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Nikos Papadakis - Labour Market and MicroCredentials

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Nikos Papadakis - Labour Market and MicroCredentials

  1. 1. Nikos Papadakis Professor & Director of the Centre for Political Research & Documentation (KEPET) Department of Political Science, University of Crete Deputy Director of University of Crete Research Center for the Humanities, the Social and Education Scie nc es (UCRC) International Expert at the European Training Foundation (ETF) former Special Adviser to the European Commission The changing Labour Market and the role of the micro- credentials in LLL and VET (Vocational Education &Training). Professor Nikos Papadakis Professor & Director of the Centre for Political Research & Documentation (KEPET) Department of Political Science, University of Crete Director of the Centre for Training and LLL of the University of Crete (KEDIVIM) Member of the Scientific Board of the National Centre of Public Administration and Local Government (EKDDA) Distinguished Visiting Professor at the AGEP of the Zhengzhou University, China
  2. 2. The speech deals with the ongoing transformation in the Labour Market (including the effects of the “mega- trends”, such as digitalization) and the role of Training, as active employment policy, emphasizing the dynamics of micro- credentials. Initially, it provides an overview of the dominant trends in the Labour Market (including the rising of the various forms of precarious work, among Youth and its association with the social vulnerability). Then, it proceeds in briefly (critically) examining the projections- forecasting on future skills and future jobs. Given the abovementioned, emphasis is laid on the state-of-play regarding Training, and LLL, within this (rapidly) changing context, while the presentation analyses the role of the micro-credentials in Reskilling, (flexibly) building individual skills-repertoire and feed-backing the existing accreditation- certification practices and patterns. 2 Abstract
  3. 3. PART A: The Changing Labour Market 3
  4. 4.  Historically the rate of youth unemployment is higher, double or more than double, than the totally unemployment rate. The onset of the economic downturn resulted in a dramatic increase in the rates of youth unemployment, culminating in the years 2009-2013, as shown in the diagram below, reflecting the difficulties and obstacles that young people face in finding jobs and getting integrated in the labour market. Diagram 1 clearly shows the change in youth unemployment rates in the European Union from 2000 to 2015, and, in particular, the sharp increase in the rate from the onset of the financial crisis (2008) until 2013 (Eurostat, 2015: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/indexphp/Unem ployment_statistics) (see Figure 1). 4 1. Unemployment and Youth Unemployment in the European Union: On the State of Play
  5. 5. In the aftermath of the Crisis, in December 2018, the youth unemployment rate in the EU28 has dropped to 14,9% (Men: 15,5%, Women: 14,1%- see Eurostat, 2019a), namely scaled back by 4,9% since September 2015 (20%) (see Eurostat 2016). The decrease of youth unemployment, especially comparing to its historical high in April 2013 (23.8%- see Eurostat 2014), even relieving, cannot hold back the increasing asymmetries among the M-S. However, the pandemic Crisis has affected the labour market and subsequently the youth unemployment increased in the EU and reached 16.2% in 2020 (men: 15.9% & women: 16.5% / Eurostat, 2021g; Eurostat, 2021j). In Greece is has increased up to 37.6% (men: 36.6% & women: 38.9% / Eurostat, 2021g; Eurostat, 2021j), more than double than the also increased youth unemployment in the EU. It was the highest youth unemployment rate in the EU-27 (Eurostat, 2021g).). It should be noted that the unemployment rates differ significantly across Europe, while in the Southern Countries the total unemployment remains more than the double comparing to the EU average (see also Figure 2). 5 1. Unemployment and Youth Unemployment in the European Union: On the State of Play
  6. 6. Another critical issue that substantially affects young people’s life chances and life courses is the over-representation of long-term unemployment among youth. The long-term youth unemployment rate in the EU “increased considerably, from 23% in 2008 to around 30% in 2016, meaning that almost one-third of unemployed young people have been looking for a job for 12 months or more without success. As the data show, of these, the majority have been out of work for more than two years, illustrating the risk of job-seekers becoming trapped in protracted spells of unemployment. The extent of long-term youth unemployment varies considerably across Member States, with the highest rates recorded in Greece (53%), Italy (52%) and Slovakia (47%), while the lowest rates are found in all countries with very well-developed policy interventions, including well-functioning Youth Guarantee schemes, such as Denmark (8%), Finland (7%) and Sweden (5%) (Eurofound 2017: 3). It should be mentioned at this point that there is a strong association between educational attainment and social outcomes including the risk of poverty and/ or social exclusion (see European Commission 2017a: 9). According to the European Commission, “the overall number of low-qualified adults has been falling with each younger cohort. For example, in 2017 around 4.6 million young adults aged 20- 24 did not possess at least a medium-level qualification, compared with 10.2 million adults aged 60-64. However, the relative decline — i.e. the decline of the share of low-qualified among the total population in the appropriate cohort — has been very slow for the four youngest cohorts in the labour market” (European Commission 2018a: 70). This is another clear indication of the disassociation of the younger population from the labour market. Additionally it should be noted that clearly the younger people and especially the ones with less qualifications and skills face enormous difficulties to be integrated in the changing labour market. As Andy Green (2017: 7) points out, “the 2007/2008 financial crisis and the ensuing recession and austerity dramatized the situation of young people because they were the age group which was hardest hit in terms of rising unemployment and declining real wages” (Figures 3 & 4). 6 1. Unemployment and Youth Unemployment in the European Union: On the State of Play
  7. 7. The employment rates of recent graduates target continues to recover from the 2008 crisis and have improved slightly since the previous year, standing in 2020 at 80,9%, higher than the 78,2% in 2016 and close to the benchmark of 82% in 2020 (European Commission, 2020: 66; ). The employment rates of recent graduates was, in 2017, “84.9 % for tertiary graduates, 76.6 % for those with upper-secondary or post-secondary vocational qualification and 64.1% for those with a general upper-secondary qualification” (European Commission 2018a: 56). The abovementioned highlight the role of the qualifications and skills in the integration in the labour market. Indeed “the differences between the types of graduates are substantial….. (while) the mismatch remains high, particularly among bachelor’s diploma holders” (European Commission 2017a: 12- 13) (see Figure 5). Further, it should be noted at this point that there are major differences between the Member States in terms of the employment rates of recent graduates, since youth unemployment remains remarkably high in Southern Countries, heavily affected by the Crisis and the Recession, such as Greece, Spain and Italy (see Papadakis, Drakaki, Kyridis, Papergirls 2017: 8- 10 and analytically European Commission 2018a: 56). 7 1. Unemployment and Youth Unemployment in the European Union: Skills Mismatch
  8. 8.  Unemployment, youth unemployment, poverty and their persisting correlation constitute, probably, the major challenges in the EU, at the moment.  According to the Euro-barometer, more than 8 out of 10 Europeans consider unemployment, social inequalities and migration the top challenges, that the EU is facing, while more than the half of the Europeans consider that not everyone has chances to succeed, and life chances would be more limited for the young-next generation (see Eurobarometer, 2017, as cited in European Commission, 2017: 20).  According to the European Commission, unemployment rates “are falling (constantly since 2014) but differ substantially across Europe….(while) the crisis has affected parts of Europe in different ways, but across the Union, it is younger generations that have been hit particularly hard” (European Commission, 2017: 9).  Further, it seems, that precarious work gradually becomes “the new norm to which employment and social protection systems must adjust but the motivators for, and likely consequences of, legitimising and normalising these employment forms are complex and potentially contradictory. Precarious work is best defined as the absence of those aspects of the Standard Employment Relationship (SER) that support the decommodification of labour” (Rubery, Grimshaw, Keizer, & Johnson 2018: 511).  In the last decade (2010-2020), there has been an increasing intensification of policy interventions, at the European level, aiming at reducing precarious work and protecting and, further, improving working conditions (Eurofound, 2020: 3-4). 8 3. Precarious Work and Key Challenges in the EU
  9. 9. Figure 1: Relationship between megatrends, effects and impacts on the labour market, and policy interventions 9 Source: Eurofound, 2020: 4.. The above mentioned intensification is due on the one hand to the impact of the multidimensional economic Recession on employment and labour market, and on the other hand due to Mega-Trends that are taking place and seem to gradually prevail (e.g. globalization, digital economy, digitalization, demographic and social changes, climate change, etc.) (Eurofound, 2020: 3- 4) These Mega-Trends had a clear impact on the structure of economy and labour market, industrial relations systems, and business models, having, in turn, direct impact on work relations, forms of employment and contracts types and, consequently, on social welfare systems in Europe (Eurofound, 2020: 3-4) (see Figure 1).
  10. 10. 10 During the decade 2008-2018 (Eurofound 2020a) the rates of part-time employment in all its types (permanent, fixed-term, self-employed) increased in most EU countries. Over the decade 2008-2018 (Eurofound, 2020) the rates of part-time work in all its types (permanent, fixed-term, self-employed) have increased in most European Union countries (EU28). Part-time employment 15-24 age group: In 2019, the highest rates were observed in the Netherlands, where more than three quarters of young people (79.7%) worked part-time, and in Denmark (63.6%), while the lowest in Croatia (7.4%) and Bulgaria (7.5%). In 2019, in all EU28 Member States, the proportion of women was substantially higher than that of men (40.9% for women and 25.5% for men). The highest proportions for both men and women were recorded in the Netherlands (males: 72.9%, females: 86.6%) and Denmark (males: 53.1%, females: 74.2%). The largest differences between women and men can be noticed in Slovenia (24.1 percentage points) and Sweden (22.9 p.p.), while the smallest in Romania (0.1 p.p.) and Latvia (0.6 p.p.). During the years 2010-2018 the poverty risk rates recorded in part-time employment were consistently higher for workers aged 16-24 than for those aged 25- 54 with differences ranging from 1.6 to 3.3 percentage points. 3. Precarious employment in the European Union Member States
  11. 11. 11 Temporary employment 15-24 age group: In all EU28 countries the proportion of employees in temporary employment recorded in 2019 was much higher for young people. As reported by Eurostat, in the second quarter of 2019, almost half (42.8%) of employees aged 15-24 (approximately 8 million young people) were employed under a temporary contract. In 9 out of the 28 EU countries more than half of the young employees worked on a temporary basis in 2019, as follows: Spain (69.5%), Italy (63.3%), Portugal (62.2%), Slovenia (61.2%), Poland (59.1%), France (56.1%), Sweden (53.7%), the Netherlands (51.8%) and Germany (50.6%). During the period 2010-2019, the rate of women in temporary employment was slightly higher than that of men (by 1.7 percentage points), a rather small difference compared to the corresponding one in part-time employment (15.4 p.p.). 3. Precarious employment in the European Union Member States
  12. 12. 12 EU28 Member States, 2018 In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by type of contract 3. Precarious employment in the European Union Member States Source: Eurostat EU-SILC Survey, online data code [ilc_iw05] According to Eurostat (2020i), in 2020, part-time workers in the EU28 were twice the risk of poverty than those employed full-time. Moreover, during the years 2010-2018 the poverty risk rates (Eurostat, 2020c) recorded in part-time employment, were consistently higher for workers aged 16-24 than for those aged 25-54, with differences ranging from 1.6 to 3.3 percentage points. During the years 2010-2018, the risk of poverty in temporary employment increased considerably in the majority of EU28 countries (Eurostat, 2020d). The risk was almost three times higher for employees with temporary jobs, than for those with permanent jobs (Eurostat, 2020i).
  13. 13. 13 In all EU28 countries (Eurostat, 2020f), the proportion of employees in temporary employment recorded in 2019 was much higher for young people. As reported by Eurostat (2020j), in the second quarter of 2019, almost half (42.8%) of employees aged 15-24 were employed under a temporary contract. More specifically (Figure 2), the share of such contracts for employees aged 15-24 was more than three times higher than that for employees aged 20-64 (EU28: 42.6% for the age group 15- 24 vs. 12.6% for the age group 20-64). In 9 out of the 28 EU countries, more than half of the employees aged 15-24 worked on a temporary basis in 2020. 3. Precarious employment in the EU.
  14. 14. 14 4. Precarious employment in EU and Greece Source: Eurostat, online data code [ilc_iw05] Greece and EU28, 2010-2018 In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by type of contract Over the years 2010-2018, temporary workers were constantly at almost triple the risk of poverty than permanent workers.
  15. 15. 15 5. The impact of COVID-19 and resulting Recession pandemic in precarious work in EU and Greece In its Labour Force Survey (LFS), Eurostat (2021b) investigates labour market slack and the effects of the COVID-19 crisis, both at EU27 level and nationally in the respective member states for the extended labour force, which includes: (a) the unemployed, (b) the part-time underemployed and (c) the potential workforce. The labour market slack has clearly increased, all across EU, during the pandemic. Figure 6 (Eurostat, 2021b) depicts the fluctuation of the labour market slack as regards young people aged 15-24 of the extended workforce, for the years 2019 and 2020 in Greece and the EU27 (on a quarterly basis). It is obvious that during 2019 and 2020, the rates of labour market slack in Greece were much higher than those of the EU27 average. In all three quarters of 2020, Greece was among the countries with the highest rates of labour market slack (49.4% in the first quarter, 50.2% in the second quarter and 48.2% in the third quarter). It should be noted here that for the young people, during the Q1 2021, the labor market slack stood up to 55,4%, the highest percentage among the EU27 M-S (Eurostat, 2021b).
  16. 16. 16 5. On The current state of play Particular emphasis should be placed on the significant increase in the percentage of Neets (young people not in education, employment or training). In the 1st Quarter of 2021 the percentage of Neets in Greece reached 13.2% in the age category 15-24 (men: 13.8% & women: 12.6% / Eurostat, 2021h) and 20.4% in the age category 15-29 (men: 19.9% ​​& women 20.8% / Eurostat, 2021h) versus 11.3% and 13.8% respectively in the EU-27 (Eurostat, 2021h). The percentage of Neets, in the age group 15-24 increased about 10% compared to 2019 (ie in 1.5 years), when it had decreased to 12.5% ​​(Eurostat 2020r). The very high percentage of young people (and especially in the age category 25-29) who are essentially "away from any major institutional provision of the Welfare State" and constitute a predominantly socially vulnerable group (Papadakis, 2013: 16) is particularly worrying and at the same time indicative of the evolutionary dislocation of the labor market in Greece, indicating, at the same time, the effects of the pandemic on it. It would be an omission not to mention the major (and permanent) problem of the long-term unemployment, as it crystallizes into a structural problem and further detaches the unemployed from the labor market (see Papadakis 2005 for details). In the 1st Quarter of 2021 the percentage of long-term unemployment (15- 74 years) in Greece was 10% (men: 7.5% & women: 13.2% / Eurostat, 2021i), almost four times more than the corresponding European average which was 2.8% (men: 2.6% & women: 2.9% / Eurostat, 2021i).Finally, it is worth noting that in almost all the aforementioned parameters of unemployment, the gender dimension is more than visible. In September 2021, after the complete resumption of economic activity in the summer and the successful tourist season, a significant improvement was observed in some of the critical sizes of the labor market. The total unemployment fell to 13.3% (from 14.6% in July 2021 - it was about the same percentage at the end of 2021) and it fell even further in December 2021 to 12.8% according to ELSTAT. However it remains at the top 3 in the EU-27, according to Eurostat. The reduction of youth unemployment was also significant, mainly due to seasonal work. More specifically, it decreased to 24.5% (from 37.6% in July 2021), it increased slightly in December 2021 reaching 27% (according to ELSTAT) and it still remains very high.
  17. 17. PART B: The role of Micro-Credentials 17
  18. 18. Increasingly rapid advances in technology and the labour market require graduates and professionals in the workforce to be familiar with state-of-the-art knowledge, and to possess the skills and competences needed to make full use of technological and non-technological know-how. Within this context, the role of micro-credentials is of vital importance (see European Commission 2022). It’s true that there are diverse definitions and a a common definition and approach on their validation and recognition is lacking. This causes concerns about their value, quality, recognition, transparency and ‘portability’ (portability between and within education and training sectors, portability on the labour market and portability across countries) (European Commission 2021: 2). According to the European Commission: “Micro-credentials certify the learning outcomes of short- term learning experiences, for example a short course or training. They offer a flexible, targeted way to help people develop the knowledge, skills and competences they need for their personal and professional development” (European Commission 2022). In any case, it becomes clear the need for ‘just-in-time’ skills development that is immediately applicable. Given that, the role of micro-credentials to widen learning opportunities and pathways and strengthen the role of higher education and vocational education and training (VET) institutions in promoting lifelong learning by providing more flexible and modular learning opportunities, becomes gradually accepted. Micro-credentials have a clear existing or potential contribution to reskilling and upskilling through more flexible alternatives and learning pathways than a full degree. Thus, the Commission aims to have all the necessary steps in place by 2025 for their wider use, portability and recognition. 18 1. Preliminary Remarks and definitional issues
  19. 19. The European Commission has proposed ”a strategy to help people develop skills in a rapidly changing labour market and announced a new initiative on micro-credentials in the European Skills Agenda (July 2020). In the Communication on achieving a European Education Area by 2025 (September 2020), the Commission announced a proposal for a Council recommendation to support building trust in micro-credentials across Europe. The Communication said that the recommendation would aim to ensure all the necessary steps for micro-credentials were in place by 2025. An action on a European approach to micro-credentials is therefore included in the Commission’s 2021 Work Programme under the headline ambition “Promoting our European way of life” . The proposal for a Council Recommendation on micro-credentials is presented together with the Commission proposal for a Council Recommendation on Individual Learning Accounts” (European Commission 2021: 1-2). The overall aim is for micro-credentials “to be developed, used and compared in a coherent way among Member States, stakeholders, and the different providers (from education and training institutions to private companies) across different sectors, fields and countries. The (European Commission’s ) proposal aims to support the ongoing work on micro-credentials by Member States, stakeholders and diverse groups of providers across the EU”. (European Commission 2021: 3). Given their importance, Micro-credentials also feature in the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan (March 2021) and the Commission Communication on achieving the European Education Area by 2025 (September 2020). On 16 June 2022, the Council of the European Union (EU) adopted a Recommendation on a European approach to micro-credentials for lifelong learning and employability, that is anticipated to lead the way towards a truly joint and functonal European perspective on micro-credentials. 19 2. EU Initiatives towards micro-credentials
  20. 20.  Association with LLL and increase of participation in training. The EC anticipates that Micro-credentials “will also play a key role in helping to achieve the 2030 target of 60% of all adults participating in training every year” (European Commission 2021: 3). Increasing the employability of workers, via the expansion of short training courses, mainly those certified by micro-credentials, Strengthening the role of Higher Education and its association to Society at Large: In its Resolution of 18 February 2021 on “a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training towards the European Education Area and beyond (2021-2030)” the Council calls for: “strengthening the key role of higher education and VET systems in supporting lifelong learning and reaching out to a more diverse student body. Exploring the concept and use of micro-credentials can help widen learning opportunities and could strengthen the role of higher education and VET in lifelong learning by providing more flexible and modular learning opportunities, and offering more inclusive learning paths”. (European Commission 2021: 4). Indeed, “’higher education […] can also further engage adults, promote upskilling and reskilling, and play a role in lifelong learning through flexible alternatives to full programmes, by exploring the concept and use of a European approach to micro-credentials” (EC 2021: 4). 20 3. Key Goals
  21. 21. Within the framework of the development of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area, joint indicators were developed aiming at reflecting the learning outcomes (knowledge-skills- competences) and the qualifications (such as the Diploma Supplement) of the students and graduates (see Conference of Ministers responsible for Higher Education, 2003) and subsequently increasing visibility and accountability all across Europe (see Zgaga 2007: 36-37). What is really important here is the specific role accredited to higher education. Higher Education is perceived as a prime mover towards the enhancement of human capital, able to change the role of Europe in the world competitive economic arena (Lavdas, Papadakis, Gidarakou 2006: 136). Together with the new reality of reformed structures and the political trend that enhances the role of regional and local authorities as the units that can promote economic development and sustainability (Peters 2007: 133 and OECD 2014b), a third task for the Higher Educational Institutes can be recognized. This task is “the reinforcement of the economic, social and cultural development of regions and cities, in the context of the connection of Higher Education with the so- called “Society at Large” (see Nikolaou & Papadakis 2003: 5)” (Papadakis & Drakaki 2021: 107). Within this context, a new benchmark was added since 2012 in the EU2020 Strategy (which was linked to the Bologna Process), namely the benchmark “Employment rate of recent graduates” (European Commission 2018a: 4). It highlights the emphasis that the EU lays on the harmonization of education (including Higher Education) to employment and the labour market. In fact, this precise target has almost been achieved at the European level, but just for the high skilled (see Papadakis & Drakaki 2021: 108). Higher Education has a potential role to play for the social inclusion of the low- and medium- skilled and the micro-credential can lead the way to such an inclusive approach. 21 3. Key Goals
  22. 22. Tackling with social vulnerability and increasing socio-economic inequalities (including digital inequalities) by providing to socially vulnerable groups flexible and recognized (micro-credentials as ‘small volumes of learning’ instead of ‘short learning experiences’ – see EC 2021: 7- visible in the labour market) ways to increase their employability and subsequently social inclusion. Inequality is widely regarded as a threat to social cohesion and the long-term prosperity of EU societies (see European Commision 2017b: 9 and Wilkinson & Pickett 2010). It should be noted at this point, that a major deficit (so far) in the LLL is the under-representation of socially vulnerable groups and low skilled (Papadakis 2022), which is still visible and remains a challenge. As European Commission points out in 2018, low-skilled adults, -who need more than anyone else the access to learning,- participated the least in learning, while the age group of adults aged 25-34 are almost three times more likely to participate in learning than adults aged 55-64 (see in detail European Commission, 2019: 71-73). Recognition and accreditation, that enhance portability and involves quality assurance mechanisms. In terms of VET, ECVET is a feasible pathway. When it comes to Higher Education, micro-credentials correspondence to ECTS (based on learning outcomes and level descriptors) could be achievable via the relevant institutional arrangements. I.e. the new Legal Framework for Higher Education in Greece (Law 4957/22, Α. 121) assigns to the University Centers for Continuous Education- Training and LLL (KEDIVIM) the definition of micro- credentials related to learning outcomes, while it refers to KEDIVIMs’ ability to correspond their LLL programmes to ECTS. It should be noted that “in the Council conclusions on the European universities initiative, the Council invites the Commission and the Member States to ’jointly explore the necessary steps to enable to test the use of micro-credentials in higher education in order to help widen learning opportunities and to strengthen the role of higher education institutions in lifelong learning” (EC 2021: 4)’. The above-mentioned legal arrangement in Greece is an and important step towards this direction. Further, it should be noted that aiming at facilitating the transfer and use of qualifications across different countries and education and training systems, the European MOOC platforms (including EADTU) has launched a Microcredential framework (Common Microcredential Framework (CMF) which is viable and well- documented. The above-mentioned framework “fits into the European Qualification Framework for Lifelong Learning, which combines learning outcomes in higher education and in professional training. The CMF indicates the size of a MOOC program in terms of workload (the Standard entails 4-6 ECTS / 100 to 150 hours of study time) and level (level 6-8 in the EFQ, bachelor, master and third cycle level)….. while it provides the option for Level 5, in combination with ECTS)” (EMC 2022). 22 4. Key Challenges & Conclusions
  23. 23. Within the above-mentioned context of initiatives, skates and challenges, the enhancement of the involvement of stakeholders (i.e the ones involved in the context of the European Qualifications Framework Advisory Group) and social partners in the whole framework of planning and implementation of micro- credentials becomes conditio sine qua non. Despite the diverse existing definitions and forms- schemes and given that micro-credentials complement the existing national processes in organizing education and training, employment, or labour markets, an actual joint European approach, based on the Council of the European Union Recommendation on a European approach to micro-credentials for lifelong learning and employability, is of vital importance, 23 4. Key Challenges & Conclusions
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  27. 27. 27 Statistical data where derived from the following Eurostat sources: Employees by educational attainment level, sex, age and full-time/part-time employment (%) [edat_lfs_9907] http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=edat_lfs_9907&lang=en Inactive population by sex, age and citizenship (1 000) [lfsa_igan] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsa_igan&lang=en In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by age and sex - EU-SILC survey [ilc_iw01] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_iw01&lang=en In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by full-/part-time work - EU-SILC survey [ilc_iw07] http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_iw07&lang=en In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by type of contract - EU-SILC survey [ilc_iw05] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_iw05&lang=en Main reason for part-time employment - Distributions by sex and age (% [Ifsa_epgar] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsa_epgar&lang=en Part-time employment and temporary contracts - annual data [ifsi_pt_a] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsi_pt_a&lang=en Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment, by sex and age (%) [lfsa_eppga] http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsa_eppga&lang=en Population on 1 January by age and sex [demo_pjan] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=demo_pjan&lang=en Ratio of young people in the total population on 1 January by sex and age [yth_demo_020] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=yth_demo_020&lang=en Temporary employees by sex, age and duration of the work contract (1000) [lfsa_etgadc] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=lfsa_etgadc&lang=en Unemployment by sex and age – annual data [une_rt_a] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=une_rt_a&lang=en Youth employment by sex, age and educational attainment level [yth_empl_010] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=yth_empl_010&lang=en Youth unemployment by sex, age and educational attainment level [yth_empl_090] https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=yth_empl_090&lang=en

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