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[EADTU-EU Online Summit] 4. Empowering Education by Artificial Intelligence

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© UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED)
EMPOWERING EDUCATION BY ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE
EADTU-EU ONLIN...

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© UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED)
Personalised Learning (Background)
AIED Developments
Roadmap ...

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© UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED)
Key questions first
Fact: HEIs have been more focused on Educa...

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[EADTU-EU Online Summit] 4. Empowering Education by Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) EMPOWERING EDUCATION BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE EADTU-EU ONLINE Summit 2020: “Digital Transformation and Innovation in Education” Jesus G Boticario jgb@dia.uned.es
  2. 2. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Personalised Learning (Background) AIED Developments Roadmap towards personalised learning
  3. 3. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Key questions first Fact: HEIs have been more focused on Education rather than learning Basic Key Questions: Do we know what we are aiming at? Is THAT Personalised Learning (PL)? Do we know how to support personalised learning? Do we REALLY know what is use-centred learning-design-xxx?? What topics are to be included in a roadmap to support PL at HEIs?
  4. 4. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Background PL Topics What do we know?
  5. 5. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Background PL Projects What has been developed? • ADAPT• DM • UM• HCI-FD 10 27 2117 OSA ISO/IEC/IMS … UX CSCL UCD AFFECT SAERS
  6. 6. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) WHAT MAKES YOU DIFFERENT?
  7. 7. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Catering for differences …? PL = Myth ??
  8. 8. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Are we following the right approach? Basic principles (Huber, 2008) Constructive + Active + Self-regulating + Situated + Social: Learning is a Personal and individual- centred process to enjoy getting new competences and skills Failures ????? ”A wonderful opportunity to learn!"
  9. 9. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Engagement based on LD + AIED Natural Model (learning-centric) (Schank & Cleary, 95; Pozo, 87) Suggest goals + ask questions + develop answers » Ultimate objective: Learning: subject nature (DUSTIN, CHIPWORLD, GUSS) (Kaleidoscope, 2006) (Taiylor y otros, 2005) (Mitchell, 2004; Lainema, 2005; Ben-Zvi, 2007) (Kass y Guaralnik, 1991) (Berger etal., 2001; Jermann etal., 2001; Barkley etal., 2004) (Anderson 1993; Wood & Kieras, 2002; Burleson & Picard, 2004) (Kolodner, 1993) www.ai-cbr.org Elaborar respuestas Metas Aprender mientras se actúa Plantear cuestiones Aprender accidentalmente Aprender reflexionando Enseñanza mediante casos Aprender explorando Failure oriented Collaboration Goals Learning while doing Casual learning Ask questions Reflective learning Dev. Answers Case-Based Learning Exploratory Learning
  10. 10. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 1rst Period Envisioning Personalised Systems Setting the grounds Recommending: Actions / Values THEO AGENT Dent L., Boticario J.G., McDermott J., Mitchell T. and Zabowski, D. (1992). A personal Learning Apprentice. Proceedings of the Tenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI92, 96-103, (1992). AAAI Press 227 Citations
  11. 11. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 2nd Period 1st AIED Personalised Systems ErrorTechnique 12.75MAI-10 11.21Ltree 22.24NB 16.02C4.5 E3/Ensemble Clarifying the best approach Textual recommendations Actions: R: “We recommend you… check out `HELP´” E. Gaudioso, J. G. Boticario, "Towards web-based adaptive learning communities", In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2003, Eds. U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo; J. Kay, Sydney, Australia, 237--244 (2003) 70 Citations
  12. 12. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Standards / Learning Design Learning from arguable approaches <imsld:locpersproperty identifier="resourcetest4.score"> <imsld:datatype datatype="integer" /> <imsld:initialvalue>0</imsld:initialvalue> </imsld:locpersproperty> <imsld:learning-activity identifier="LA-task41"> <imsld:title>4.1. Impressionism Evaluation</imsld:title> <imsld:activity-description> <imsld:item identifierref="resource-test4" /> </imsld:activity-description> <imsld:complete-activity> <imsld:when-property-value-is-set> <imsld:property-ref ref="impeval-good-enough"/> <imsld:property-value>true</imsld:property-value> </imsld:when-property-value-is-set> </imsld:complete-activity> </imsld:learning-activity> <imsld:conditions> <imsld:if> <imsld:greater-than> <imsld:property-ref ref="resource-test4.score"/> <imsld:property-value>5</imsld:property-value> </imsld:greater-than> </imsld:if> <imsld:then> <imsld:change-property-value> <property-ref ref="impeval-good-enough" /> <property-value>true</property-value> Practice Contact Tutor QTI re-test Remediation QTI test Inductive/visual Deductive/verbal Yes No Yes No Learning Style Property value? Mastered QTI test? Mastered Re-test? Practice Contact Tutor QTI re-test Remediation QTI test Inductive/visual Deductive/verbal Yes No Yes No Learning Style Property value? Mastered QTI test? Mastered Re-test?
  13. 13. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Standards / Learning Design Learning from arguable approaches Boticario, J. G., & Santos, O. C. (2007). An open IMS-based user modelling approach for developing adaptive learning management systems. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1–19. Collaboration with Professor Rob Koper (dspace.ou.nl) and his team with publications totalling over 100 citations
  14. 14. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Agente coordinador Agente de modelo Agente de material Navigation Agent 1: User Request 2 Forward request 2 forward request Data Base 3 Request Value 3 Request Value 3 Request Value 4 Respond: <advisor> <value> 4 Respond: <Advice> <value> 3 Request Value Subsistema de modelado Agente pedagógico Coordinator Agent Agente de material Pedagogic Agent Model Agent Modelling subsystem Navigation Agent 2 2 3 3 3 3 Request Value3 Request Value ML-Agents Modelling the User Learning the best approach Castillo, L., Armengol, E., Onaindía, E., Sebastiá, L., González-Boticario, J., Rodríguez, A., ... & Borrajo, D. (2008). SAMAP: An user-oriented adaptive system for planning tourist visits. Expert Systems with Applications, 34(2), 1318- 1332. 141 Citations PhD F. H. del Olmo: AIED01, UM03, AH04 → UM05 (what is the cost of providing a recommendation?)
  15. 15. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) CSCL + SNA & OLM CSCL Promising Results Antonio R. Anaya and Jesús G. Boticario. (2011). Application of machine learning techniques to analyse student interactions and improve the collaboration process. Expert Systems with Applications. 38, 2,1171-1181. 63 Citations (Anaya et al., 2013; 2016: ESWA), (Anaya & Boticario, 2013: IJAIT), (Anaya et al., 2015: EDM; CSCL), (Santos & Boticario, 2013: AIED –Affect*), (Santos & Boticario, 2014: SCP), (Santos & Boticario, 2015: EXSY) (Lobo etal., 2016: EXSY), (Lobo et. al., 2013: AIED; 2014: UMAP)
  16. 16. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 3rd Period Bringing EVERYONE on board Inclusive Education Large-scale adaptive systems (UM + UX → FDA) User agents Assistive Technologies
  17. 17. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Grounds settled Large-scale European Projects Accessibility & Standards W3C Web Accessibility Initiative: WCAG (contents), ATAG (authoring tools), UAAG (user agents) ISO 24751, IMS-LIP, IMS-AfA, IMS- MD, IMS-CP, IMS-MD, IEEE-LOM, IMS-RDCEO, ISO/IEC TR 24763, IMS-QTI, SCORM, W3C CC/PP, etc. User Modelling Individual & CSCL (interaction needs, preferences, learning styles, CSCL indicators...) Record / Mining + Knowledge
  18. 18. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) LMS- EVATutor Support Needs Assessment Accessibility support Upload and tagging Material Accessibility Support + Communication Needs Description Evaluation Material Adaptation Needs Related Guidance Accessibility Evaluation & Guidance Adaptation Request & Supervision Trans- formation Tagging Supervision Feedback Resource-Course Feedback Profesor Student Student Personalised resource Librarian Format adaptation expert Resource Feedback Resource Feedback UM MR CP RS Curse Accessibility Senior Manager Decision Taking DM Framework component EU4ALL eService Disability Officer Boticario, J. G., Rodriguez-Ascaso, A., Santos, O. C., Raffenne, E., Montandon, L., Roldán Martínez, D., & Buendía García, F. (2012). Accessible lifelong learning at higher education: outcomes and lessons Learned at two different PilotSites in the EU4ALL Project. In Journal of Universal Computer Science (Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 62-85). 45 Citations
  19. 19. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Courses Accessible Digital Materials (3 editions) ICT accessibility in public procurement (3 editions) Human- Computer Interaction. Design for All and Support Products (4 editions) Mobile phones accessible to everyone (3 editions) Accessibility in customer service Accessible housing for all (2 editions) 2016 Kick-off 2018 6.300+ students enrolled 900+ students completed AA compliance with WCAG 2.1 for both edx platform and materials All audiovisual materials have captions, Spanish Sign Language and oral narration of visual information
  20. 20. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Adaptive Learning Life Cycle Still Pending ?? Design Phase Admin Phase Interaction Phase Audit Phase aLFanet, ADAPTAPlan, FAA, ALPE, EU4ALL Over 350 citations HCI + UM + LD + PL
  21. 21. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Text-based Recommenders in Education Cautious Approach aLFanet, …EU4ALL…,MAMIPEC, BIG-AFF Don’t worry keep trying… Santos, O. C., & Boticario, J. G. (2015). Practical guidelines for designing and evaluating educationally oriented recommendations. Computers & Education, 81, 354-374. 57 Citations
  22. 22. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) New Teaching and Learning Opportunities • AGENTS INTERACTING • DEVICES COMMUNICATION SUPPORT Ambient Intelligent Systems Multimodal UM Approaches
  23. 23. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Detecting Modelling Acting Towards? From Motivation Affective Computing Affective computing impact on learning (Picard et al., 2014) [Engagement ?] (Henri et al., 2015)
  24. 24. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Sensitive AMI Multimodal UM New Observable Features RFID tracking Movements tracking Face tracking Pressure tracking Physiological signal tracking
  25. 25. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) AICARP Sergio Salmeron-Majadas, Ryan S. Baker, Olga C. Santos, and Jesus G. Boticario. A Machine Learning Approach to Leverage Individual Keyboard and Mouse Interaction Behavior from Multiple Users in Real-World Learning Scenarios. IEEE Access Vol 6 (1), 1-26, December 2018. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2854966 Sensors 2019; Behaviour & Information Technology, 2018; IEEE Sensors 2016; AIED, 2015; Scientific World Journal 2014; UMAP 2017-14; EDM 2014- 2013; ICALT, 2014, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 2014 …
  26. 26. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación
  27. 27. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación
  28. 28. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) The promise of AIED Administration: admissions, study scheduling, management, attendance records, failure and dropout prediction... STI: Alef Education, ALEKS, alta, Area6 learning, Assistments, Bjvu, Century, CogBooks, Dreambox, iReady, Mathia, Realizelt, Smart Sparrow, Summit Learning, Toppr, Yixue Tasks: Dialogue-based support systems, Exploratory learning environments, Automatic assessment from free texts, Social learning support, Collaborative learning (CSCL), Continuous assessment, Learning partners (mentor- support), Student monitoring, ... Holmes, Wayne; Bialik, Maya and Fadel, Charles (2019). Artificial Intelligence In Education: Promises and Implications for Teaching and Learning. Boston, MA: Center for Curriculum Redesign. AIED > 40 years
  29. 29. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Digital Transformation: Transversal support Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación
  30. 30. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación From massive …
  31. 31. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e InnovaciónTo the potential of massive…
  32. 32. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación
  33. 33. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación We cannot turn a blind eye!
  34. 34. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación AI at HEIs to support NEW WAYS of TEACHING and LEARNING based on PERSONALISATION
  35. 35. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación Personalisation needs Big Data and Learning Analytics
  36. 36. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación Digital Distance Data Education … and Open
  37. 37. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) UNED Roadmap towards personalised learning 1. Ethical and social issues 2. Data gathering 3. Data analysis 4. Evidence based-interventions 5. Putting in place predictive models
  38. 38. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación 1st step: Framework for the ethical use of data
  39. 39. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 1. Ethical and social issues Reach an agreement on the guiding principles on the use of data. Develop those principles in an official regulation, with the participation of the community. Publish useful and accessible documents, tailored for the different stakeholders, which explains and bind data use, giving orientations about opt-out mechanisms.
  40. 40. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 2. Data gathering Prepare a data inventory Develop a single data warehouse Increase usefulness of entry/exit students surveys Increase usefulness of assessment questionnaires (courses, degrees) Publish an anonymized dataset to promote research in an out of the Institution Develop an incentives programme for in-house research: funding for masters, PhDs, prizes, hackatons...
  41. 41. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 3. Data analysis 1. Develop a student model based on segmentation and clustering techniques 2. Establish protocols to produce standard or on demand reporting (for courses, degrees, faculties…) 3. Develop operational analysis systems to produce real time progress reports for students 4. Develop real time visualization tools and dashboards for stakeholders 5. Through the use of available data, comparatively analyse the diversity of methodologies present in the University 6. Analize different definitions of dropout rates to establish causes and possible solutions
  42. 42. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 4. Evidence-based interventions Develop and promote intervention protocols to improve courses and test it with a reduced set of selected courses. Establish exchange agreements with other universities' to share educational experiences repositories Develop an AI-based recommender system (A2ERS) to suggest interventions based on a diagnostic for a specific course/subject
  43. 43. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) 5. Putting in place predictive models Develop recommender systems for enrolment and course selection. Develop early alert indicators to trigger possible interventions with students at risk. Develop student at risk predictive systems as input to recommender systems Increase understanding of academic performance through interpretation of predictive models Develop “zero-history” models for newly created courses Study implementation of these predictive models across and within diversity of methodologies present at UNED
  44. 44. © UNED©Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Objetivos generales: GICCU / Generation contents /courses
  45. 45. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Sharing + Sharing + Sharing Innovation HUB (by IUED) EXPERIENCES INNOVATIONS RESEARCH PRODUCTS INFORMATION PROCESSING I N T E R N A L REPORTS USE CASES INTERNATIONAL TRENDS E X T E R N A L DATA PACKETS (RECORDS) SEARCH (e.g., best practices, guidelines, licenses, software, etc.) RESOURCES C0URSES, LISTS, SHARI Q+A, ETC (SHARING!!!) TOOLKITS CONSULTANCY S E R V I C E S METADATA UNED METADATA UNED METHODOLOGY METADATA WEBSITES Research on Educational Innovation(2007-2019) Institutional Awards and Recognition (Social Advisory Board) IUED – Degrees + Masters BoD / Panels LAK to Identify Best Practices
  46. 46. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Conclusions We have to harness AIED to reinforce our institutional identity • Our know-how has evolved for 50 years around the design and development of flexible, blended an online learning environments • Offering flexible and learner-centred solutions to an increasing variety of learners’ needs/expectations/goals/preferences/affective issues… Renewing our commitment with our mission statement • Work for equal opportunities in access to higher education • Promote social inclusion for • Non-achievers in the transformation of labor markets. • People with physical and cognitive disabilities • People in penal institutions, migrants and refugees • People & Institutions who are currently struggling with the unexpected situation To find our place in the changing ecology of HE
  47. 47. © UNED© Vicerrectorado de Digitalización e Innovación (UNED) Thank you Muchas gracias

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