampler (FDS,
Model APM 550, Envirotech). The specific airflow rates for particulate sampling using RDS and FDS were
maintained in accordance to that given for the machines in their manuals. PM10 fraction was retained in the
EPM 2000 GF/A Whatman filter papers, NRPM was retained in the tares, and finer fraction was retained in
the Teflon filter paper. TSPM was obtained as the summation of PM10 and NRPM fractions. Concentrations
were determined gravimetrically following standard procedures. All necessary precautionary measures
(preconditioning of the filter papers including oven drying, proper desiccation, etc) were adopted to avoid
any error in measurement and also any ambiguity that might arise in the subsequent data interpretation.
Results and Discussion
Monitoring of the particulates was carried out from 24th
January to 9th
February 2004. The ambient
temperature during the monitoring period varied between 10-200
C with average temperature at 150
C. The
average (arithmetic mean) particulate concentrations, standard deviation and range are shown in Table 1. In
order to determine the relative contribution of the particulates to one another with respect to their
aerodynamic diameters, particulate ratios were computed which are shown in Table 2. The ranges for the
concentration (in ppt) of the metals Pb Ca, Cr, As, Hg, Na, K, Fe, Cd and Mg retained on the air monitoring
filters were also determined through relevant metal analysis techniques. These are given in Table 3.
Table 1: Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation and Range for the Particulate Concentrations (all
concentrations are in g/m3
)
Pollutant Type Average/Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Range
RPM (PM10) 102.02 29.35 50.87-176.02
NRPM 18.42 17.87 1.37-76.92
TSPM 120.44 33.68 60.56-186.81
FRPM (PM2.5) 73.53 29.33 43.10-171.43
Table 2: Average Particulate Ratios
Particulate Type Average Particulate Ratio
PM2.5/PM10 ratio 0.73
PM2.5 / TSPM 0.63
PM10/TSPM 0.86
Table 3: Metal Concentration Ranges (Concentrations are in ppt)
Metals Range
Pb (1-25)
Ca (0-300)
Cr (0-2)
As (0-0.5)
Hg (0-0.5)
Na (0-42000)
K (50-650)
Fe (0-200)
Cd (0-0.5)
Mg (350-1200)
It is seen from the above Tables that the concentration of RPM (PM10) during the monitoring
schedule varied from 50.87 g/m3
to 176.02 g/m3
with average concentration of 102.02 g/m3
, the
concentration of the finer fractions (PM2.5) varied from 43.1 g/m3
to 171.43 g/m3
during the monitoring
period with average concentration of 73.53 g/m3
, and the TSPM concentration varied during the monitoring
schedule from 60.56 g/m3
to 186.81 g/m3
with average concentration of 120.44 g/m3
. Although the area
is far from any major source of pollution, the measured results still show that the particulate concentration is
heavy. PM2.5 values are particularly unhealthy indicating the influence of anthropogenic pollution. The
higher contribution of the finer fractions to their corresponding coarser ones is also shown by the ratio of the
average concentrations obtained for particulate fractions (plots in Figs. 1 – 3).
The probable major sources of particulates in the area are the uncontrolled biomass burning,
emissions from bhutbhutis (diesel driven) plying in and around the area, sea spray (ocean spray), dust up-
liftment from unpaved roads, mechanical agitation of the geological crustal particles i.e. blowing dust, use of
diesel, kerosene and petrol as fuel in generators and use of kerosene for household lighting purposes. The
other sources of particulates are the land and sea breeze that can account for the variations of aerosol loading
over the site and their transport to the Bay of Bengal, the observed extremely stable atmospheric conditions
restricting vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants, the favourable conditions for the presence of
subsidence inversion in the region, the long range transport of pollutants from the nearest metropolis,
Kolkata, and the surrounding continental locations across the oceanic regimes. The local sources and
particularly the sea spray (ocean driven aerosols responsible for the observed large concentration of Na metal)
easily account for the high concentrations of the coarser particulates, but the finer particulates seem to be
transported from long distances.
PM2.5 vs PM10
y =0.7679x - 4.8202
R =0.7686
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 50 100 150 200
PM10 Concentration(microgram/cubic meter)
PM2.5
Concentration(microgram/cubic
meter)
Figure 1: Plot of the finer particulate concentrations versus the coarse particulate concentrations.
PM10 vs TSPM
y = 0.739x +13.012
R = 0.8480
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 50 100 150 200
TSPM Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter)
PM10
Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter)
Figure 2: Plot of PM10 concentrations versus TSPM concentrations.
PM2.5 vs TSPM
y = 0.4985x +13.493
R = 0.5725
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 50 100 150 200
TSPM Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter)
PM2.5
Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter)
Figure 3: Plot of PM2.5 concentrations versus TSPM concentrations.
Conclusion
The campaign has revealed that the particulate concentration, in particular the finer fraction, is quite high in
the area. The presence of the higher finer fractions of particulates is more threatening compared to the
coarser ones because of their high residence time within the human body, as also their capability of getting
transported over long distances.
Sundarban is an area of rich biodiversity. Due to high air pollution in the area, it is losing its rich
heritage, and diverse climate conditions. It is very important to protect it from the severe consequences of
pollution prevailing in and around the area. Particulates both coarse and fine need to be reduced in amount.
Prevention of this pollution requires extensive monitoring at the concerned location only after which the
probable sources can be identified and remedial measures can be suggested i.e. the area needs proper source
apportionment studies.
Acknowledgement
We are thankful to the Extra Mural Research Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for
entrusting us the responsibility of carrying out this campaign. We would also like to thank WBREDA and
National Physical Laboratory (New Delhi) for their active support in carrying out this campaign. Lastly we
express our heartiest thanks to Jadavpur University, without whose active support it would not have been
possible to make this endeavour a success.
References
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contributions to air pollution in Dundee, U.K", Atmospheric Environment, Vol-37, Issue-13, (2003),
pages-1799-1809.
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"Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in Pearl Delta Region, China during 2001 winter period",
Atmospheric Environment, Vol-37, Issue-11, (2003), pages-1451-1460.
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P..Partha., Chanda,R.Chitta., Banerjee,Prabal., Lodh, Dilip.,Das, Dipankar., Chakraborti, Dipankar.,
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Sea”, Tellus, 49B, pages-417-428, 1997.
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ECRD.IN

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Ijapc Sundarban Underrevision

  • 1. Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control Vol. V No. II September 2005 pp 18-23 Measurement Of Particulates At A Transboundary Location, Kaikhali In Sundarban I.Mukherjeea , A.P.Mitrab , C Sharmab , T.K.Mandalb , P.K.Guptac , Ajay Singhd , N.Chakrabortya a Power Engineering Department , 2nd Campus, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700098 b Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 c Analytical Chemistry Section, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 d Bose Institute, Darjeeling, West Bengal-734101 Abstract In order to assess the transboundary (land ocean interface) pollution scenario, a joint campaign by Jadavpur University and National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi) on particulate monitoring was carried out from 24th January to 9th February 2004 at Kaikhali (22o 34/ N and 88o 37/ E) in Sundarban. The basic objective of the campaign was to determine the background concentration of the particulates existing at a remote place with reference to the different local activities prevailing in the area. The average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, TSPM and NRPM monitored during the campaign were found to be 102.02µg/m3 , 73.53µg/m3 , 120.44µg/m3 and 18.42µg/m3 respectively. These results show a high contribution of the finer fractions to their corresponding coarser ones that is indeed a matter of concern as far as health effects are concerned. In the paper an attempt has been made to trace out the probable sources of the particulates and the reasons for such a high contribution of fine particulates. Keywords: PM10, PM2.5, TSPM and NRPM Introduction The increasing trend of air pollution and their adverse health effects (Dockery et al, 1993) is a matter of great concern these days. To understand the air quality of a particular place it is very important to determine the concentration of the criteria air pollutants, a work that is being carried out by various research groups, namely Seung et al (2001), Lee et al (2002), Park et al (2002), Kuttler et al (2002), Yimin et al (2003), Vallius et al (2003), Chaloulakou et al (2003), Zimmermann et al (2003), Qin et al (2003), Cao et al (2003), Samanta et al (1998), Mouli et al (2004), Krishna et al (1995, 1997), Satheesh et al (1997), Jayaraman et al (2001), Devara et al (1995), Naja et al (2004), Nair et al (2002), and many others. These measurements are mostly related to urban and developed areas. However, determination of the Air Quality of the areas rich in unique biodiversity and cultural heritage such as Sundarban can be rather more important for consideration of their conservation. With this primary objective in mind a joint campaign on measurements of particulates was carried out by Jadavpur University and National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi) at Kaikhali in Sundarban in the winter months of January and February 2004. The winter period was selected to determine the maximum limit of the particulates with the exception of certain other elevated values that may occur at some other time of the year due to sudden surges. The other objective of the campaign was also to assess the transboundary (land ocean interface) pollution scenario. Site Description The sampling site at Kaikhali (22o 34/ N and 88o 37/ E) is in Sundarban, which is generally characterized by humid maritime tropical climate with a marked seasonality shared between heavy southwest monsoon rains (June to September) and a dry relatively cool winter (November to April). The summer temperature ranges in the area between 42-370 C whereas the winter temperature ranges between 29-9.20 C. The site is at an aerial distance of approximately 100km from the nearest metropolis Kolkata and thus it is far away from any industrial activities and also from heavy automobile exhaustions and may be considered to fall under the classification of a rural cum residential area. The sampling site is an open area offering free passage to wind movement and lies at land and ocean interface (and hence the name transboundary), at the confluence of river Nabipukur with Matla that meet the Bay of Bengal eventually along with the rivers Bidyadhari and Raimangal. Being a coastal place land breeze and sea breeze play an important role.
  • 2. Measurement Methodology The particulates were monitored using air samplers according to their respective aerodynamic diameters. The basic mechanism of particulate sampling was based on centrifugal action (cyclone separation). The coarser fractions (PM10, NRPM, TSPM) and the finer fractions PM2.5 were monitored respectively using the Respirable Dust Sampler (RDS, Model APM 460, Envirotech) and Fine Particulate/Dust Sampler (FDS, Model APM 550, Envirotech). The specific airflow rates for particulate sampling using RDS and FDS were maintained in accordance to that given for the machines in their manuals. PM10 fraction was retained in the EPM 2000 GF/A Whatman filter papers, NRPM was retained in the tares, and finer fraction was retained in the Teflon filter paper. TSPM was obtained as the summation of PM10 and NRPM fractions. Concentrations were determined gravimetrically following standard procedures. All necessary precautionary measures (preconditioning of the filter papers including oven drying, proper desiccation, etc) were adopted to avoid any error in measurement and also any ambiguity that might arise in the subsequent data interpretation. Results and Discussion Monitoring of the particulates was carried out from 24th January to 9th February 2004. The ambient temperature during the monitoring period varied between 10-200 C with average temperature at 150 C. The average (arithmetic mean) particulate concentrations, standard deviation and range are shown in Table 1. In order to determine the relative contribution of the particulates to one another with respect to their aerodynamic diameters, particulate ratios were computed which are shown in Table 2. The ranges for the concentration (in ppt) of the metals Pb Ca, Cr, As, Hg, Na, K, Fe, Cd and Mg retained on the air monitoring filters were also determined through relevant metal analysis techniques. These are given in Table 3. Table 1: Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation and Range for the Particulate Concentrations (all concentrations are in g/m3 ) Pollutant Type Average/Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Range RPM (PM10) 102.02 29.35 50.87-176.02 NRPM 18.42 17.87 1.37-76.92 TSPM 120.44 33.68 60.56-186.81 FRPM (PM2.5) 73.53 29.33 43.10-171.43 Table 2: Average Particulate Ratios Particulate Type Average Particulate Ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio 0.73 PM2.5 / TSPM 0.63 PM10/TSPM 0.86 Table 3: Metal Concentration Ranges (Concentrations are in ppt) Metals Range Pb (1-25) Ca (0-300) Cr (0-2) As (0-0.5) Hg (0-0.5) Na (0-42000) K (50-650) Fe (0-200) Cd (0-0.5) Mg (350-1200)
  • 3. It is seen from the above Tables that the concentration of RPM (PM10) during the monitoring schedule varied from 50.87 g/m3 to 176.02 g/m3 with average concentration of 102.02 g/m3 , the concentration of the finer fractions (PM2.5) varied from 43.1 g/m3 to 171.43 g/m3 during the monitoring period with average concentration of 73.53 g/m3 , and the TSPM concentration varied during the monitoring schedule from 60.56 g/m3 to 186.81 g/m3 with average concentration of 120.44 g/m3 . Although the area is far from any major source of pollution, the measured results still show that the particulate concentration is heavy. PM2.5 values are particularly unhealthy indicating the influence of anthropogenic pollution. The higher contribution of the finer fractions to their corresponding coarser ones is also shown by the ratio of the average concentrations obtained for particulate fractions (plots in Figs. 1 – 3). The probable major sources of particulates in the area are the uncontrolled biomass burning, emissions from bhutbhutis (diesel driven) plying in and around the area, sea spray (ocean spray), dust up- liftment from unpaved roads, mechanical agitation of the geological crustal particles i.e. blowing dust, use of diesel, kerosene and petrol as fuel in generators and use of kerosene for household lighting purposes. The other sources of particulates are the land and sea breeze that can account for the variations of aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Bay of Bengal, the observed extremely stable atmospheric conditions restricting vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants, the favourable conditions for the presence of subsidence inversion in the region, the long range transport of pollutants from the nearest metropolis, Kolkata, and the surrounding continental locations across the oceanic regimes. The local sources and particularly the sea spray (ocean driven aerosols responsible for the observed large concentration of Na metal) easily account for the high concentrations of the coarser particulates, but the finer particulates seem to be transported from long distances. PM2.5 vs PM10 y =0.7679x - 4.8202 R =0.7686 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 50 100 150 200 PM10 Concentration(microgram/cubic meter) PM2.5 Concentration(microgram/cubic meter) Figure 1: Plot of the finer particulate concentrations versus the coarse particulate concentrations.
  • 4. PM10 vs TSPM y = 0.739x +13.012 R = 0.8480 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 50 100 150 200 TSPM Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter) PM10 Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter) Figure 2: Plot of PM10 concentrations versus TSPM concentrations. PM2.5 vs TSPM y = 0.4985x +13.493 R = 0.5725 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 50 100 150 200 TSPM Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter) PM2.5 Concentration(microgram/cubicmeter) Figure 3: Plot of PM2.5 concentrations versus TSPM concentrations.
  • 5. Conclusion The campaign has revealed that the particulate concentration, in particular the finer fraction, is quite high in the area. The presence of the higher finer fractions of particulates is more threatening compared to the coarser ones because of their high residence time within the human body, as also their capability of getting transported over long distances. Sundarban is an area of rich biodiversity. Due to high air pollution in the area, it is losing its rich heritage, and diverse climate conditions. It is very important to protect it from the severe consequences of pollution prevailing in and around the area. Particulates both coarse and fine need to be reduced in amount. Prevention of this pollution requires extensive monitoring at the concerned location only after which the probable sources can be identified and remedial measures can be suggested i.e. the area needs proper source apportionment studies. Acknowledgement We are thankful to the Extra Mural Research Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for entrusting us the responsibility of carrying out this campaign. We would also like to thank WBREDA and National Physical Laboratory (New Delhi) for their active support in carrying out this campaign. Lastly we express our heartiest thanks to Jadavpur University, without whose active support it would not have been possible to make this endeavour a success. References 1 Dockery,D.W.,Pope,C.A.,Xu,X.,Spengler,J.D.,Ware,J.H.,Fay,M.E.,Rerris,B.G.,Speizer,F.E., “An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities” New England Journal of Medicine 329,(1993), pages 1753-1759. 2 Seung, S. Park., Young, J. Kim., Kochy, K. Fung., "Characteristics of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in the Sihwa Industrial Area, South Korea", Atmospheric Environment, Vol- 35, Issue-4, (2001), pages- 657-665. 3 Lee, S.B., Bae, G.N., Moon, K.C., Kim, Y. P., "Characteristics of TSP and PM2.5 measured at Tokchok Island in the Yellow Sea", Atmospheric Environment, Vol-36, Issue-35, (2002), pages- 5427- 5435. 4 Park, S.U., In, H.J., "Simulation of long-range transport of acidic pollutants in East Asia during the Yellow Sand event", Atmospheric Environment, Vol- 36, Issue-31, (2002), pages-4877-4893. 5 Kuttler, W., Lamp, T., Weber, K., "Summer air quality over an artificial lake", Atmospheric Environment, Vol- 36, Issues 39-40, (2002), pages- 5927-5936. 6 Yimin, Ma., Lyons, T.J., "Recirculation of coastal urban air pollution under a synoptic scale thermal trough in Perth, Western Australia", Atmospheric Environment Vol-37, Issue-4, (2003), pages- 443- 454. 7 Vallius, M., Lanki, T., Tiittanen, P., Koistinen, K., Ruuskanen, J., Pekkanen, J., "Source Apportionment of urban ambient PM2.5 in two successive measurement campaigns in Helsinki, Finland", Atmospheric Environment Vol-37, Issue-5, (2003), pages-615-623. 8 Chaloulakou, A., Kassomenos, P., Spyrellis, N., Demokritou, Philip., Koutrakis, P., "Measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentrations in Athens, Greece", Atmospheric Environment, Vol- 37, Issue - 5, (2003), pages- 649-660. 9 Zimmermann, F., Lux, H., Maenhaut, W., Matschullat, J., Plessow, K., Reuter, F., Wienhaus, O., "A Review of Air pollution and atmospheric deposition dynamics in Southern Saxony, Germany, Central Europe", Atmospheric Environment, Vol- 37, Issue-5, (2003), pages- 671-691. 10 Qin, Y., Oduyemi, K., "Atmospheric aerosol source identification and estimates of source contributions to air pollution in Dundee, U.K", Atmospheric Environment, Vol-37, Issue-13, (2003), pages-1799-1809. 11 Cao, J.J., Lee, S.C., Ho, K.F., Zhang, X.Y., Zou, S.C., Fung, K., Chaw, J.C., Watson, J.G., "Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in Pearl Delta Region, China during 2001 winter period", Atmospheric Environment, Vol-37, Issue-11, (2003), pages-1451-1460. 12 Samanta, Gautam., Chattopadhyay, Gautam., Mandal, K. Badal., Chowdhury, Roy. Tarit.,Chowdhury, P..Partha., Chanda,R.Chitta., Banerjee,Prabal., Lodh, Dilip.,Das, Dipankar., Chakraborti, Dipankar.,
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