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Online Assessment | Trust, privacy and ethics } Ekaterina Muravyeva (OUNL)

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Online Assessment | Trust, privacy and ethics } Ekaterina Muravyeva (OUNL)

  1. 1. Trust, privacy and ethics Dr. Ekaterina Muravyeva, Open Universiteit
  2. 2. When the pandemic started… • Educational institutions  educational services without delay and the loss of quality • OUNL  online assessment with online proctoring • Personal data  identity and/or authorship verification • Educational institutions, students, teachers, employers, quality assurance agencies…..  all want to be able to trust 2
  3. 3. Trust In the context of (online) e-assessment trust is a multi-layered concept (Edwards et al., 2018), encompassing trust in: 1. technology; 2. the deployment of technology; 3. the organisation deploying e-assessment; 4. privacy and personal data processing; 5. reliability and fairness of the assessment process. 3
  4. 4. Privacy: legal ground and proportionality The GDPR identifies six grounds for lawful processing of personal data (González & de Hert, 2019): 1. consent of the data subject; 2. the performance of a contract; 3. a legal obligation of the controller; 4. the vital interests of the data subject; 5. a task carried out in the public interest or by an official authority; 6. the legitimate interest of the controller or another third party. 4
  5. 5. Ethics come into play… • …because academic integrity is at stake here, • but privacy as well because of the use of personal data (some groups of users may feel to depend on these technologies (e.g. due to special needs) and hence, more or less ‘pushed’ to consent) 5
  6. 6. Trust in technology • Usability and ease of support • Guidelines and support for students on the technical process to reduce stress 6  Test exam  System check  Clear step-by-step instruction about the procedure (ID-check, materials check, wrist/ear check) Evaluations at OUNL: provide feedback at the end of the assessment process that assures students of proper receipt and storage of their answers
  7. 7. Trust in the deployment of technology • Transparency • Trust in the competence by teachers, assessors, proctors, exam committee, staff involved in complaints and appeal procedures 7 Irregularities are defined as “(…) any event as a result of which the knowledge and ability of the candidate cannot be determined or the quality of the interim or final examination cannot be guaranteed” (Education and examination regulation, 2020).
  8. 8. • Institution’s general reputation in terms of quality of teaching and learning services • Protection of academic standards and ethical considerations related to students feeling stress • Protection of academic standards is… very much in the interest of students as well 8 Trust in the organisation deploying e-assessment
  9. 9. Trust in personal data processing • Transparency • Cybersecurity • Licences, compliance with the GDPR, data sharing agreement… • Diversify: continue digital examination and allow students to choose 9
  10. 10. Online proctoring at OUNL: legal ground During the pandemic: • Prohibited any face-to-face exams • Record & review proctoring at OUNL • Necessity to perform a task carried out in the public interest, i.e. certification. After the pandemic: • Option to take exams either at a study centre or at home • Legal ground for personal data processing changed to ‘consent’. 10
  11. 11. (Informed) consent … is any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her (art. 4 GDPR). Informed consent procedure includes: • providing relevant information to students through an information letter, and • documenting students’ consent through a consent form 11
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  13. 13. Trust in reliability and fearness of the assessment process Does a room scan by a second camera at the start of the assessment suffice to assure reliability? To what extend is a students’ performance influenced by stress induced by a fear that the technology is not working properly? 13 Threats Approach Firstly, that the person taking the exam is not the intended candidate Identity verification Secondly, that the candidate is somehow assisted in responding to the assessment tasks Authorship verification in relation to various types of academic dishonesty
  14. 14. The question is… Which approaches are most effective to foster academic integrity? 14

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