Careful Id1=id2 means same objectId1!= id2 does not mean different objects
Aggregation and resolution are separate issues, comingled by HTTP URIsuniform resource identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource.URIs can be classified as locators (URLs), as names (URNs), or as both. A uniform resource name (URN) functions like a person's name, while a uniform resource locator (URL) resembles that person's street address. In other words: the URN defines an item's identity, while the URL provides a method for finding it.from wikipediaOne can use a URN to talk about a resource without implying its location or how to access it. The resource does not need necessarily to be accessible over a network. For example, the URN urn:isbn:0-395-36341-1 is a URI that specifies the identifier system, i.e. international standard book number (ISBN), as well as the unique reference within that system and allows one to talk about a book, but the URI doesn't suggest where and how to obtain an actual copy of it.
Not comingled. Identifier and resolution (proxy) are separateThe consumer has to know somewhere to look for infoRequires organization to manage allocation of id space and proxy resolutionMembers pay for service
last of digressionCareful Id1=id2 means same objectId1!= id2 does not mean different objects
Back to the primary purpose, managing identifiers as a provider/creator
The standard for identification advocated by W3C is to use Universal (uniform)Resource Identifiers (URIs).-- a URI is a string that begins with a scheme name (or protocol). (http, https, mailto, doi, ftp, urn).UUID (sometimes GUID)definitely uniqueE.g. 954c8760-e1a6-4b4b-ab82-6bf7311c25f3Hard to type inNot resolvableNot always DB friendlyOpaqueurn:lsid:authority:namespace:identifierhttp://lsid.tdwg.org/urn:lsid:authority:namespace:identifier
The standard for identification advocated by W3C is to use Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs).-- a URI is a string that begins with a scheme name (or protocol). (http, https, mailto, doi, ftp, urn).Second URI has hex encoding of “0014097”UUID (sometimes GUID)Assured uniqueE.g. d6610130-5248-11e1-b86c-0800200c9a66Hard to type inNot resolvableNot always DB friendlyOpaque
Emerging Trends in Data Collection, Data Sharing, Data Integration for research, Data citation.Little science to Big Science.Imagine getting credit for all your digitization efforts!
Example – Jeremy Miller – link to collections instead of each identifier.
‘target’ is a property of the annotation
For more on GUIDs for upload to iDigBio,see our suggestions / policy at:https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/iDigBio-GUID-Statement20MAR2012.pdfServe data for your objects.If you are serving data for other institutions, it needs to be clear in fields likeDarwin Core: Owner Instituion ID, Institution Code, Collection Code fieldsIf this place starts serving their own data, stop serving it for them.
1. go through community process of extending the Darwin Core2. extend uniquely in your community - as a set of terms needed by your community to share data concepts not currently in Darwin Core (example might be paleo extension)3. GBIF extension process - to be able to extend the IPT. 3a. it is possible to create needed extensions. http://vocabularies.gbif.org/node/124372 http://vocabularies.gbif.org/extensionsNote: base your database on your needs. It does make it easier to match (map) if you use standard terms where possible. So, if adding georef fields to your database, try to use the standard terms if they exist.
Paul2 ecn 2012
IDs in and out of the database
Entomological Collection Network (ECN) 2012
November 10 – 11, Knoxville, TN
Debbie Paul, Greg Riccardi
• What good is identification?
• How are identifiers used by consumers
• Providing IDs
• Resolving IDs in a server
–Strategies for storing IDs in databases
• Linked Data
• Annotations ~ all sorts
What good is identification?
– If you get info from 2 sources that are about
the same object, you can combine the info
• Resolution (finding information about object)
– Types of resolution
• Determine where to get information
• Determine how to get information
• Providing information
– How to create IDs
– How to publish IDs
– How to fetch database information for IDs
• Biggest problem
– Identification and 2 types of resolution
– Where to get information
• Look somewhere
– How to get information
• Fetch information using some
• The DOI is
• URI (for aggregating) is
• A URL for information retrieval (proxy resolution) is
• Information fetched from
What’s in an ID?
• For consumer:
– NOTHING! No information
– Might as well be UUID
• Can’t type it, remember it, parse it,
– Useful for comparison and aggregation
• Equal strings (persistence)
• Different strings about the same object
– fetching information
• Send the ID somewhere for info
What’s in an ID?
• For Provider/resolver:
– Use ID to find local storage of
• parse out the DWC triple
• Extract the database table and
• Look up the ID in a table of IDs
• Look up ID in a URI field of a
What’s in an id for the provider?
• record id 112234
• uuid 954c8760-e1a6-4b4b-ab82-6bf7311c25f3
• lsid urn:lsid:example.org:specimen:22545
• ezid http://n2t.net/ark:/99999/fk42b9hdf
• doi doi:10.1038/ng0609-637
What about Specimen identifiers?
• identifier on the specimen?
– readable text
– encoded data
– barcode is a contextual identifier
• identifier in the database?
How do providers identify?
Notice online databases and your
database and find the identifiers of
the various objects
Some identifiers are local (e.g. primary
Some identifiers are globally unique
Some identifiers are URIs
Storing IDs in databases
• your contextual ids?, your guids?
• What to use for IDs?
• what’s in your wallet database?
• Morphbank Example
IDs in Morphbank
• Morphbank Example
IDs in Morphbank
• Morphbank Example
Sharing data with IDs
• into a publication
• uploaded to the web
• data shared with a database integrator /
• what is it exactly in the publication?
– an id?, a guid? a link to more information?
– what will be cited? searched for?
Feedback with IDs
– Target of annotation
– filtered PUSH
• linked data ~ the semantic web
– (benefits – in a minute)
• updating the database
– Remember previous IDs
What’s coming up next?
• expect guids for all sorts of objects
–collection objects (example: specimen)
GUIDs are key
• 1 to many IDs known for a given object
• store and share the ones you know about
Specimen RecordID 19537
Specimen Previous Catalog Number 212345
Specimen Catalog Number / bar code bbbrc000123
Darwin Core Triplet (DwC) flmnh:herb:bbbrc000123
DwC Occurrence URI urn:catalog:flmnh:herb:bbbrc000123
Specimen GUID of type lsid urn:lsid:biocol.org:flmnh:bbbrc000123
Specimen Opaque Identifier (UUID) 424854d7-baec-42cf-a142-805b64117b9f
URI for UUID urn:uuid:424854d7-baec-42cf-a142-805b64117b9f
Specimen GUID of type HTTP-URI http://ids.flmnh.ufl.edu/herb/bbbrc000123
*Cannot enforce single identifier per object
caring for guids
• store them
– database adjustments
– tweaking current standard practices
• share them
– data standards
– 3 ways to modify darwin core
• reap the benefits
caring for guids – reap the benefits
• Data quality feedback
• Dialog based on annotation
• Tracking objects through analysis and use
• Maintaining attribution to provider
• Find related objects
• Find a way to take advantage of efforts
of many smart dedicated people
– BHL, biscicol, filtered PUSH, GNA, TNRS,