03 Gtz Proklima Hc Residential Ac Systems In India & China Markus Wypior


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03 Gtz Proklima Hc Residential Ac Systems In India & China Markus Wypior

  1. 1. Conversion from HCFC-22 to HC-290 in Residential Air-Conditioners Update on China and India Experiences Joint Meeting of the Regional Ozone Networks for Europe & Central Asia (ECA) and South Asia (SA) Istanbul, Turkey, 26-30 April 2010 Markus Wypior, GTZ-Proklima 03.05.10 PROKLIMA
  2. 2. Statement <ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon refrigerants are an excellent alternative to HCFCs. Hydrocarbons are used safely in all ways of life from hairspray and cooking gas to fuels for cars and airplanes. Hydrocarbon based technologies have to be designed to operate safely, and they are indeed safe.&quot; </li></ul></ul>PROKLIMA
  3. 3. Types of room air-conditioning equipment
  4. 4. Historical and forecast production of RAC equipment in China (for domestic consumption) Increase is nearly exponential !
  5. 5. Success of Greenfreeze Technology-Diffusion in China <ul><li>1995: Company Quingdao Haier introduced Greenfreeze Technology, supported by GTZ </li></ul><ul><li>1997: Company Kelon changed its production to Greenfreeze </li></ul><ul><li>2008: 75% of Chinese production uses Greenfreeze Technology </li></ul><ul><li>We did it once. </li></ul><ul><li>Can we do it again? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Success of Greenfreeze Technology-Diffusion Worldwide Now, even in USA, introduction of HCs in some domestics and trials in ice cream freezers and bottle coolers
  7. 7. Emission Reduction Scenario <ul><li>Potential for China (60% of world‘s A/C production) </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion rate based on experiences with R 600a Greenfreeze technology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Policy Development <ul><ul><li>Over 100 countries will place import quotas to meet 2013/2015 MP obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe: reconsidering EN 378 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International: reconsider IEC 60335-2-40? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China: RAC industry safety standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA: Clean Air Act / ASHRAE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety considerations depend on: - appropriate industry standards - appropriate service technician education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montreal Protocol Example: CFC phase out </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Estimated annual (reported) emissions from China RAC equipment (no R-22) <ul><li>Additional emissions from each years production, eligible for reporting </li></ul><ul><li>With HFCs only, emissions increase by over 10 times by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>With natural refrigerants, 2007 levels are maintained by 2020 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Development <ul><ul><li>Destruction and recycling of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most developing countries have no facilities (too expensive, no infrastructure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovered stocks – ultimate fate is atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire problem can be avoided with HCs (may be vented) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This policy situation may translate into sooner and higher market demand for natural refrigerant based solutions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Room Air Conditioner – Present situation <ul><ul><li>approx. 1 billion HCFC-22 units worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 100 million units added annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average HCFC-22 charge about 1.6 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approx. 1’600’000 tonnes HCFC-22 contained in existing equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCFC-22 GWP: 1’810 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2’896 Mtonnes CO2eq. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servicing needs: approx. 800’000 tonnes/yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1’448 Mtonnes CO2eq. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Market Potential <ul><ul><li>Major development in tropical countries: - Energy efficiency, direct emission reductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major countries: China, India, Gulf, ASEAN, Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LVCs: Island States, Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing gap between market demand for air conditioners and availability of HCFC air conditioners due to freeze in 2013 and subsequent reduction steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precondition: Availability of HC refrigerant gas </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ODP and GWP of selected refrigerants 03.05.10 Refrigeration Air-conditioning Substance ODP GWP CFC-12 1 8,500 HFC-134a 0 1,300 HC 600a (Isobutane) 0 3 HCFC-22 0.055 1,780 HFC-32 0 550 HFC-407C 0 1,610 HFC 410A 0 1,850 HC-290 (Propane) 0 3
  14. 14. 03.05.10 Flammability of selected refrigerants Refrigerant LFLa(vol%) UFLa (vol%) Minimum Ignition Engergy (mJ) Burning Velocity (cm/s) Flammability class HFCF-22 none none - - - HFC-32 14.4 29.3 30-100 6.7 A2L HFC-407C none none - - - HFC-410A none none - - - HC-290 2.2 10.0 0.25 46 3
  15. 15. Demo Projects in China and India 03.05.10 <ul><li>Target Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Air-conditioner manufacturer, industry associations </li></ul><ul><li>technical institutes; technical committees of international environmental agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Project budget in each country: 2 Mio EUR </li></ul><ul><li>Production capacity: approx. 180,000 units p.a. in each project </li></ul><ul><li>Expected environmental impact: 900,000 tonnes of CO 2 e in each project </li></ul><ul><li>Project elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Optimization of technical design </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of new production equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot production </li></ul><ul><li>Training of service technicians </li></ul>
  16. 16. China Project 03.05.10
  17. 17. China Project 03.05.10
  18. 18. China Project 03.05.10
  19. 19. China Project 03.05.10
  20. 20. India Project <ul><li>Split and Window type (China only Split type) 1.0 / 1.5 TR </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation was done first for the optimization before carrying out tests </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerant charge reduced to 30% of original HCFC-22 charge (after system optimization) </li></ul><ul><li>The performance improved significantly (EER is more than 20% higher ) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Current Status 03.05.10 <ul><li>Trials and technical optimization: completed (Godrej) </li></ul><ul><li>Trials and technical optimization: ongoing (Voltas, Advantec, Lloyds Engg.) </li></ul><ul><li>Umbrella agreement: pending </li></ul><ul><li>Training concept & manual: completed </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of production equipment: end of 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot production: end of 2010/beginning of 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial production: 1 st half of 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Trials and technical optimization: completed </li></ul><ul><li>Development of safety standards: ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of production equipment: completed </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot production: beginning in 1 st half of 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial production: 2 nd half of 2010 </li></ul>China India
  22. 22. BEE Energy Efficiency Labeling 03.05.10
  23. 23. 03.05.10 Other Developments Introduction of micro channel heat exchangers reduces refrigerant charge by 50% and reduce production cost Propane and micro channel heat exchangers will help Indian AC manufacturers to achieve/maintain high star ratings!
  24. 24. Other Developments in HC-290 AC 03.05.10
  25. 25. International Climate Initiative (ICI) 03.05.10 http://www.bmu-klimaschutzinitiative.de/en/theme
  26. 26. International Climate Protection Initiative (ICI) 03.05.10 <ul><li>Complements existing development cooperation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the income from the sale of CO 2 certificates through the emissions trading system to fund climate protection projects </li></ul><ul><li>Priority areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing energy efficiency  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding the use of renewable energies  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing climate-damaging fluorocarbons  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Support is provided to both investment projects and capacity-building projects </li></ul><ul><li>120 Mio EUR per annum </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you! 03.05.10