-Biodiesel engine had become the engine of selection for reliability, power, and high fuel economy, worldwide. -Simply, the trans-esterification reaction means taking one type of ester and turning it into another. For example, taking vegetable oil and turning it into biodiesel.The alcohol used in the process can be either ethanol ( made from grains) or methanol ( made from wood, coal or natural gas) Methanol is usually preferred because it’s cheaper and tends to produce a more predictable reaction.-If biodiesel is produced with methanol, it is referred to as methyl esters and if it is made with ethanol it is referred to as ethyl esters. A more generic term, alkyl esters, refers to any alcohol-produced vegetable-oil esters.
For example, a 20% blend of biodiesel with 80% diesel fuel is called B20. B20 is popular because it represents a good balance of cost, emissions, cold weather performance, materials compatibility, and ability to act as a solvent. B20 is also the minimum blend level that can be used for EPAct compliance for covered fleets. Pure Biodiesel (B100) can be used as a blending agent or as a pure fuel in diesel applications. B100 has the following key physical properties: It contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. It contains no aromatics. It has a high cetane level (47+). It is biodegradable. • It is non-toxic. • It has a high flashpoint (higher than 260° F). • It has a comparable BTU value (8% less than No. 2 diesel).
Lubricant can also use on bearings and gears. A effective cleaning element called Bio-OSR (Bio-oil & sludge remover).Bio-OSR is a biodegradable and environmental friendly product.It uses organic ingredients that comes from vegetation therefore it is safe for handling and transportation.Therefore the properties of Bio-OSR ensure that it does not pose a negative impact on safety, health and environment.http://alphabiofuels.sg/pages/bioOSR/osr_index.html
After Rudolf diesel’s engine was adapted for marine use as early as 1903. since then, diesel engine have spread to virtually every corner of the world’s marine environment. Unfortunately , diesel engine can cause considerable environmental damages, especially in the case of a petrol diesel fuel spill. Environmental fragility that makes marine use of biodiesel so attractive. Tests have shown that pure biodiesel is non-toxic, readily biodegradable and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel degrades about four times faster than petroleum diesel fuel.(e.g.:when there is spilled in water, biodiesel will be 95% degraded after 28 days as compared with only 40% for petrol diesel in the same time period.)Biodiesel is not harmful to fish and marine life.Biodiesel is easier on humans. By using biodiesel and biodiesel blends have proven to change in exhaust odor. Therefore it will not cause eye irritation.Because biodiesel can replace or blend with petroleum diesel with little or no engine modifications. Categories in marine industry includes: recreational boats, cruise ships and the U.S. Coast Guard Fleet. http://www.biodiesel.org/markets/mar/
During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight, and convert it into oxygen and biomass. These fuels do not affect freshwater resources, can be produced using ocean and wastewater, are biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae farms can be hooked onto existing power plants and be used as huge carbon sinks.
Table of contents Introduction to biodiesel Applications of biodiesel Advantages & disadvantages of biodiesel Sources of biodiesel Future of biodiesel Case study on Iran Conclusions
Introduction to biodiesel HistoryRudolf diesel was the inverter of biodiesel, estimated 100 years ago. It was developed in the year 1890s. What is biodiesel? Biodiesel is made up of monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids that come from vegetable oil or animal fats. After which, the feedstock is converted by trans- esterification, into biodiesel.
Biodiesel is replacement for petroleum diesel fuel. It can be blended with petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion.Biodiesel can be used 100% (B100) or in blends with petroleum diesel fuel. Blends are indicated by B##, which correspond to the percentage of biodiesel in the blended fuel.
Applications of biodiesel Biodiesel has a wide variety of application in all the fields where fuel is used. To add on, it added advantages of efficiency improvement.Examples includes:Motorbikes, Airplanes, Mass transit (trains, buses)Trucks & heavy equipment , Electrical generatorsFarm equipments, Marine uses ,Biodiesel as lubricant & solvent
Biodiesel as lubricant and solvent• Potential markets for biodiesel extend beyond the transportation and electrical-generation sectors. Biodiesel can be used straight as a machinery lubricant. Biodiesel’s solvent properties may be used to clean dirty or greasy engine or other machine parts.
Marine usesBiodiesel is an ideal choice for the use in marine applications. Biodiesel have more environmental benefits. Biodiesel is “user-friendly” Biodiesel can work in several marine factions.
Advantages of Biodiesel Renewable energy source Can distribute through existing diesel fuel pumps Less polluting Can use in existing oil heating systems and Extends life of catalytic diesel engines converters & engines Can be mixed withUtilizes excess production of petroleum diesel at any soybeans for manufacture concentration and time
Disadvantages of Biodiesel More expensiveCould harm rubber hoses in engines Requires energy to:Produce biodiesel from soy crops & sow, fertilize and harvest Requires frequent filter changingRequires improvement in distribution infrastructure
Sources of biodiesel• Algal Biodiesel• Fungus• Used coffee grounds• Exotic resources
Algal BiodieselUtilizing algae that contains natural oil content>50% Can be grown on algae ponds at wastewater treatment plants Extracted from the systemand processed into biodieselDoes not entail a decrease in food production
Fungus Utilizing single-cell fungi that contains lipids .E.g.Cunninghamella japonicaExtracted from the cell and turned into Biodiesel Recent discovery of a variant of fungus Gliocladium roseum production of ‘myco-diesel’ (medium length hydrocarbons) from celluloseDiscovered in the rainforests of northern Patagonia
Used coffee grounds Utilising used coffee grounds that contains oil content 10-15% Extracted and underwent conventional processing into Biodiesel
Exotic resourcesUtilizing alligator fat which is aprimary waste product• cheaper to refine Biodiesel produced is similar in composition to biodiesel created from soybeans
Future of BiodieselGenetically Engineered Microalgae
Microalgae Its species are rich in oil Abundant; almost in every ecosystemCO2+ sunlight -> oxygen + biomass• Produce almost half of the atmospheric oxygen
Microalgae BiodieselUnder optimized condition, can produce up to 90% oil of dry weightPotential production of oil higher than oil crops• Use little land resource w/o causing potential biomass deficit Can grow in extreme environmentCultivated only by using seawater, CO2 and sunlight
DisadvantagesLow biomass concentration in the microalgaeculture• Due to light penetration limit Insufficient oil contents of microalgae cellsExtraction of fuel precursors from the biomass• Most costly downstream processing steps
Microalgae Genetic Engineering • Optimization for enhanced biofuel production • Improve accumulation ofWhy? targeted bioenergy carriers • Quantity & quality of biodiesel linked as to how lipid metabolism is controlled Solution Manipulate the biology of microalgae cells to allow for secretion of lipids
Case Study: Future of Bioenergy in Iran Extensive use & export of Iran’s crude oil and natural gas will be limited in the future. Thus renewable liquid fuels will be heavily needed to eventually totally replace petroleum- derived transport fuels which in addition, contributes to the emission of greenhouse gasesSalt lake “Urmia” which have given rise to new species of algae for biofuel
Case Study: Solution for Biodiesel Production Due to climate & geographical problems • Only 12% of total land area can be use for crop growing thus depending on energy crops not feasible Overcoming the challenge, two • Looking at this table, microalgae come options views itself as the only source that has • Managing the agriculture the potential to completely replace residues & energy production like bioethanol and biogas petroleum-derived diesel • Investing on non-food crops • Therefore, microalgae genetic e.g. microalgae engineering would help to visualize more the economic production of biodiesel in Iran
Case Study: Project on microalgae Researches at Teheran’s Shiraz University carried a biofuel project Has succeeded in producing green fuel from the algae Chlamydomonas Microalgae were isolated during a screening program from soil & water • samples are collected from the paddy fields of Fars province and the Maharlu Salt Lake The researchers registered their findings at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)which is based in the USA
Case Study: Having potential of using microalgae genetic engineering Iran has a good potential and possibilities due to: Presence of saline lakes in Iran, containing various Good capacity building species of microalgae Establishing microalgae culture ponds in different Gained experiences in plant genetic areas of Iran engineering within the last decade • Unlimited access to saline waters and sunlight String government support • Based on the law, production and Presence of highly efficient release of transgenic organisms are genetic engineering free in Iran provided that they pass all technologies in the world the biosafety requirements imposed by Iran’s National Biosafety Law (INBL)
ConclusionsMicroalgae genetic engineeringhave a very promising role in thefuture as it has great potentials forbiofuel production.
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References Introduction & applications of biodiesel• http://www.biodiesel.org/markets/mar/• http://alphabiofuels.sg/pages/bioOSR/osr_index.html• Title: Biodiesel- growing a new energy economy (second edition) Author: Greg Pahl foreword by Bill McKibben Advantages and disadvantages of Biodiesel• http://www.cpast.org/Articles/fetch.adp?topicnum=61• http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Advantages_and_Disadvantages_of_Biofuels• http://www.berkeleybiodiesel.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-biodiesel.html Current Research• http://web.archive.org/web/20060324084858/http://www.unh.edu/p2/biodiesel/article_alg e.html• http://mic.sgmjournals.org/content/154/11/3319• http://www.springerlink.com/content/c8l814q6064m0u75/• http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/16/science/16objava.html Case study• http://www.greenprophet.com/2010/01/algae-biofuel-iran/• An article titled Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews from www.elsevier.com