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2015 p. henderikx the changing pedagogical landscape

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Conference Hagen 2015

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2015 p. henderikx the changing pedagogical landscape

  1. 1. The Changing Pedagogical Landscape Open and Flexible Higher Education Conference Fernuniversitaet, Hagen, 29-30 October 2015 Piet Henderikx, EADTU 129-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape
  2. 2. 229-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape “The Changing Pedagogical Landscape” – New ways of teaching and learning and their implications for higher education policy
  3. 3. Case study Authors and Contributors • Heike Brand (FernUniversität in Hagen) • Uwe Elsholz (FernUniversität in Hagen) • Rüdiger Wild (FernUniversität in Hagen) • Sergi Sales (UPCNet) • Oriol Sanchez (UPCNet) • Pierre Jarraud (Université Pierre et Marie Curie) • Antoine Rauzy (Université Pierre et Marie Curie) • Danguole Rutkauskiene (Kaunas University of Technology) • Egle Butkeviciene (Kaunas University of Technology) • Darco Jansen (EADTU) • George Ubachs (EADTU) • Eva Gjerdrum (Norgesuniversitetet) • Jens Uwe Korten (Høgskolen i Lillehammer) • Jan Kusiak (AGH University of Science and Technology) • Agnieszka Chraszcz (AGH University of Science and Technology) • Keith Williams (OUUK) • Karen Kear (OUUK) • Jon Rosewell (OUUK) 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 3
  4. 4. Lead Authors • Jeff Haywood (University of Edinburgh) • Louise Connelly (University of Edinburgh) • Piet Henderikx (EADTU) • Martin Weller (OUUK) • Keith Williams (OUUK) 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 4
  5. 5. Advisory Board Members • Maria Kelo (ENQA) • Paul Rullmann (SURF) • Stefan Jahnke (ESN) • Yves Punie (IPTS) 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 5
  6. 6. Steering Committee • Jeff Haywood (University of Edinburgh) • Noelia Cantero (Brussels Education Services) • Koen Delaere (Brussels Education Services) • Sergi Sales (UPCNet) • Piet Henderikx (EADTU) • George Ubachs (EADTU) 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 6
  7. 7. This study was commissioned by the European Commission to provide research analysis for, and recommendations to, European governments that would aid them in promoting greater innovation in pedagogy and in the use of technology in higher education. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 7
  8. 8. Countries selected France, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 8
  9. 9. Research methodology • Desk research was carried out into worldwide developments in pedagogies and the use of technology in higher education • A research analysis of the policies of these countries towards innovation in the use of technology and pedagogy in higher education, and the investments that had been made over recent years. • Expert interviews: HEI’s, governments, intermediate organisations • A Delphi study was performed to gain an insight into the thinking of European university staff with good experience of innovation in pedagogy and the use of technology. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 9
  10. 10. Final report: six sections • Introduction • A review of change and turbulence in the higher education system Development and barriers in: • Curriculum design and delivery • Quality assurance • Funding regimes • Recommendations for immediate action at European and national levels. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 10
  11. 11. SYSTEM LEVEL OBSERVATIONS 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 11
  12. 12. Largely unchanged pedagogical approaches At present it is probably true to say that technology is used within and alongside largely unchanged pedagogical approaches. There was no evidence in the literature, nor in our case studies, that suggested that traditional universities were offering the majority of their Bachelor or Master degrees in formats that would enable students to study at a distance (e.g. online) or to vary their rate of progression, nor to be able to study in different modes at the same time. Although innovation is taking place very widely across Europe, it still forms a very small fraction of total higher education provision. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 12
  13. 13. INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 13
  14. 14. Promising institutional strategies 1 • “The university has developed an institution-wide educational strategy for the next six years. This institutional approach to innovation is discussed by all stakeholders, the Board and educational committees. It concerns the production of MOOCs and SPOCs as well as on campus blended education. Innovation is not only coming from pioneering staff anymore. Staff and faculties are working in the framework of broader policy objectives. The educational strategy is pushed by the Board and is accompanied by an institutional funding plan”. • “In education, one should think about an eco-system with different aspects: the educational system, action planning, new didactics, ICT/videos, community management, ICT, inter-disciplinary content… From there, an organic growth will emerge, improving blended teaching and learning, MOOCs, etc.” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 14
  15. 15. Promising institutional strategies 2 • “Finally, the capacity of the university’s educational system will be enlarged. By new modes of teaching and learning, new sectors can be developed, such as online CPD, online international masters, OERs and MOOCs; ICT become an enabler of new educational sectors for the university, reaching out to the whole world”. • “By this approach, the LLL or CPD policy of the university becomes more systemic and less dependent from individual staff taking mainly small scale initiatives with a local outreach”. • “The sectors of LLL, CPD and international education are financially very important for the university, as demographics will slow down, the funding per student is diminishing with lower state support and the fees will be under pressure. As a research university, the income of the institution must not stagnate, but the loss on income cannot be sufficiently compensated by new students. New markets are important to ensure the increase in staff you need for research. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 15
  16. 16. BLENDED EDUCATION 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 16
  17. 17. Blended education • “Blended, on-campus curricula will be the standard situation, now for 15-20% of the courses. The institutional vision is based on activating education, decreasing passive education in lecture halls. Courses are designed and re-designed to an optimum, incl. project-based learning, case studies, group-work, all in combination with lectures” • “The educational development is clearly going to blended education. Online learning is then integrated in the course as face to face education is. In most cases, the online part is not complimentary or self-sustaining, it is not isolated from the other parts of a subject”. • “Presential education will always exist. Online education will intensify the contact with students. Formative assessment will personalise feedback to students, which is not possible in another way in view of student numbers”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 17
  18. 18. CONTINUOUS EDUCATION AND CPD 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 18
  19. 19. Continuous education, CPD • “For our university, continuous education is a clear opportunity for the future, supporting people to learn or to update knowledge on engineering and architecture, allowing them to access more qualified jobs and to be more competitive in their professional environment. This opportunity could lead to exploring new models of teaching and learning in collaboration with companies”. • “Most innovative will be launching online programmes for professionals, e.g. an international online course of 30 ECTS in sustainable technologies for a broad group of engineers world-wide, which so far didn’t have such course. It works with selected small groups and fees are paid. It is tutored and flexible, overcoming global time zones. In a first instance, a course in solar energy will be organized online, which gives access to a new type of post- initial certificate”. • “With these online LLL-programmes, the university is trying to update alumni, but the reach-out is meant to be worldwide”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 19
  20. 20. SYSTEMIC INNOVATIONS 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 20
  21. 21. Systemic innovations 1 • “Three faculties (Arts, Social Sciences, Law) have developed innovation plans. They are considered as the experimentation space of the university. The approach is curriculum-wide, not just subject- related. Reports are set to a steering committee and then to the Educational Council with the all vice-deans for education” • “MOOCs are innovations, which work through in on campus education” • “Formative assessment online in the Faculty of Psychology. The faculty plan requires that for each subject, assessment online and personalised feedback mechanisms for students are developed. Within three years, all subjects will apply a form of formative assessment on line”. • “Online international master programmes are developed” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 21
  22. 22. Systemic innovations 2 • Flipped classroom solutions, a course built in cooperation with students (1 teaching staff, 5 student-assistants and an educational expert • Online courses for working professionals, e.g. international online engineering courses of 30 ECTS (specific certificates). They are fee- paying and work with selected small groups, they are tutored and flexible, overcoming global time zones. • The objectives of online teaching and learning are: improving the quality teaching and learning; organizing flexible education for new target groups in the world (CPD, post-initial education); keeping a high reputation as a university. Hence, the organization of online education (incl. MOOCs) is an impulse for innovation in on campus education. Online education and MOOCs are a lever for innovation 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 22
  23. 23. INNOVATION AND STAFF 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 23
  24. 24. Innovation and staff • “The motivation of staff to be involved in educational innovation is related to visibility, reputation and quality (as is the case in research)” • “Involvement of staff in MOOCs and continuing education, raising reputation and visibility is a major factor for innovation in the mainstream afterwards” • “Increasing the efficiency of education (dealing with large student numbers, decreasing the cost per student) was not the primordial goal of implementing educational change, but quality. At the end, staff motivation is closely linked to the research agenda of staff” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 24
  25. 25. OPEN AN DISTANCE TEACHING UNIVERSITIES 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 25
  26. 26. Open and distance universities 1 • “The Open Universiteit is implementing a complete re-organisation of the curriculum, offering flexibility but with more structure. This reform takes two years as a consequence of performance agreements with the government. The re-organisation is top-down led and faculties create frameworks, redesigning new curricula with a stronger teaching component, based on more (online) interaction with students and between students of the same cohorts. This is a fundamental reform, supported by the Welten research institute. As it was top-down steered, it caused resistance and innovation cycles are required. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 26
  27. 27. Open and distance teaching universities 2 • “Fernuniversität’s strategy plan refers to an improvement of teaching, the strenghtening of subject-specific research and academic further education for students, who don’t want to graduate, but to achieve individual academic goals. The University Plan takes into account the increasing heterogeneity of the student body with regard to age, educational biography and different levels of knowledge and educational goals. In the future, Fernuniversität will focus on issues as: the permeability between vocational and higher education; the recognition of studies abroad and of prior knowledge, individual skills and qualifications; flexible entrance to studies; individualization of studies; and digitization” • “Digitization by new media, supporting the individual learning process. More important topics are the mobility of learning, the improvement of internet- search, better human-machine-interfaces, augmented reality and tele- immersion. Nevertheless, study and regional centres will still exist for face to face meetings and exams” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 27
  28. 28. Open and distance teaching universities 3 The Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC, Barcelona) is organising its courses almost completely online. The most representative methodologies are: - the student-centered virtual classroom, building on learning activities designed for independent learning on a time line with the learning activities a student has to undertake - automatic assessment with a tool by which students are weekly assessed and automatic personalized feedback is given - project-based learning, where students are grouped to design a project in different phases within their sphere of knowledge - virtual laboratories as a virtual space, where students are able to carry out practical activities with networking devices. The support structure for new modes of teaching and learning is The eLearn Center (eLC), UOC’s e-learning research, innovation and training centre 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 28
  29. 29. A complex landscape The higher education landscape is also complex: • There are three cycles of degree provision • Many universities and colleges offer continuing professional development (CPD) and lifelong learning • Open education has “come of age”. • Higher education is no longer solely for national citizens, with both intra-European student mobility and, in some countries, transnational education for those outside Europe, which is becoming an increasingly important part of the economy as an “education export”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 29
  30. 30. The complex pedagogical landscape 30 Blended degree education: three cycles Blended degree education: three cycles Online open education through OERs and MOOCs Online open education through OERs and MOOCs Blended and online CPD, CLP’s and non-degree education Blended and online CPD, CLP’s and non-degree education 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape TransnationalNational
  31. 31. Three areas of provision Online open education and knowledge sharing area, pushing knowledge online into the public domain: OERs, MOOCs, open media, open access/open innovation materials – preferably designed and arranged according to the needs of user groups/networks Blended degree education zone, backbone in the education system to develop complex academic and professional competences: bachelor, master, PhD – increasingly blended solutions to raise quality for growing student numbers. Higher education systems provide flexibility for lifelong learners. Blended and online education and training on demand, valorisation of knowledge to support innovation in the public and private sector, based on research and development. Flexibility requires online or blended solutions, such as (virtual) seminars, CPD, knowledge alliance and corporate university initiatives, short learning programmes programmes, master classes, expert schools, etc. It includes knowledge networks for professionals or business sectors. The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 3129-30 October 2015
  32. 32. FUNDING ISSUES 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 32
  33. 33. Funding levels (EUA) In many European countries, funding has not been favourable during recession and even now in many EU countries the levels of funding for higher education are falling. These disparities in funding are prohibitive for a balanced further system development in the European Area of Higher Education. In many European countries, universities can’t keep an equal pace with current developments and often there is no sign of funding levels returning to 2008 levels. Beyond this, it should be noted that even in systems with increasing or stable levels of funding, the expenditure per student starts to decline. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 33
  34. 34. Decreased funding levels • A range of countries have dramatically cut in the funding for higher education. This is the case for Greece (more than 50%), after the impact of the financial and economic crisis; Hungary (about 45%); Latvia (over 40%); and Lithuania (about 36%), where also the student population has dropped with 27%. • In Ireland, public funding is below 35% and student numbers have increased with 15%. • In the United Kingdom, the loss of teaching subsidies by 36% has been compensated by a reform of the tuition fees. Universities are able to charge three times more. That also happened in Spain with a smaller adjustment, with a decrease of funding of 16%, only partially compensated by tuition fees. • Decreases of 8 % in the funding levels for higher education are reported in Croatia, Slovenia and Slovakia. • In other countries, a “depressed funding equilibrium” seems now to have been reached in the Czech Republic (18% below the 2008 level), Serbia (10%) and Italy (21%). 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 34
  35. 35. CHANGE AND TURBULENCE 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 35
  36. 36. Turbulence, disruption in the European higher education system Although the Delphi experts did not generally foresee radical change taking place within European higher education in the next 10 years, i.e. the disruption proposed by some writers, they did anticipate substantial modification of the existing system, with more online learning, more open education and greater flexibility being introduced. To ensure that European higher education is capable of adapting to these changes, and is sufficiently flexible and agile to grasp the opportunities and manage the pressures, a robust and regular dialogue is needed between the key stakeholders in the higher education system in each country. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 36
  37. 37. RECOMMENDATION 1: MACRO-LEVEL 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 37
  38. 38. Recommendation 1 At European and national/regional levels, all policies and processes (including legislation, regulation, funding, quality assurance, IT infrastructures, pedagogical support for teachers) must be aligned to prevent conflicting actions and priorities. These policies and processes should support and promote innovation in pedagogies and greater use of technology, and a vision for change should be expressed through national strategies. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 38
  39. 39. What governments do (R1) • In the Netherlands, policy development concerning online education only recently came on the governmental agenda. Some 2,5 years ago, the MOOCs movement has played an important role to make online education an actual theme. Since then, it is definitely seen as a development with a great potential, supporting a diversity of strategies of the ministry and of HEI’s, including blended education, lifelong learning, open education and international education • Since the venue of MOOCs, the Ministry has organised meetings with frontrunner universities to develop knowledge and understanding. Also visits to the US were organized. • Based on these meetings, a ministerial vision has been developed bottom- up, expressed in a letter of the Minister to the Parliament. In this letter, the Minister is positioning online education as an important development in higher education. Also, in her letter the Minister promised not to come with new regulations, but to leave space for experimentation and innovation. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 39
  40. 40. What institutions say (R1) • The Norwegian MOOCs Commission is of the opinion that digitalisation of higher education in Norway has not progressed quickly enough, and that the institutions’ ability to deliver has been too weak. If the responsibility is placed solely on the institutions, the Commission feels that the development will not proceed quickly enough. Consequently, the Commission is of the opinion that national authorities must facilitate increased digitalisation of higher education through national initiatives to support the institutions’ work in developing MOOCs. The national initiative should take place over a five-year period. The need for further initiatives beyond this period should be considered. The Commission proposes a national initiative amounting to an annual total of NOK 130 – 380 million. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 40
  41. 41. What institutions say (R1) • “Support from the public authorities is needed, national and European” (NL, DE, PL,…)” • “Generally, e-learning is not practiced in order to save costs, but to increase the quality of teaching. Teachers are able to organise interactions, discussions and exercises. An obstacle to the use of e-learning might be the rather low prestige of teaching in comparison with research. To support innovation, clearer policy signals about the importance of e-learning would be desirable. Teaching at German universities should be upgraded and funds should be available for innovation in teaching and learning in Germany”. • “Policy makers often put all institutions on the same track, broadening innovations. More attention should be given to front-runners, which often have no budget available for innovation. Policy makers have to define their ambition level and should strongly support front-runners, which lay the basis for broad innovations in the sector.” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 41
  42. 42. What institutions say (R1) • “Governments should pay more attention to a higher education system with part–time education for 25 plus (stage +4, +5,+6 during a lifetime)… There should be more reflection on this in a knowledge intensive society, where people work during 50 years. What provisions are to be offered after 25?” • “Government should be prepared to take risks. Innovation can go wrong. The readiness to take risks in our society is relatively low: risks only seem to be acceptable if nothing might go wrong” • “In Germany, the most significant barrier is certainly that the policy level is not thinking long term enough to effect structural changes. Currently, the structural context, influenced by policy, is strongly oriented on research. Engagement in teaching is rewarded to little”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 42
  43. 43. RECOMMENDATION 2: A COMMON AGENDA 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 43
  44. 44. Recommendation 2 A common agenda should be agreed between the stakeholders in higher education that addresses the challenges of the present as well as shaping a roadmap for the future. This agenda should allow sufficient flexibility to develop concrete actions, particularly at national and regional levels. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 44
  45. 45. What governments do • The Hochschulforum Digitalisierung as a national, independent platform bundles and moderates the dialogue on the potential of digitization of the German universities. In exchange with experts from politics, high school practice, science management, university- related companies and students the opportunities that opened up the digitization of university teaching, are going to be discussed intensively. • The MOOCs Commission in Norway 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 45
  46. 46. What institutions say (R2) • “The Ministry should create a MOOCs-commission like Norway” • “Collaboration between universities is not enough stimulated and therefore not effective” • “Since the venue of MOOCs, the Ministry has organised meetings with frontrunner universities to develop knowledge and understanding on MOOCs and online education. Also visits to the US were organized, jointly with other universities and university colleges”. • R&D in education is done in cooperation between the universities of Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam (LDE-Cel) and in the Centre for Engineering Education of the three technical universities in the Netherlands. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 46
  47. 47. RECOMMENDATION 3: CURRICULUM DESIGN AND DELIVERY 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 47
  48. 48. Recommendation 3 All countries should put in place measures to support universities in their innovation in pedagogies (including learning design and assessment) and in greater use of technology. Establishing dedicated agencies at national level has proven a powerful means of driving change. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 48
  49. 49. What institutions say (R3) • Norway Opening Universities (NOU) is established and supported by the Ministry of Education and Research to promote the development of ICT supported learning and flexible education (Openuniversitet). The main tasks of NOU are project funding, generating and sharing knowledge in the field of lifelong, flexible and ICT-supported learning. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 49
  50. 50. What institutions say (R3) • “Intermediate organizations play a role in the development of new modes of teaching and learning: SURF, VSNU, Open Universiteit” • “The Dutch government might create a centre for education and learning. Delft, Leiden and OU might be a good knowledge cluster, reaching out to Coursera, Edx and other memberships, etc.” • “The Welten Institute of the Open Universiteit is one of the largest teaching and learning research institutes in Europe. It supports innovation in the OU, but might have also a national task in collaboration with innovation institutes in other universities”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 50
  51. 51. RECOMMENDATION 4: EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL METRICS 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 51
  52. 52. Recommendation 4 Building on the strong existing base of digital education, European and national metrics should be established to record the typologies and extent of online, blended, and open education at institutional and national levels. This would enable institutions to compare themselves with others and to monitor their own progress. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 52
  53. 53. What institutions say (R4) • “With regard to funding, you need also performance indicators for innovation” 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 53
  54. 54. RECOMMENDATION 5: CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 54
  55. 55. Recommendation 5 National governments should consider requiring certification of university teaching practice, both initial and continuing (CPD), and that innovation in pedagogy and use of technology should be a core part of this certification. Certification can be used to support research into teaching and learning, which itself is an important part of raising the profile of university teaching. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 55
  56. 56. What institutions say (R5) • All teaching staff follows a university teaching qualification (BKO). The program is agreed in the VSNU (Dutch Foundation for University Education). Twenty percent of the courses are specifically about online education and the re-design of courses (Delft, Leiden). 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 56
  57. 57. What institutions say (R5) • “The university has developed a strategic institutional plan for online/blended courses. An important part of it is that both old and new staff can teach courses online. The employees get this knowledge through training courses, where the university mainly uses their own experts, but also brings in external experts. There are training courses online in addition to supervision and seminars. The university also builds up “expertise packages” for teachers, students, and new staff so that everyone can get a common platform” • “Support for educational innovation is given by The Pedagogical Development Centre (PULS) which is a separate entity under the University Board. PULS started courses in university teaching in 2001, and 277 employees have so far taken the courses. PULS would very much like to see that the state authorities make the courses in university teaching mandatory”. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 57
  58. 58. RECOMMENDATION 6, 7, 8: QUALITY ASSURANCE 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 58
  59. 59. Recommendation 6 National governments should review their legislative and regulatory frameworks and practices for quality assurance and accreditation in higher education (including recognition of prior learning) to ensure that they encourage, and do not impede, the provision of more flexible educational formats, including degrees and other ECTS-bearing courses that are fully online. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 59
  60. 60. Recommendation 7 National QA agencies should develop their own in-house expertise and establish processes that are sufficiently flexible to include recognising and supporting new modes of teaching and learning. They should evaluate institutions on their active support of innovation (or importantly, the lack of it), and its impact on the quality of teaching and learning. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 60
  61. 61. Recommendation 8 ENQA and other relevant European networks should support the sharing of good practice by national QA agencies in the development of criteria on the recognition of new modes of teaching and learning. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 61
  62. 62. RECOMMENDATION: 9 FUNDING PRIORITISING INNOVATION 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 62
  63. 63. Recommendation 9 Governments should consider prioritising innovation in their funding approaches, using funding mechanisms such as performance-based funding, funding allocated to large-scale innovation, and funding for excellence, in order to invest continuously in modernising their higher education systems and stimulate early uptake of innovation and new pedagogies. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 63
  64. 64. What governments do: performance-based funding (R9) • In the Netherlands, next to block funding, from 2012 more than 5% of the education budget comprises conditional funding, which is available only on the basis of a performance agreement between each university and the Ministry. Currently, these agreements relate to performance indicators as quality and excellence, study success, lecturing quality, contact hours and the reduction of indirect costs. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 64
  65. 65. What governments do: project funding (R9) • Sometimes, project funding is out-sourced by public authorities to agencies or intermediate organizations, which are specialized in the field. In Norway, Norway Opening Universities (NOU) is established and supported by the Norwegian government to promote the development and use of technology for ICT supported learning and flexible education. On behalf of the government, NOU announces annually project grants concerning the development and use of technology for learning, flexible education and the cooperation between higher education and work supported by e-learning. • In Spain, the Research and Analysis program organises from 2003 projects on teaching innovation and curriculum analysis. The grant may finance all or part of the requested budget of a project, up to 30.000 €. At the beginning, these calls were mainly used to improve curricula of degree programmes. Now they are more focusing on promoting educational innovation (around 12 M€ in the last 9 calls). 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 65
  66. 66. What governments do: project funding (R9) • In the UK, public project funding of innovative teaching initiatives in higher education is much reduced at present. UK funding opportunities are now very limited and universities must fund developments predominantly from their mainstream income sources. • Earlier, a series of Teaching and Learning Technologies programmes has effectively provided funding for the development and evaluation of e-learning resources and pedagogies. • Consequent on the reductions in government funding has been a major reduction in the resources available to the National Subject Centres that acted as centres of expertise and resource curators in particular subject areas. These centres enabled networking amongst academics engaged in pedagogic innovation. In recent years, their work had been coordinated by Higher Education Academy. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 66
  67. 67. What governments do: excellence funding (R9) • The French “Initiatives d’excellence en formations innovantes numériques” (IDEFI-N) is part of the action “Investissements d’ Avenir” by the “Agence Nationale de Recherche”. In 2015, it aims at supporting fifteen ambitious projects which have sufficient reach and strategic impact to create a new dynamics of transformation in the entire sector of higher education, based on new modes of teaching and learning (online learning). The projects last 3 to 5 years. The IDEFI-N initiative is active since 2010 and it has a dotation of 12M€. It is open for partnerships between universities or between businesses and universities. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 67
  68. 68. What governments do: ear-marked funding (R9) • The Federal Government has ear-marked about 2 billion Euros for The Qualitätspakt Lehre” from 2011 to 2020 - a sign of a commitment to higher education teaching heretofore unknown in the history of German higher education policy. A total of 186 institutions of higher education in all 16 states benefit from this funding: 78 universities, 78 universities of applied sciences and 30 art and music colleges. But for the most of the funded projects it must be said, that e-learning activities are not in the main focus, but at best have flanking character. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 68
  69. 69. What governments do: ear-marked funding (R9) • In North Rhine-Westphalia, the annual quality improvement funds in (Qualitätsverbesserungsmittel, Studiumsqualitätsgesetz) amount to at least 249 million Euros. They were initiated to compensate the absence of tuition fees from the winter semester 2011/2012. These so-called tuition fee replacement funds, are distributed to universities according to their number of students and must be used for the improvement of quality in learning and teaching. These funds are an addition to the university's basic funding. They are not meant to raise the capacity level of universities, but to be used for additional human resources, such as hiring teachers and tutors. So, essentially the quality improvement funds are aimed to improve the student‐teacher ratio. However, new and innovative modes of teaching and learning are not mentioned in the law. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 69
  70. 70. RECOMMENDATION 10: FUNDING ENABLERS 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 70
  71. 71. Recommendation 10 To be effective and systemic, this funding should strengthen the enablers of innovation at the system level, including - leadership for institutional change, learning technology tools and course design, professional development of teachers, communities of practice , the development of shareable resources and the support of evaluation and research evidence. Collaboration within and between institutions should be stimulated. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 71
  72. 72. RECOMMENDATION 11: COST ASSESSMENT 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 72
  73. 73. Recommendation 11 Governments should stimulate higher education institutions to assess the costs and benefits of blended and online education, in order to maximise their effectiveness in making use of new modes of teaching and learning for degree studies, as well as for continuing education and open education. 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 73
  74. 74. Course Resource Appraisal Model, UoL (R11) 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 74
  75. 75. BUSINESS MODELS: AN HOLISTIC APPROACH 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 75
  76. 76. Business models: a holistic approach 76 Regulated, fee paying Regulated, fee paying Non- regulated, diverse business models Non- regulated, diverse business models In the public domain, open and for free, services paid In the public domain, open and for free, services paid 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape
  77. 77. Thank you! Piet Henderikx piet.henderikx@eadtu.eu 29-30 October 2015 The Changing Pedagogical Landscape 77

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