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BS 2 Building services-bangsar-village-1

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BS 2 Building services-bangsar-village-1

  1. 1. Page 1 of 187 Table of Contents Page 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 1.2 Acknowledgement------------------------------------------------------------------2 1.3 Project Objectives------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.4 Project Outcomes-------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.5 Project Requirements--------------------------------------------------------------3 2.0 Literature Review and Onsite Research Analysis 2.1 Chapter 1: Mechanical Ventilation and HVAC system 2.1.1 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------5 2.1.2 Literature Review 2.1.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation--------------------------------------6 2.1.2.2 Air Conditioning---------------------------------------------8 2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System---------------------------------------10 2.1.3.1 Case Study – Bangsar Village 1--------------------------10 2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System 2.1.4.1 Case Study – Bangsar Village 1--------------------------12 2.1.4.2 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart----13 2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant------------------------------------------------------14 2.1.6 Chiller---------------------------------------------------------------------16 2.1.7 Cooling Tower-----------------------------------------------------------22 2.1.8 Air Handling Unit (AHU)----------------------------------------------24 2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit------------------------------------------------------------28 2.1.10 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------31 2.2 Chapter 2: Electrical Supply System 2.2.1 Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------33 2.2.2 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------35 2.2.3 High Tension Room----------------------------------------------------37 2.2.4 High tension room components and devices------------------------38 2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of high tension room--------------------------------------------------------------39 2.2.6 Analysis and observation based on observation of low voltage room--------------------------------------------------------------40 2.2.7 Genset Room-----------------------------------------------------------49 2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006----------------------------------------50 2.2.9 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------50
  2. 2. Page 2 of 187 2.3 Chapter 3: Mechanical Transportation System 2.3.1 Literature Review--------------------------------------------------------52 2.3.2 Hydraulic Elevator (Cargo Lift) --------------------------------------52 2.3.3 Components--------------------------------------------------------------53 2.3.4 Operating Panel----------------------------------------------------------58 2.3.5 Machine Room Less Elevator (Passenger Lift)---------------------60 2.3.6 Components--------------------------------------------------------------63 2.3.7 Escalators-----------------------------------------------------------------69 2.3.8 Escalator Arrangement 2.3.8.1 Parallel Stacked Arrangement------------------------------------70 2.3.8.2 Crisscross Arrangement-------------------------------------------70 2.3.8.3 Components-------------------------------------------------71 2.3.8.4 Safety Features---------------------------------------------72 2.3.9 Travelator----------------------------------------------------------------73 2.3.9.1 Inclined Travelator-------------------------------------------------74 2.3.9.2 Components-------------------------------------------------75 2.3.10 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------75 2.4 Chapter 4: Fire Protection System 2.4.1 Chapter Introduction---------------------------------------------------77 2.4.2 Literature Review------------------------------------------------------77 2.4.3 Introduction To Fire---------------------------------------------------82 2.4.3.1 Science Of Fire--------------------------------------------84 2.4.3.2 Panic Behaviour-------------------------------------------89 2.4.3.3 Onsite Research and Analysis---------------------------91 2.4.3.3.1 Active Fire Protection System-------------92 2.4.3.3.2 Passive Fire Protection System-----------161 2.4.3.3.3 Potential Hazards---------------------------177 2.4.4 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------184 3.0 Final Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------185 4.0 Reference List----------------------------------------------------------------------------186
  3. 3. Page 3 of 187 1.0INTRODUCTION Bangsar Village offering over 110,000 square feet of retail space, Bangsar Village l &ll is a boutique shopping centre catering to high-income residents in the Telawi area. Opened in 2004, the complex houses over 70 specialty stores mainly made up out of international fashion labels and quirky cafes. The twin buildings are connected via a sheltered pedestrian sky-bridge which is accessible via the first floor. A family- friendly venture, this complex is a favourite haunt of the city‟s young urbanites and expatriate community. Stores stocking luxury and household items are spread across Bangsar Village‟s two wings and cover just about every brand name imaginable, although the new wing houses the brunt of its fashion apparel selections.
  4. 4. Page 4 of 187 1.1 ABSTRACT The research report will be looking into the workings of the services system in Bangsar Village 1 such as the Mechanical Ventilation & Air Conditioning System, Electrical Supply System, Mechanical Transportation System and Fire Protection System. The report will aim at introducing the fundamentals of all the mentioned systems as well as an analysis of the system that have been analyzed and synthesized to our own understanding and also based on the regulations of buildings and its services such as Uniform Building By Law (UBBL). Requirements and adherence will also be analyzed based on each services respected controlling arm. 1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank Mr Yong to allow our team to visit Bangsar Village 1 building as he brought us for a tour around the building through the prominent service rooms such as electrical rooms, lift motor rooms, chiller room, fire fighting system room. Apart from that, he provided us with all of the necessary information throughout the building including statistics information and schematics drawing. We are grateful that he relentlessly explaining the systems of each room and the machines within. Without his helps, we won‟t be able to finish the project with the require information. Lastly, a special thanks we would like to give to Mr Adib for guiding us through each tutorials and providing us with an aim to accomplish.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 187 1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES 1. To introduce students to the basic principles, process and equipment of various building services systems through real life project (experiential learning). 2. To expose students to the integration of various building services systems in a building. 3. To allow students to demonstrate their understanding of building services systems 4. To develop students‟ understanding and familiarity on the drawing conventions and standards for different building services systems 1.4 PROJECT OUTCOMES 1. Identify and understand relevant information related to water and electrical supply, sewerage, mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning as well as fire protection systems. 2. Understand how each building services functions including the connections and position of different parts equipment. 3. Understand and explain the principles and systems as well as space implications and regulations related to different building services
  6. 6. Page 6 of 187 1.5 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Identify all the required building services components installed in the building. Perform a thorough study on all the services systems; i) mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system, ii) electrical supply system, iii) mechanical transportation system, and iv) fire protection system Obtain estimate dimensions and sizes of the spaces required for all the equipment and plant rooms identified. Provide brief explanation on how the building services components function. This explanation shall be in qualitative form and therefore no calculation is required. Summarize the systems in diagrammatic form.
  7. 7. Page 7 of 187 2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
  8. 8. Page 8 of 187 2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING 2.1.1 Introduction Mechanical ventilation systems circulate fresh air with ducts and fans and make up for the unreliability of natural ventilation systems. However, with the mechanical provision of constant airflow from the outdoors, the admissible air quality has to be well sustained. This can be achieved through the use of diffusers and more importantly, the placement of inlet and outlet ducts in a building. Air conditioning is basically the control of temperature, humidity, air quality, air movement & heat radiation through mechanical systems in order to achieve human thermal comfort. Human thermal comfort is define by ASHRAE the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55). Heating, cooling, dehumidification, humidification, ventilation, and sterilization are different methods for air conditioning in a building.
  9. 9. Page 9 of 187 2.1.2 Literature Review 2.1.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical ventilation is the air movement from one space to another and the supply of fresh air at the same into the air conditioned spaces. Mechanical ventilation is a way of forced or induced ventilation by using mechanical air handling systems. It helps in controlling the humidity, contaminants, air borne particles and general air quality. For the intent of transporting and removing air from a space, a few components such as blowers, fans, filters, and ducts are used in mechanical ventilation. A building ventilation system with the usage of powered fans or blowers to provide clean air to rooms when the natural forces of air pressure are not sufficient for the optimum air circulation in a building. Mechanical ventilation is utilized to control indoor air quality, excess humidity, smells, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replaced them with the outside air. PRESSURE SYSTEM is a system where the air pressure in the building is slightly greater than that of the outer atmosphere to allow the air blown through the building by a fan or other blower placed at the inlet. VACUUM SYSTEM is a system where occurrence of an inrush of fresh air done by an exhaust fan placed at the outlet to the vent flue or stack. The air pressure in the building is slightly lower than that of the outer atmosphere. Figure 2.3.1.1: Fresh air is introduced into the building with mechanical air filter system while the heat is distributed out from the building naturally (through openings). Source: www.new-learn.info Figure 2.3.2.1: The hot air is vacuumed out from the space with the help of the mechanical fan system installation in the building and then, the hot air is moved out from the building while the fresh air flows into the building naturally (through opening). Source: www.new-learn.info
  10. 10. Page 10 of 187 BALANCE SYSTEM is a system consists the combination of pressure system and vacuum system in order to supply fresh air and extract stale air at the same time using fan. The amendment done in this system is to achieve slight pressurization of the air inside the building by using an extract fan smaller than inlet fan, to prevent dust, draughts and noise. This combination is able to help to provide sufficient fresh air into the space or building as well as extract the heat efficiently out from the building with the help of mechanical ventilation „balance system‟. Installation of fan and fresh air filter system together in a building helps to extract the heat out from the exterior spaces and provide fresh air into the building itself to achieve thermal comfort. Source: www.new-learn.info
  11. 11. Page 11 of 187 2.1.2.2 Air Conditioning Air conditioning in a building primarily achieves five factors: a) Thermal comfort (control air temperature and humidity) b) Ventilation (control air circulation and quality) c) Health (minimal smoke, dust, etc.) d) Performance (improve workers‟ and machinery efficiency) e) Equipment (lengthen machinery lifespan) Two main cycles are involved in air conditioning, namely, the refrigerant cycle and the air cycle. Refrigeration is a process that removes heat from an enclosed space in order to lower and maintain room temperature. Heat inside a room is transferred through the evaporator and removed to the outside air through a condenser. On the other hand, the air cycle is a process of distributing conditioned air through ducts or chilled water pipes into an enclosed space. Air or water can be used to absorb the heat where returning air absorbed by the evaporator slowly removes latent heat from the enclosed space as the internal air becomes cooler. Basic principle behind the refrigerant cycle:
  12. 12. Page 12 of 187 Basic principle behind the air cycle:
  13. 13. Page 13 of 187 2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System 2.1.3.1 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1 Wall fans are part of the mechanical ventilation systems but they do not provide real ventilation because they don‟t introduce fresh air into a space. The use of wall fans is to circulate air within a room for the purpose of bringing down the perceived temperature by the method of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupiers. A wall fan is found at the entrance of the stock placement store. It is installed above the door and provide ventilation to the workers but the air circulation is limited. The vacuum system is used in Bangsar Village 1 where stale and hot air is extracted by means of fans to the building exterior. It creates an air pressure in the building that is slightly lower than that of the outer atmosphere. Wall Industrial Metal Fan found at the entrance of the stock placement store. Wall Industrial Metal Fan Source: http://zsyonghua.en.made-in-china.com
  14. 14. Page 14 of 187 An axial fan is installed in the Low Voltage (LV) Room, is located at the basement level of Bangsar Village I. Axial fan can be differentiated from each other by the type of blades. The blades force the air to flow parallel to the shaft and in linear direction. One of the advantages of axial fan‟s usage is to allow both direction of the wind flow, either sucking or blowing. The axial fan installed in LV room rotates in clockwise direction and directes the air out of the way as the fan‟s specification is shown in Figure 2.4.1.2, which means that the role of this axial fan is to vacuum the hot air out from this room, to optimize the room temperature so that the electrical components in LV room can last longer. Analysis: Mechanical ventilation is clearly barely utilized in Bangsar village 1 except as backup systems. This may be due to the harsh tropical climate especially in an urban setting such as Kuala Lumpur where the building is located that negatively affects users and equipment in the building. Figure 2.3.2.2: Axial Fan in Low Voltage Room Figure 2.3.2.3: Specification of the Axial Fan
  15. 15. Page 15 of 187 2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System 2.1.4.1 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1 Bangsar Village 1 is centrally air-conditioned through an “air and water system.” The main components of this system comprise of the refrigeration plant, cooling tower, air handling unit (AHU) and fan coil unit (FCU). Refrigerant is water-cooled in the plant room and distributed via piping to AHUs and FCUs located throughout the building. In the air system, treated & cooled air is supplied from the AHU and distributed to rooms via a network of air ducts based on a single zone ducting system where conditioned air is delivered at a constant temperature at low velocity. On the other hand, the water system is defined by the employment of FCUs which are independent units that each draw a mixture of outdoor and indoor air over their coils of chilled water supplied through piping into rooms and recirculates them. Chiller System Overview: Chillers employ either a vapor-compression cycle or an absorption refrigerant cycle to cool a fluid for heat exchange. Nevertheless, both types rely on three common basic principles: a) Liquid heated vaporises into gas, and gas when cooled will condense into liquid. b) Pressure lowered above a liquid reduces its boiling point while pressured raised above a liquid increases its boiling point. c) Heat flows from hot to cold. In Bangsar Village 1, the vapor compression cycle is used to cool water and thereafter, rooms in the building. Using chilled water to cool a building is efficient and flexible. Chilled water also provides accurate temperature control for rooms that are to be cooled. A vapor-compression chiller consists of a compressor, evaporator, condenser and a metering device or valve that circulates a refrigerant. The compressor is a very important component in a vapor-compression chiller as it acts as a pump for the refrigerant. Cooling Tower System Overview: Cooling towers are used together with water-cooled chillers. They remove heat that is carried in the water collected from the chiller. The cooled water is then pumped back to the chiller where it works to cool the condenser coil. There are two common types of cooling towers, namely, induced draft and forced draft. The ones used in Bangsar Village 1 are induced draft towers which feature large propeller fans at the top of each tower (discharge end) to draw air counterflow to the water. They are economical as they require smaller fan motors than forced draft towers for the same capacity. Induced draft towers are also less susceptible to recirculation of exiting warm air, which results in reduced efficiency.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 187 2.1.4.2 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart CT: Cooling Tower FCU: Fan Coil Unit AHU: Air Handling Unit CDWP: Condensed Water Pump CHWP: Chill Water Pump
  17. 17. Page 17 of 187 2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant The refrigeration plant or the chiller room in Bangsar Village 1 is on the basement level. It houses the chillers, chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, control panel and automatic temperature controller. Its location is easily accessible as it is next to the building‟s major entrance. Equipment layout in chiller room:
  18. 18. Page 18 of 187 Other observations: - Ceiling height is measured to be 4000mm with ducting suspended at an average level of 2900mm. - Loud noise emitted by the equipments obstructed any conversation attempted in the chiller room. Nevertheless, the loud noise is isolated in the chiller room and does not affect public spaces. - Natural and mechanical ventilation in the chiller room is provided via an air grille and ducting: - The chiller room is cluttered with old and unused equipment piled up near the doorway: - The chiller room is roughly more than 5% of f the total floor area of the rooms to be air- conditioned in Bangsar Village 1.
  19. 19. Page 19 of 187 2.1.6 Chiller Chillers are usually the largest electricity consumers in a building. They can be water-cooled, air- cooled or evaporatively cooled, typically classified according to their methods of compressing refrigerants. Common compressors are reciprocating, screw, scroll, and centrifugal types. Reciprocating compressors are usually for small applications up to 150 tons, whereas centrifugal compressors are generally for large applications up to 2000 tons. The helical-rotary or screw compressor is used in Bangsar Village 1 which is suitable for medium applications up to 1000 tons. The three chillers used in Bangsar Village 1 are water-cooled screw chiller types which are certified in accordance with ARI Standard 550/590 and are ASHRAE 90.1 compliant. They emit consistent noise at levels above 80dBA when in operation. Five basic components of the chiller used comprise of the compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve and refrigerant. Refrigerant: The chillers in Bangsar Village 1 use the R-132A or HFC-134a refrigerant which is proven to be an optimal refrigerant in chiller applications these days due to its absence of chlorine and and the
  20. 20. Page 20 of 187 fact that it does not contribute to ozone depletion which was an issue with older types of refrigerants. Compressor: The compressor in a refrigeration system functions to raise the pressure of the refrigerant vapor by compressing it, thus causing it to heat up to as high as 200°F, then pumps it to the condenser. Compressors used in Bangsar Village 1 are twin-screw, rotary-screw types. The compressor housing is made of cast iron, precision machined to provide minimal clearance for the rotors. The rotors is manufactured from forged steel. The helical-rotary compressor basically employs two screw-like rotors to trap refrigerant vapor and compress it by gradually reducing the volume of the refrigerant. Oil is used to seal the gap between the two rotors, thus preventing a leak of compressed refrigerant vapor. One rotor is driven by the compressor motor where its lobes would then engage and drive the other rotor, causing the two parts to counter-rotate. This continued rotation of the meshed rotor lobes would drive the trapped refrigerant vapor towards the discharge end of the compressor. Condenser: Based on the external fluid, condensers can be classified as air cooled condensers, water cooled condensers and evaporative condensers. The condensers in Bangsar Village 1 are water cooled horizontal shell and tube types where refrigerant flows through the shell while water flows through the tubes in two passes. The refrigerant enters the condenser in a superheated state and changes from vapor to liquid as great amount of heat is rejected to an external medium. The condensed refrigerant collects at the
  21. 21. Page 21 of 187 bottom of the shell where the coldest water indirectly contacts the now liquid refrigerant and goes through sub-cooling as the liquid refrigerant is drained from the bottom to the receiver. Valve: Valves used in chillers can be categorised into fixed opening types where the flow area remains fixed and into variable opening types where the flow area changes with changing mass flow rates. The slide valve is used in chillers for Bangsar Village 1. The valve basically functions to modulate the flow of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator according to evaporator load requirements so as to prevent any liquid flood backs into the compressor. Evaporator: An evaporator, like condenser is also a heat exchanger. In an evaporator, the refrigerant evaporates changing from liquid to vapor and in doing so absorbs great amounts of heat from the passing water throught indirect contact. Evaporators are classified depending upon the heat transfer process or refrigerant flow. The ones used in Bangsar Village 1 are shell and tube, flooded types which are water cooled where refrigerant flows through the tubes and water flows through the shell. The refrigerant enters the shell through a float valve, which maintains a constant level of liquid refrigerant in the shell.
  22. 22. Page 22 of 187 Basic principle behind the chiller system: Maintenance: - The compressor oil is replaced annually whereas its air filter is washed monthly. - The refrigeration system shuts down at 10pm daily in Bangsar Village 1.
  23. 23. Page 23 of 187 Analysis: - Piping insulation reduces heat gain into the chilled water and therefore the efficiency of the cooling system. Chilled water piping is insulated because the water in it is below the dewpoint temperature. Otherwise, condensate would form on it and heat gain would occur. The goal of the insulation is to minimize heat gain into the chilled water and maintain the outer surface above the ambient air dewpoint. Any cooling effect that is lost due to heat gain is additional load on the chiller plant. In order to make up for the temperature rise, the chilled water setpoint must be lowered to provide the correct supply water temperature at the load. - Jacketing of water pipes (picture on the right) with a type of foam prevents condensation and heat loss to the surroundings which improves system efficiency. Water pipes are generally galvanized iron types, expected to last for 10 years. - Condenser water piping is typically not insulated in Malaysian climate since there will be negligible heat gain or loss between the surrounding daytime temperature of an average 30 °C and its water temperature of an average 32 °C. According to MS 1525 code 8.4, “All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with vapor barriers may be required to prevent condensations under some conditions.”
  24. 24. Page 24 of 187 According to MS 1525 code 8.11.1, At the time of visit, the water from an evaporator in Bangsar Village 1 had a leaving temperature of 44°F (6.67°C) and a return temperature of 54°F (12.22°C). On the other hand, water from the condenser had a leaving temperature of 96.48°F (35.82°C) and a return temperature of 87°F (30.56°C). It is clear that the evaporator‟s performance in Bangsar Village 1 is only slightly short of the Malaysian standard as the chill water cooled is not cool enough by a mere difference of 0.025°C on average.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 187 2.1.7 Cooling Tower Cooling towers function to lower the water temperature in large chiller systems by removing heat energy absorbed by the chiller into the atmosphere through evaporation. Consequently, they need to be connected to a water tank to replace water lost by evaporation. They are usually located on the top levels of buildings or an open space for optimum ventilation. Basic principle behind the cooling tower system:
  26. 26. Page 26 of 187 Analysis: Cooling tower filtration The service lifespan of the cooling tower may be lengthened with the use of a filtration system. Over time, thick layer of solid contaminants would build up in the cold water basin which reduces the benefit of treatment chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors for the basin surface. Filtration of water would alleviate this issue besides reducing maintenance cost in the long run as the solid buildup require removal. Furthermore, there would be less shut-down time for the manual cleaning of cooling towers, thus improving overall efficiency of the system. 2.1.8 Air Handling Unit AHUs function to condition and circulate air through a network of ducts which distributes and returns conditioned air. Each unit is usually equipped with switches and a thermostat to control chilled water flow and the temperature of its cooling coil. An AHU is typically flexible due to its modular assembly where individual components can be
  27. 27. Page 27 of 187 assembled into one unit (usually a large metal box). Below are common components of an AHU: a) Supply duct b) Fan compartment c) Vibration isolator (flexible joint) d) Heating/cooling coil e) Filter compartment f) Mixed air duct g) Blower
  28. 28. Page 28 of 187 The diagrams below illustrate the dynamics between the air conditioning system and mechanical ventilation system where air is distributed and collected through ducting with the aid of mechanical supply and exhaust air fans:
  29. 29. Page 29 of 187 7 of 8 AHUs are located on the first floor of Bangsar Village 1. The other one is located in the basement level. This may be due to the convenience of location and the flexibility of a relatively small building area. The total AHU room area is more than 3% of the floor area serviced by the AHUs. AHU
  30. 30. Page 30 of 187 The photos above show diffusers installed on supply air ducts from AHU. According to the maintenance person in charge, all diffusers on walls are installed on supply air ducts in Bangsar Village 1, but not all ceiling diffusers are installed on exhaust air ducts. The photo on the right is an example of a round diffuser installed on a supply air duct in the electrical room. It is of the single duct – single zone system.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 187 2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit The Fan Coil Unit (FCU) is a part of HVAC systems commonly employed in buildings with space constraints. Unlike Air Handling Units (AHUs), FCUs do not require ducting. Two types of motors can be installed in a FCU, either the Direct Currect (DC) motor or the Electronically Commutated (EC) motor. FCUs installed in Bangsar Village I employ the DC motor due to its energy efficiency. FCUs aid in air circulation within a room by supplying and extracting air at the same time. There is a total of 24 FCUs in Bangsar Village 1. Most of the FCUs are found at the basement of the shopping mall. FCUs can be found in either residential, commercial or industrial building. It is a device consisting of a heating or cooling coil and a fan. A typical FCU is not connected to ductwork. It functions to control the temperature in a space, or multiple spaces. It can be controlled by manual switch or by thermostat. The advantage of installing FCUs in a building is that it is more economical to install than ducted or central heating systems with air handling units and FCUs allow installation in a building with space constraint as well.
  32. 32. Page 32 of 187 The chilled water is piped to the FCU which located within the space and the chilled water pipe is connected to the cooling coil of FCU. The air in the space is drawn into FCU where it is cool or dehumidified. The FCU has filter located at the fan to filter the air, with the purpose of reducing the level of air borne contamination within the air condition space. Any change of air temperature pressure in the room will cause the room thermostat to send signal to the automatic valve so that it will be opened or closed to regular the chill water flow into FCU. This function is to able to provide the right amount of cooing to the circulating air. Diagram of Fan Unit Coil with Detailed Component Source: www.tpub.com Diagram of connection between Chiller Pump and Fan Coil Unit Source: http://www.oceanbreezeac.com/motor_coach.php
  33. 33. Page 33 of 187 Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 41: Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning 1) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority. 2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half-an-hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less that the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air conditioning system is not functioning. 3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated or air conditioned. 4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors. Chilled Water pipe connection in Fan Coil Unit Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QI0O5xZ3liI Air filter located at the bottom of the fan to filter the air
  34. 34. Page 34 of 187 2.1.10 Conclusion The mechanical and air conditioning system in Bangsar Village 1 is fairly well designed and maintained. Economy of space is utilized as seen in the refrigeration plant and steps were taken to improve machinery efficiency such as for the water piping and cooling tower. Building laws are generally conformed to and very little fault was to be found in the operating system.
  35. 35. Page 35 of 187 2.2 Electrical Supply System
  36. 36. Page 36 of 187 2.2 Electrical Supply System 2.2.1 Literature review In Malaysia, Tenaga Nasional Berhad is the largest electrical utility company that are involved in activities of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Supply of electricity is connected with power from hydroelectric or thermal plants through a network of transmission system which are made up of transmission networks, substations and distribution lines. Above shows the national grid network of Malaysia, from the power station 25KV of power is produced, but in order to transmit power supply to the whole country step-up transformers steps up the voltage to 132KV or higher. Voltages in the national grid system have to be maintained in a high level to prevent power loses. Step-down transformers will then step- down the power to usable levels to the heavy industry 33KV, light industry 11KV and to homes 230V or 400V. In addition, transmission voltages that are provided by TNB networks are 500kV, 275kV and 132kV, whilst the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 400/230 volts. Substations provide necessary monitoring, protection and control of the circuits under manual control or SCADA supervision. Substations are high- voltage system facility, it changes AC voltages to other levels or to DC voltages. In general, elements within a substation are primary breaking devices, transformer, switchgear, relays, meters, SCADA system, cables or bus duct and communication cables. Figure 3.1 shows the national grid network Diagram 3.1 shows the overall electrical supply system to Bangsar Village I
  37. 37. Page 37 of 187 Bangsar Village receives 11KV from the TNB distribution substation nearby that supply 11/33KV. This TNB distribution substation is larger compared to the indoor TNB substation and it has rather larger transformer, more switches and equipment. Bangsar Village I have an indoor TNB substation that receives power from the distribution substation and steps-down to usable voltages. This TNB substation is not accessible by the management due to high voltage that is hazardous. z
  38. 38. Page 38 of 187 2.2.2 Introduction Bangsar Village I is a 3 storey building that has a monthly electrical bill of RM 303,000. Electrical supply is critical in running the shopping centre; electricity is needed for many systems such as ventilation, mechanical and other appliances (refrigerant).Below is the flow supply of electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I. Diagram 3.2 shows the electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I TNB room, High tension room, Low voltage room and Gen-set room locate side by side to reduce occurrence of voltage loss through travel distance, due to the resistance in the transmission cable. gh Tension Room Scale 1: 600Diagram 3.3 shows the placement of the voltage rooms and gen-set room Scale 1:600
  39. 39. Page 39 of 187 2.2.3 High Tension Room High tension room is also known as the high voltage room, the components include TNB meter, check meter, battery for mechanics, 2 transformers and vacuum circuit breakers. All the components in HT room have to be checked every year by the government corporate Suruhanjaya Tenaga (Energy commission of Malaysia) regulator to renew the licence. Figure 3.2: Figure 3.3: Figure 3.4: Placement of equipment in HT room Schematic diagram License
  40. 40. Page 40 of 187 2.2.4 High tension room components and devices Electrical metering Figure 3.5 TNB electrical meter Figure 3.6 Electrical check meter TNB meter measures the electricity consumption and demand of the building in (watt-hour) meters. Figure 3.5 shows an electronic meter that is commonly used nowadays; it use current, voltage transformer and microprocessors to record data. In addition, a check meter is added beside the TNB meter for accurate billing of electrical demand and consumption. Electrical battery Figure 3.7 iSCADA system and DC distribution board Figure 3.8 24V DC supply battery bank Battery is widely used in the industry for many purposes due to its affordability. There are various kinds of battery but, the only limitation of it is the size and weight factor. To generate a vast amount of power supply, larger storage space is required therefore, it is not suitable to be used for long-term electrical supply. Battery generates electrical energy by the conversion of chemical energy from the electrochemical cell. The electrical energy generated is called the direct current that has electrical charges which only flows in one direction whereas alternating current has electrical chargers that flow in reverses direction. Batteries in high voltage room are used by the electrical protective devices and SCADA system. Protective devices are also called as the secondary equipment, thus, in an overcurrent situation the vacuum circuit breaker functions from the DC supply to the main power supply. Figure 3.7 shows a DC distribution board that includes a charger which regulates and charges the battery. Figure 3.8 shows the 24VDC battery bank. SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) technology that provides monitoring and control distributed systems from a central location. This system enables the manager to monitor and control process of electrical distribution, once there is a fault in certain sections, the system would analyse and isolate the faulty section and remain other energised sections. It functions as a switch capacitor and operator.
  41. 41. Page 41 of 187 Alternating current is supplied from TNB and is used for the heater within the units to avoid condensation which triggers rusting and deterioration of equipment. Electrical battery generates direct current and has to be replaced when it expires. Vacuum circuit breaker Vacuum circuit breaker is preferred in the high voltage room; it is an overcurrent protective device that prevents conductors from high current by opening the circuit. Within the VCB contains a fuse it functions as a fusible link that melts and opens when there is an overcurrent condition. Figure VCBs are located in panel boards. VCBs can be used as disconnects for installation and maintenance of other electrical devices. Step-down transformers In order to distribute power over long distances, voltage is raised to increase the efficiency. Through increasing voltage current is reduced correspondingly. Utilities use transformers throughout the grid system to step down voltages down to usable levels of loads. Bangsar village I has 2 sets of transformers. These transformers step down high voltage current to 415V and 2000A, 4000A of power supply for bangsar village 1 in the total of two transformer. Transformers of Bangsar village I have to conduct maintanance service in 2 year interval. Temperature readings are shown though the digital panel in front of the panelboard for referrencing and recording purposes. From our observation, transformer No.2 has a higher Figure 3.9 VCBs Figure 3.10 exterior panel Figure 3.9 Manual switch Figure 3.11 -2 Transformers within the panel boxes Figure 3.12 Temperature reading
  42. 42. Page 42 of 187 temperature reading compared to transformer No.1; when electricity demand increases, temperature within transformer increases. Cable trench cover slab There are many major cables under the floor of high tension room; the underfloor cables are covered by the cable trench cover slab throughout the room. Sand is added as an insulator to prevent over heating of cables. Figure 3.13
  43. 43. Page 43 of 187 2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of high tension room Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I: Figure 3.14 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Danger sign board on the door Air conditioned Air conditioning switching box To maintain the safety of high tension room, air conditioner was added to maintain a cooling environment for the equipment. This is because high room temperature damages the equipment and will cause electrical and fore hazards. Precautions that should be taken based on observation: Figure 3.17 broken cable trench slab and little amount of sand From the figure 3.17 above of the broken cable trench, the underfloor cables are exposed and are very dangerous for the maintenance staff during work. As a suggestion, broken cable trench should be replaced and the level of sand should be added till optimum amount.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 187 3.5 Low voltage room Figure 3.18 Low voltage room Figure 3.19 Low voltage room schematic diagram Components in the Low voltage room include Main switchboards, bus bar coupler, air circuit breaker, bus duct, MCCB capacitor bank, sub switchboards, distribution boards, panel boards, earth leakage relay. 3.5.1 Low voltage room components and devices Main Switch Boards Figure 3.20 Main Switch board No.1 Figure 3.21 Main Switch board No.2 A switchboard divides the power distribution system into units; in general it supplies power to panel boards throughout the building. Each switchboards are protected and controlled by electrical disconnect switches and circuit breaker. There are 2 main switch boards in the low voltage room. The step down transformers distribute electricity through under floor cables to their respective switch boards. In Bangsar Village I, each switch board has its own assigned zones of distribution. Switchboard No.1 is for is assigned to the most of the tenants in Bangsar village I and switchboard No.2 is assigned to mostly public areas, least tenants and the generator set. Within the switchboards has a meter that records electrical supplied to the zones. Below is the example of a comparison between the readings of the switchboards. Readings of main switchboards: Switch board No.1 (Tenants) R: 950 Y: 870 B: 783
  45. 45. Page 45 of 187 Switch board No.2 (Least tenants, public area facilities and generator set) R: 1376 Y: 1400 B: 1375 Figure 3.22 The reading from switch board No. 2 is more than the readings of switch board No.1; the sum of No 2 zones electrical usage is more than No 1 zone usage. This is because zone 2 consist more areas of the building compared to zone 1. The main switchboards are under warranty and maintenance services are done every two year to ensure that the switchboards are in good and safe condition. Figure 3.33 Maintenance service sticker from manufacturer Bus bar Coupler Bus bar coupler is a device that is used to couple one bar to the other without any interruption in power supply. This device has conductor such as metal, it is usually supported by insulators covering the bars while exposing the connection points. Bus bar coupler is positioned in the centre of main switch board 1 and main switch board 2 for shorter route for the transmission of power. Figure 3.34 Figure 3.35 BBC between MSBs Figure 3.36 ACB In the bus bar coupler panel, it has two components which are bus bar distribute and air circuit breaker. During electric break down, bus bar coupler has to be on manually or on through SCADA system and it acts as a standby power transmitter between the two switchboards. Below is a functional example of a bus coupler during a shutdown of transformer No.2. Main Switch board No 1 Bus bar coupler Main Switch board No 2
  46. 46. Page 46 of 187 Scenario: Maintenance services of Transformer No. 2 Figure 3.37 shows overhead current transmission cable from the main switchboard No. 1 to the feeders. Essential Main switchboard Figure 3.38 During emergency, essential main switchboard supplies power to equipment that are essential. Air circuit breaker Figure 3.39 Air circuit breaker Figure 3.40 Figure 3.41 Inspection tag from manufacturer Main Switch board No 1 Power source from Transformer 1 =2000A; Retain 1300A for electricity supply to dominant zone. Bus coupler Transfers 700 A from MSB 1 to MSB 2 Main Switch board No 2 Receives 700A from MSB 1 and supplies to the other zone.
  47. 47. Page 47 of 187 Air circuit breaker is commonly used in the low voltage room, it functions when there is an over current. Overcurrent can be the result of ground fault, shot circuit and over load. Air circuit breaker interrupts the current flow and condensed air becomes the medium of the arc of disconnected circuit. Air contains oxygen; oxygen ignites sparkles during the manual setting. After a power breakdown, precautionary actions should be taken during turning the manual open button on; maintenance staff would stand by the side of the panel box and keep the door open for escape. Figure 3.41 shows an inspection tag from the manufacturer, maintenance is required to ensure a safe environment for maintenance staff.
  48. 48. Page 48 of 187 Incoming supply from main switchboard Figure 3.42 above shows the schematic diagram of incoming supply from main switchboard Capacitor bank and moulded circuit breaker (MCCB) Figure 3.43 Figure 3.44 Capacitor bank switching Figure 3.45 10 steps of single unit To improve the quality of electrical supply, moulded circuit breaker acts as a protection device to prevent explosion of capacitor bank. During an occurrence of over current, the switch mechanism within MCCB will open and disconnect the current. In an electrical failure, MCCB also protects the electrical system by shutting the connection of the faulty capacitor to prevent explosion. Isolated switch Figure 3.46 Figure 3.47 – 9 sets of triple pole switches
  49. 49. Page 49 of 187 The switching of electricity is the alternation between energized and de-energized states by opening or closing of the conductor in a circuit. It can be summed as the complete interruption or resumption of the electrical power to a device. Switching is accomplished with sets of contact that make or break multiple contacts simultaneously. A pole term is a set of contacts that belong to a single circuit. A throw term is a position that a switch can adopt. Figure 3.47 shows 9 sets of triple pole switching which has to be reset manually after and overcurrent condition. In addition, having multiple switching can be an advantage when identifying the problem of the faulty switch. Earth leakage relay Relays can function as an automatic switch which is also a separate electrical circuit. This earth relay circuit has 13 components and every component have their own air circuit breaker. There is a digital meter displaying digital data of the device. The mechanical manager of the building has a check list on the readings from the relay device. The setting of the meter was done by the mechanical manager, which is 0.3A in 1 sec. If the electric power exceeds the reading the fuse in the air circuit breaker will open and cut the electrical supply. Panel board Figure 3.51 A panel board functions as a distribution board, this elements is used to divide and supply electricity with the collaboration with protective devices. It is made up of fuse links, bus bars, switches and circuit breakers. Figure 3.51 shows the wall mounted power distribution cabinet containing overcurrent protective devices for lighting, appliances, or power distribution branch circuits. Figure 3.48 Figure 3.49 Earth relay setting plate Figure 3.50
  50. 50. Page 50 of 187 Sub- panels Figure 3.52 above shows several sub panels of chiller plants and the public toilet Bus duct Figure 3.53 Main cables that are assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures, it brings the main power into the building. Emergency light control panel Figure 3.54 emergency lighting control panel in the LV room
  51. 51. Page 51 of 187 Emergency lighting system provides lighting to the emergency situation, escape routes, corridors and stairways, exit doors are lighten. This lighting system important during a fire, it ensures the visibility of escape routes and increase the speed of evacuating people out of the building. This emergency light panel operates when there is an electrical shortage, DC current from the battery is supplied to this control panel and the emergency light throughout the building will be lighted up. Cable tray system Figure 3.55 cable tray systems on the LG floor Raceway cable-tray systems are preferred because of their accessibility and ability to accommodate change. This kind of setting allows ease in changing cables and also facilitates the inspection of cables. Current is supplied from the low voltage room through the cable tray system and send it throughout Bangsar Village I shopping mall.
  52. 52. Page 52 of 187 2.2.6 Analysis and observation based on observation of low voltage room Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I: Figure 3.56 shows the entrance of Low voltage room has a green light indicating the room is under a safe condition. Furthermore, the room is air conditioned thus the original louvered doors have to be covered with a piece of solid wood to prevent cool air from escaping the room. Rubber mats are placed on the floor beside the main switch boards for safety measures as above figure 3.57. It acts as a cushion that protects the maintenance crew from becoming a conductor during leakage of high voltage current. Years before voltage rooms are not equipped with air condition services, the rooms were heated up and stuffy when the maintenance staffs conduct their check-ups and works. Due to mainly discomfort and damages to the equipment, the maintenance manager decided to set up air condition services in the voltage rooms. Figure 3.58 shows a thermometer showing temperature of low voltage room that is maintained at 24 Celsius degree, to ensure equipment is not heated up to have better efficiency. Precautions that should be taken based on observation: Figure 3.59 Figure 3.60 Above the figure 3.59 the cooling fan on the left was not functioning. It should be fixed or replaced to prevent overheating of the equipment within the panel box. Used batteries are left low voltage room figure 3.60; used batteries should be disposed properly to prevent the leakage of the chemical within the cell Figure 3.56 Figure 3.57 Figure 3.58
  53. 53. Page 53 of 187 3.6 Electrical riser room Figure 3.61 Figure 3.62 Figure 3.63 An electrical riser room figure 3.56 has distribution equipment such as switchgears and distribution panels that supplies electricity AC current to a particular level in a building. Electrical riser room is located in every floor of Bangsar Village I, electricity is distributed through a series of cable try system to the risers around the building. Figure 3.63 shows series of switching of tenant of the shopping centre, when there is an electric fault in one of tenant electrical supply can be shut through the switches in this riser room.
  54. 54. Page 54 of 187 2.2.7 Genset Room Bangsar village I uses diesel generator as the secondary power source to generate power during power failure. The generator set figure 3.64 has been used once last year, every year supplier of the generator will conduct a maintenance service and issue a letter to prove the functionality during emergencies. This Gen- set generates 600A and the diesel tank figure 3.65 has a capacity of 2000 litre. This Gen-set has to go through a maintenance service every year to check on the efficiency of the engines. Figure 3.67 shows the letter issued by the authority. The diesel generator is connected to the switchboards of the low voltage room through cables as shown in figure 3.68 and 3.69. When the Gen-set is on for emergency electrical supply, the engines of the Gen-set will release heat and the room would be heated up. Figure 3.70 and 3.71 shows the ventilation specially design to excrete the heated air and absorbs fresh air into the room. Figure 3.65 diesel tank Figure 3.66 control panel of Gen- setFigure 3.64 diesel generator set Figure 3.68 over head cableFigure 3.67 maintenance letter Figure 3.69 cable from gen-set to low voltage room Figure 3.70 Figure 3.71 Gen-set room ventilation
  55. 55. Page 55 of 187 2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006 From our analysis, Bangsar Village I had fulfilled section 253 (1), (2), (3), (5 a&b). Emergency power supply is provided from the diesel generator set that functions as the power source during power failure. The generator set provides power during emergency, such as smoke control system in the atrium, fire alarm system, fire pumps, public address systems and fire lifts. In the high voltage room, there is a storage battery that provides DC voltages when is needed during power failure. 2.2.9 Conclusion Bangsar village is a well-known shopping mall that functions well every day to ensure a happy visit to its shoppers. From this statement, I believe that the maintenance team has done a great job in managing the systems in this building. The electrical supply system runs efficiently due to minor modification for the rooms such as adding air conditioning system. Furthermore, many precautions are taken by the management to ensure a safety working environments for the maintenance team. Maintenance of the rooms and equipment are done frequently as they have log books record of the services. On my own opinion, bangsar village I should introduce passive designs and photovoltaic cells to generate power in the long run to reduce the amount of the monthly electricity bill.
  56. 56. Page 56 of 187 2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
  57. 57. Page 57 of 187 2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 2.3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Mechanical transportation normally use in building to transport passengers from one vertical floors to another inside a building. All buildings with more than one storey must have at least one set of stairs and the provision of stairs is a very important consideration when designing building in order to ensure all the occupant of the building can travel between different floors. Mechanical transportation such as lift is advance vertical transportation which provides convenience to passengers to travel between floors. Lift is an electrical apparatus for raising and lowering people or goods to different floors of the buildings. A lift installation has an important bearing on the efficient functioning of the building it serves, and to obtain different efficient service the number and type of lifts must take into account several factors including the type of building and nature of its occupancy. On the other hand, escalators are moving stairs that designed to provide efficient vertical conveyance of people. It transports the users adequately, instantaneously, safely as well as continuously with consistent speed. 2.3.2 HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR (CARGO LIFT) A hydraulic elevator's function is based on Pascal's law of the incompressibility of fluids: an above-ground or in-ground piston mounted inside a cylinder is pressurized to raise and lower the car. Hydraulic systems are commonly used in low-rise buildings up to five stories. Speeds rarely exceed 150 feet per minute (fpm).
  58. 58. Page 58 of 187 Figure 3.2.1 indicate the cargo lift at ground floor to the first floor
  59. 59. Page 59 of 187 2.3.3 COMPONENTS In lift machine room, there are four major components to the hydraulic system: a tank (fluid reservoir); a pump powered by an electric motor; a valve between the cylinder and the reservoir; and the cylinder.
  60. 60. Page 60 of 187 1. Tank (fluid reservoir)
  61. 61. Page 61 of 187 Originally the fluid used to drive the piston was water, hence the name hydraulic; today, the fluid is typically an oil-based "hydraulic fluid." 2. Pump and Motor
  62. 62. Page 62 of 187 The main function of the pump used in hydraulic elevator is constantly pushing fluid into the cylinder to lift the elevator. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the elevator car. When the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return to the fluid reservoir. When the car approaches the correct floor, the control system sends a signal to the electric motor to gradually shut off the pump and close the valve. With the pump off, there is no more fluid flowing into the cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder can't flow backward through the pump, and the valve is still closed. The piston rests on the fluid, and the car stays where it is
  63. 63. Page 63 of 187 3. Control Valve Control Valve is the device on hydraulic elevators which controls the oil flow to and from the jack. Hydraulic elevators only perform as well as the valve. The main functions of the Valve are lets fluid out of the system; keeps the pressure low when open; increases pressure when closed. To lower the car, the elevator control system sends a signal to the valve. When the valve opens, the fluid that has collected in the cylinder can flow out into the fluid reservoir. The weight of the car and the cargo pushes down on the piston, which drives the fluid into the reservoir. The car gradually descends. To stop the car at a lower floor, the control system closes the valve again.
  64. 64. Page 64 of 187 2.3.4 OPERATING PANEL  An alarm button or switch, which passengers can use to warn the premises manager that they have been trapped in the elevator.  An elevator telephone, which can be used (in addition to the alarm) by a trapped passenger to call for help.  Floor numbering with switch buttons to choose a floor.
  65. 65. Page 65 of 187 Key Switch Panel Key switch panel is located at the control room which allows admits to control the lift car when emergency or breakdown happens. Besides, immediate answer when emergency happens from the elevator and the system clearly stated the location of calls from which level and shaft of elevator.
  66. 66. Page 66 of 187 Emergency Power Operation In hydraulic elevator systems, emergency power will lower the elevators to the lowest landing and open the doors to allow passengers to exit. The doors then close after an adjustable time period and the car remains unusable until reset, usually by cycling the elevator main power switch. Typically, due to the high current draw when starting the pump motor, hydraulic elevators are not run using standard emergency power systems. Buildings like hospitals and nursing homes usually size their emergency generators to accommodate this draw. 2.3.5 MACHINE ROOM LESS ELEVATOR (PASSENGER LIFT)
  67. 67. Page 67 of 187 Machine room less elevators (M.R.L.) is a type of traction elevator which do not have a machine room at the top of the hoistway, instead the traction hoisting machine is installed either on the top side wall of the hoistway or on the bottom of the hoistway. Most machine room less elevators are used for low to mid rise buildings. In mid-rise buildings, M.R.L. typically serves up to 20 floors.
  68. 68. Page 68 of 187 Figure 3.3.1 indicate the passenger lift at lower ground floor to the first floor
  69. 69. Page 69 of 187 2.3.6 COMPONENTS 1. Gearless Traction All traction elevators are gearless traction. This design eliminates the need of a fixed machine room and thus saves much building‟s space.
  70. 70. Page 70 of 187 2. Hoisting Motor & Controller While the hoisting motor is installed on the hoistway side wall, the main controller is installed on the top floor next to the landing doors. This controller is situated behind a locked cabinet which have to be unlocked using a key for maintenances, repair or emergency purposes. Most elevators have their controller installed on the top floor but fewer elevators have their controller installed on the bottom-most floor. Some elevators may have the hoisting motor located on the bottom of the elevator shaft put, thus it is called as bottom drive „M.R.L.‟. Whereas, some elevators have the controller cabinet installed within the door frame instead on the wall to save space.
  71. 71. Page 71 of 187 3. Steel Cord Ropes Like normal traction elevators, M.R.L. elevators use the conventional steel cord ropes used as the hoisting cables. Some elevators are using flat steel belts instead of conventional ropes. Manufactures using these technologies claimed that with flat steel belt ropes, it saves much space on the hoistway and to allow a minimum size of the hoisting sheave. With flat steel belts also allows 30% lighter than conventional steel ropes.
  72. 72. Page 72 of 187 4. Waterproofing lift pits Lift pits normally extend below ground or slab level and, therefore, like basements are susceptible to water ingress under hydrostatic pressure. In new-build situations, lift pits are usually waterproofed externally using the same methods employed to waterproof new build basements. 5. Emergency stop button Elevators often have a red two-way button on the control panel which is either marked "Emergency Stop" or "Run/Stop". Normally, the button is in the unpushed position, allowing the elevator to run in normal service. When the button is pushed, the elevator comes to an immediate stop. When the button is pulled back out, it resumes normal service, thus the reason for the use of the phrase "Run/Stop". In some cases the switch is similar to a light switch with the switch being in the up position for the elevator to "run" in regular service, and thrown down to "stop" the elevator.
  73. 73. Page 73 of 187 6. Sheave The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave. A sheave is just a pulley with a groove around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes, so when rotate the sheave, the ropes move too.
  74. 74. Page 74 of 187 7. Counterweight Counterweights are often used in traction lifts. The conventional steel cords rope that life the cars are also connected to the counterweight, which hangs on the other side of the sheave. The counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity. In other words, when the car is 40 percent full, the counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced. The purpose of this balance is to conserve energy.
  75. 75. Page 75 of 187 2.3.7 ESCALATORS An escalator is a moving staircase which is a conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. Escalators have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase. They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic), they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and they may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. A non-functioning escalator can function as a normal staircase, whereas many other conveyances become useless when they break down.
  76. 76. Page 76 of 187 Figure 3.4.1 indicate the escalator at ground floor to the first floor 2.3.8 ESCALATOR ARRANGEMENT 2.3.8.1 PARALLEL STACKED ARRANGEMENT In Bangsar Village 1, they use parallel stacked arrangement for escalator. A parallel stacked arrangement defines usage by the physical arrangement of the stairs. The essential difference between the two basic arrangements is that in the crisscross arrangement, the upper and lower terminal entrances and exits to the up and down escalators are separated by the horizontal length of an escalator, whereas in either of the parallel arrangements the two escalators face in the same direction. 2.3.8.2 CRISSCROSS ARRAGEMENT This arrangement is rapid, pleasant, and very economical of space because the stairs nest into each other. It can be used for as many as five floors without excessive annoyance to the rider. Sometimes, this arrangement requires floor space around the escalators, which is used in stores to display special sale merchandise. Indeed, this display purpose is the reason that stores force passengers to endure the potentially annoying walk-around.
  77. 77. Page 77 of 187 2.3.8.3 Components Major components:  Truss- is a welded steel frame that supports the entire apparatus.  Track- is steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided, thus controlling the motion of the steps.  Handrail- is driven by sheaves powered from the top sprocket assembly to provide stability to riding passengers and support for entering and leaving passengers.  Balustrade- is designed for maximum safety of persons stepping on or off the escalators.  Control cabinet- is normally located near the drive machine, contains malfunction indicators in addition to the drive controls.
  78. 78. Page 78 of 187 2.3.8.4 SAFETY FEATURES Safety is a major concern in escalator design. Protection of passengers during normal operation is ensured by a number of safety features associated with moving stairway:  Steps are large and steady and are designed to prevent slipping.  Handrails and steps travel at exactly the same speed (0.51 m/s) to ensure steadiness and balance and to aid stepping on or off the comb plates.  Balustrade is designed to prevent catching of passengers‟ clothing. Close clearance provide safety near the comb plates and step treads.  Step design and step levelling with the comb plates at each landing prevent tripping upon entering or leaving the escalator. This is accomplished with 2 or 3 horizontal steps at either end of the escalator.  Operation of an emergency stop button is wired to the controller and placed near or on the escalator housing at both ends, stops the drive machine and applies the brake.
  79. 79. Page 79 of 187 2.3.9 TRAVELATOR There are two pairs of travelator in Bangsa Village 1 what connect the basement to the ground floor. Travelator is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports people across a horizontal or inclined plane over a short to medium distance. Moving walkways can be used by standing or walking on them. They are often installed in pairs, one for each direction. Travelator are built in one of two basic styles:  Pallet type- a continuous series of flat metal plates join together to form a walkway and are effectively identical to escalators in their construction. Most have a metal surface for extra traction.  Moving belt- these are generally built with mesh metal belts or rubber walking surfaces over metal rollers. The walking surface may have a solid feel or a „bouncy‟ feel.
  80. 80. Page 80 of 187 Figure 3.5.1 indicate the travelator at lower ground floor to the ground floor 2.3.9.1 INCLINED TRAVELATOR An inclined travelator is used in Bangsar Village 1 to move people from basement to the ground floor with the convenience of an elevator and the capacity of an escalator. The shopping carts that people can take along their suitcase have either a brake that is automatically applied when the cart handle is released, strong magnets in the wheels to stay adhered to the floor, or specially designed wheels that secure the cart within the grooves of the ramp, so that wheeled items travel alongside the rides and do not slip away.
  81. 81. Page 81 of 187 2.3.9.2 COMPONENT Travelator is manufactured in only one design: a derivative of the escalator, which uses a flattened pallet in place of a step. In all other respects, the drive mechanism, safeties, brake, handrails- the unit is similar to an escalators. 2.3.10 CONCLUSION Mechanical transportation plays an important role in shopping mall like Bangsar Village 1 which able to bring convenience to the occupants and disable people. According to Uniform Building By Laws (UBBL), Bangsar Village concerns on the human flow inside the building which provides 1 pair of escalator, 2 pairs of travelator and 1 group of lift. Proper maintenance check-up held regularly ensure occupants use this services comfortable and convenience.
  82. 82. Page 82 of 187 2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS
  83. 83. Page 83 of 187 2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS Bangsar Village Shopping Mall 2.4.1 Chapter Introduction This chapter contains the analysis explanation of the data of the fire protection system collected at the selected site, Bangsar Village Shopping Mall as stated in the earlier Project Introduction Page. According to the analysis we have done, this chapter contains the fire protection systems that applied in the stated shopping mall, based on our project group research and observation. The data is collected through interviews, photographing, video recording, actual site measurement and observation. The below explanation and comparison for the functioning system are based on the technical information provided by the manager and data research that our group has conduct. Based on twice site visit to Bangsar Village Shopping Mall that conducted by our group in September 2014, the following images contained in this chapter are mostly the site images collected. 2.4.2 Literature Review Active Fire Protection System Definition 1. Active system is the manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires. For example, the use and installation of a fire sprinkler system or finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or extinguishing it. (retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection) 2. Active Fire Protective System is a system which will be activated by the surrounding environment, which is in the event of fire by detecting smoke and temperature. They are first to act in the case of fire. The focus of active system is to extinguish fire by: a. Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building. b. Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire. c. Control the movement of fire and smoke. d. Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. (NAFFCO, 2004) Passive Fire Protection System Definition 1. Passive system an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes. It is also ncludes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fire- resistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting
  84. 84. Page 84 of 187 of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge. (retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_fire_protection) Building Service Definition 1. Building services systems are the electrical and mechanical installations inside a building that provide the internal infrastructure for the proper functioning of the building (Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government buildings, 25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk) 2. Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, and operation and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. ... In India the engineers are known as facilities planners. A Building Services Architect is an engineer with experience in the integration of all Building Services. (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_services_engineering) Fire Protection System (Definition) 1. Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing, and application of mitigating systems. the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. (Retrieved from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection/) 2. The discussion of fire protection begins with basic design considerations for fire resistance. Smoke management (for safe evacuation and for limited smoke damage) is considered next, followed by fire-suppression systems such as sprinklers and non-water-based approaches. (Retrieved from Walter T. Grondzik, Alison, Benjamin, John S,Chapter 24 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment For Buildings, eleventh edition, 2010)
  85. 85. Page 85 of 187 Fire-fighting equipment or fire safety installation (Definition) 1. means anyequipment or installation for: (a) extinguishing, fighting, preventing, or limiting a fire; (b) giving warning of a fire; (c) providing access to any premises or place or to any part thereof for the purpose of extinguishing, fighting, preventing, or limiting a fire; (d) providing emergency power supply in the event of normal power failure; (e) providing emergency lighting for purposes of escape from buildings; (f) giving direction towards an escape route or place of refuge; or (g) providing adequate, safe egress for the purpose of evacuation or exit of occupants in the event of fire (LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988) Fire-hazard (Definition) (a) any unlawful alteration to any building such as might render escape from any part thereof in the event of a fire materially more difficult or less easy than it would be if the alteration had not been made; (b) the overcrowding of any place of public entertainment or public gathering such as might render escape from any part thereof in the event of a fire difficult; (c) any removal or absence from any building of any fire- fighting equipment or fire safety installation that is required by law to be provided in the building; (d) the presence within or outside any building of any fire-fighting equipment or fire safety installation or any facility, installed in accordance with the requirement of any written law or as required by the Fire Services Department, that is not in efficient working order; (e) inadequate means of exit from any part of a building to any place, whether within or outside the building, that provides safety to persons in the event of a fire; or (f) any other matter or circumstance that materially increases the likelihood of a fire or the danger to life or property that would result from the outbreak of a fire, or that would materially hamper the Fire Services Department in the discharge of its duties in the event of a fire; (LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988)
  86. 86. Page 86 of 187 Definition of high-rise buildings. High-rise structure is one that extends higher than the maximum reach of available fire-fighting equipment and it is between 75 ft and 100 ft. A particular building is deemed a high-rise specified by the fire and building codes in the area in which the building is located (Craighead, 2003). Terpak, (2003) defined high-rise building is any building exceeded 75 ft where fire department operation cannot be considered ground based. Encyclopaedia Britannica define high-rise building as a multi-story building with a height that require the use of a system of mechanical vertical transportation such as elevators (Britannica online). A building is defined by the Uniform Building Codes as a high-rise building when it has floors for human occupancy which are more than 75 ft above the lowest level of fire department access. Second definition as stated in Uniform Building Codes is the buildings meet the definition to be equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system designed in accordance with requirements in Uniform Building Codes (Patterson, 1993). LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341 FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988 An Act to make necessary provision for the effective and efficient functioning of the Fire Services Department, for the protection of persons and property from fire risks and for purposes connected therewith. [Throughout Malaysia —1 January 1989, P.U. (B) 701/1988]
  87. 87. Page 87 of 187 Significance of Building Services Building services systems has an important role for building where it has stands about 20% to 40% of the total construction cost. Figure 1 shows the example of a cost breakdown of a typical government office building. (Retrieved from Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government buildings, 25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk)
  88. 88. Page 88 of 187 2.4.3 Introduction to Fire (Statistic) According to research on ten years fire statistics in Malaysia (1990 to 1999), it shows that there were 154,987 fire cases in Malaysia. From 23,911 or 15.45% cases involved buildings, about more than 2000 fire cases annually involved buildings are significantly high. Among the types of building, residential buildings are the highest i.e. 9,512 cases followed by shops 2,767 cases, plants 2,636 cases and stores 1,489 cases (Bomba, 2001). From this statistic, its how is that residential buildings are the highest risks of possibility of fire break out. It includes high-rise accommodation buildings i.e. flats buildings, apartment buildings and condominiums. At this moment the recent statistics for the next ten years of fire statistics is not available and due to be compiled in the year 2010. Also, for most of the cases, the fire occurred not naturally but most of the cases were due to either the human faults or human ignorance (retrieved from Yahya Mohamad Yatim, Fire Safety Models for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia, June 2009) By conclusion against the research above, it is important that precise consideration should be taken into account during building design especially regarding the fire escape route in high-rise residential buildings to speed out evacuation time, thus, to reduce the percentage of injury and death during fire. It is also important to study into the human behaviour during fire. i.e Panic Behaviour, to firmly understand the basic reaction and needs of the building user. Hence, there were several considerations should be taken into account during design, as below: For every fire safety design, the following fire safety objectives should be met: (a) Life Safety Fire safety provisions should be provided for: 1. Protection of life of building occupants 2. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments 3. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire 4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel (b) Property Protection Fire safety provisions should be provided for: 1. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments 2. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire 3. Minimization of fire spread between buildings 4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel
  89. 89. Page 89 of 187 Fire Safety Risk Analysis Life Safety and property protection guidance framework (FPA, 2003)
  90. 90. Page 90 of 187 2.4.3.1 Science of Fire Fire Behaviour Aspect: 1. Fire Triangle (Oxygen, Fuel and Heat) Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire, role of ventilation Aspect 1: Fire Triangle (Retrieved from http://www.pslc.ws/fire/images/firetria.gif) Fire triangle is the basic explanation of how does fire occurs with the present of three main elements: fuel, oxygen and energy in the form of combustion heat, in a chemical reaction. The absent of either one element will alter the either the rate of fire burning or even put off the fire. Hence, to stop the fire, we need to elimate either one of the above elements. Once the fuel is ignited, a fire will spreads across the fuel object almost instantly until it reaches the stage where it is fully develop into uncontrollable fire. The main factors of how fast the spread speed of fire across the surface of the material are the fuel composition, orientation, surface to mass ratio, incident heat and air supply. The relationship of the fire and the above elements can be explained with the following:
  91. 91. Page 91 of 187 Fire normally develops through a consistent stages until it reaches the highest stage where it is become fully develop. The increase in heat release rate against time is manipulated by the variables of incident heat, air supply and fuel. There are basic three types of growth rates in fire, “slow growing rate”, “medium growing rate” and “fast growth rate”. When the burning time is prolonged, the burning rate will be controlled or limited by the decreasing in either one of the three main elements. Once one of them is omitted, the burning will stop. This is a gradual process which is the decaying process of fire. Heat Release Rate for Office Module (Madrzykowski 1996) Fire Growth Rates (from SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
  92. 92. Page 92 of 187 Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration Smoke is produced at the instant of fire ignition on a fuel. The smoke is then being transported by a smoke plume and became collection of smoke on the upper portion of the space, forming a layer which will soon increase in depth and temperature. The high heat energy smoke layer is then radiates the heat energy back onto unburned fuels in the space, thus causing the surrounding materials, which the potential fuels to increase in temperature. “Flashover” is the condition whereby the small unburned object surround the burning object suddenly ignited simultaneously. Flashover usually happened in a compact or a small space where the heat energy can be radiated at a higher speed. Hence, also the combustion is exothermic reaction. Products of burning are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water. Some of these products cause death when inhaled at a considerable amount. Major Factors Influencing Fire Growth
  93. 93. Page 93 of 187 Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire and role of ventilation The fully- developed fire is at a stable burning stage with a constant rate loss of mass. This is the stage where fire and fuel are at a considerably equal stage, where equilibrium is reached by either the limitation of air supply (in ventilation controlled fires) or the characteristic of the object being burnt. Also, the heat release (temperature) is relatively stable with no further influx. 1. Fuel Controlled Fires This is the stage where the supply of air and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is limited by fuel mass or fuel characteristics. The amount of carbon in the material becomes the factor that controls the whole burning process. 2. Ventilation Controlled Fires This is the stage where the fuel mass and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is limited by the supply of oxygen. The air supplied from openings or HVAC systems become the factor that controls the whole burning process. A standard fire curve in enclosed spaces (CIBSE, 2003)
  94. 94. Page 94 of 187 Classes of Fire In Europe and Australia, classes of fire are grouped into six groups as follows: • Class A: Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. • Class B: Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but NOT cooking fats or oils. • Class C: Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen, propane, butane. • Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium. • Shock Risk Fire (formerly known as Class E) : Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used. • Class F: Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the Oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective Comparison of Fire Classes Standard Between Australia, European and North America
  95. 95. Page 95 of 187 2.4.3.2 Panic Behaviour It is important that for a designer to consider the panic behaviour of the occupants during fire, regarding the possible rational and irrational decisions that they might make and the route of escape from the burning building as protection towards user. Definition of panic as below: 1. “panic” by original greek language “Panikos” have the meaning of a sudden uncontrollable fear or anxiety, often causing wildly unthinking behaviour. (Retrieved from Wikipedia) 2. A sudden, overpowering terror, often affecting many people at once. (Retrieved from http://www.the freedictionary.com/panic/. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.) 3. A sudden overwhelming fear that produces hysterical behaviour and that can spread quickly through a crowd. An instance, outbreak, a period of such fear. An anxiety disorder characterized by feelings of impending doom and physical symptoms such as trembling and hyperventilation. (Random House Kernerman Webster‟s College University, copyrights 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.) The Panic Phenomena. Retrieved from http://bp1.blogger/com/“ “Psychological crowd” as a group of people where individuals have lost their own personality to share the same motivations and thoughts as the crowd, which is composed of the lowest common denominator as “a crowd displays a singular inferior mentality.”
  96. 96. Page 96 of 187 “ “In other psychology and sociology literature also define the term “panic”. Goldenson define panic as “reaction involving terror, confusion and irrational behaviour precipitated by a threatening situation.” Johnson wrote, “behavior involves selfish competition uncontrolled by social and cultural constraints,” and “breaking of social order, competition unregulated by social forces.” Keating outlined four elements of panic: a) hope to escape through dwindling resources; b) contagious behaviour; c) aggressive concern about one's own safety; and d) irrational, illogical responses Quarantelli describes panic as an acute fear reaction marked by flight behaviour and the panic participant as no rational in his flight behaviour. In the human behaviour literature, „panic‟ is usually defined as some sort of irrational behaviour, and research findings consistently show that people do not exhibit such irrational behaviour in fires. In fact, altruistic behaviour is seen to be the norm in serious fires.17 Human behaviour under stress is relatively controlled, rational and adaptive.15 It is also found that cooperation rather than selfish behaviour are predominant even among total strangers” ” It is important to consider panic behaviour in space planning for Fire Protection System to minimize the risk of death due to trampling or panic. (Case studies: Stardust Nightclub Fire, Ireland, February 13, 1981. Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th July 2009) In other hand, proper design planning for fire protection system might actually helps to protect the user while wrong design decisions might kills many life. (Case Studies: Gothenburg Discotheque Fire, Sweden, October 29, 1998; Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th July 2009) Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th July 2009
  97. 97. Page 97 of 187 2.4.4 Onsite Research and Analysis This chapter will be further divided into sub-units of the elements of Active and Passive Fire Protection System, also the potential hazards caused by human found in Bangsar Village Shopping Mall, stated as below: Active Fire Protection System: 1. Fire Detection and Alarm System 2. Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet 3. Carbon Dioxide System 4. Smoke control System 5. Water Tank and Pump 6. Standpipe and hose system (Standard Hose Compartment) 7. Portable Fire Extinguisher 8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light 9. Circuit cutter 10. Fire Rated Door 11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage 12. Sign, Warnings 13. Fire Alarm Panel Passive Fire Protection System: 1. Emergency Escape Corridor 2. Emergency Staircase 3. Stairwell and staircase design 4. Escape Route Floor plans and Gathering Space (Assembly) Potential Hazards: 1. Human Fault
  98. 98. Page 98 of 187 2.4.4.1 Active Fire Protection System 1. Fire Detection and Alarm System 2. Smoke control System 3. Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet 4. Carbon Dioxide System 5. Water Tank and Pump 6. Standpipe and hose system (Standard Hose Compartment) 7. Portable Fire Extinguisher 8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light 9. Circuit Breaker 10. Fire Rated Door 11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage 12. Fire Alarm Panel
  99. 99. Page 99 of 187 1. Fire Detection and Alarm System: Smoke and Heat The conventional Fire Alarm System is provided in the building. The system is designed to monitor all the fire detection and warning devices located at various strategic locations as required by Jabatan Bomba. The detecting devices are the manual call-points and the warning devices are the alarm bells. Fire Alarm panel is located at Ground floor lift lobby. A mimic is provided to indicate the various zoning and fire protection equipment on the various floors. Fire Mode Conditions: The following conditions are observed on fire conditions. a. Alarm bells will ring continuously b. Alarm zoning will be indicated at fire alarm panel The Gent 7800 Series Detector Range The comprehensive range of low profile smoke and heat detectors are deigned to comply with EN54 Part 7. With extra low quiescent current consumption and twin 360°C view angle fire LEDs, this range benefits from state of the art electronic sensing technology incorporating smoke scatter principles and manufactured from Vo grade flame resistant materials. All models fit on a standard base with flush and surface wire base options available. Diode bases are used to achieve head removal requirements with no additional end of line devices required. The Gent 7800 series detectors will operate with the current range of GENT conventional type control panels and GENT System 3400 or 34000 addressable interfaces. (Image retrieved from http://www.firedetectionshop.co.uk/gent-s-quad-s4-711-st-vo-dual-optical-heat-detector- with-voice-sounder-and-strobe-clone.html)
  100. 100. Page 100 of 187 Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall 7840 Optical Smoke Detector It is particularly effective in detecting large visible smoke particles such as those produced by smouldering wood, paper, PVC or polyurethane foam. It is also suitable for general use. Inside the optical chamber there is an infra red “light” beam and a photo sensor unit, fitted at an obtuse angle. Normally very little light from the beam reaches the sensor, but when smoke enters the chamber, the beam is scattered and more light reaches the sensor, this triggering the alarm. Pulsed light source keeps the power consumption low, and thus enabling more detectors to be used per circuit. To reduce the risk of false alarms, inside each detector, 3 pulses from the light source must reach the photo sensor before an alarm is activated. A built in microprocessor chip inside monitors and compensates for any changes due to dust or other contaminants. This drastically helps to reduce or minimise the risk of fake alarms. (Image retrieved from http://img.directindustry.com/images_di/photo-m2/smoke-detector-55817-2393971.jpg)
  101. 101. Page 101 of 187 7850 Fixed Temperature Heat Detector Ideal for normal property protection purposes, and particularly suited to areas where temperature can fluctuate for natural reasons – e.g where there are large windows or industrial heat producing processes. Present to trigger alarm when temperature reaches approximately 57°C therefore it is an excellent way of avoiding continual false alarms in areas where the temperature changes rapidly. Electronic thermistor type detector element guarantees high accuracy because there are no moving parts. Excellent reliability as detector is automatically resettable when thermistor element state cools down Factory calibrated sensitivity to BS 5445 Part 5 Grade 2. (images retrieved from http://www.pennylaneelectrical.co.uk/images/fireline_Csd2.jpg) Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.
  102. 102. Page 102 of 187 7860 Rate Of Rise Heat Detector Suitable for most normal property protection purposes and providing a high degree of protection in areas where the temperature is normally fairly stable – useful for low ambient temperature areas where the response of fixed temperature may be slower. Rate of Rise heat detector respond to rises in temperature, but also include a fixed temperature “backstop” circuit, present at approximately 57°C for even greater safety. Electronic thermistors type detector elements guarantees high accuracy and, because there are no moving parts, give excellent reliability. Sensitivity to BS5445 Part 5 Grade 1 allowing this detector to be used for maximum ceiling heights as specified by BS 5839 Part 1, 1988. (images retrieved from http://static.squarespace.com/static/5170401be4b00853b233dbd2/t/518d4f6be4b01d03877bac20/1368215404470/heat_fig1.jpg) (Images retrieved from http://www.apollo-fire.co.uk/media/753732/heat.jpg)
  103. 103. Page 103 of 187 2. Smoke Control System Based on the operating manual of fire protection system of Bangsar Village Shopping Mall, it is stated that, the smoke control system has been designed to provide emergency smoke and heat exhaust ventilation in the event of fire to allow both safe evacuation of people and the entry of the fire fighting services. In case of fire, the system is designed to maintain a smoke free clear layer for 4m from floor level unless the fire exceeds 3m X 3m with a heat output of 5MW. With the sprinkler system in operation this fire size is not likely to be exceeded before evacuation is complete. The smoke control system stated in the operating manual is designed for emergency use only. The smoke control system activation is based on a “Double-Knock” detection system. In an emergency event, the first line of detectors (usually smoke detector) will put the system into standby mode. Upon confirmation of an emergency via a second line of detector (Sprinkler activation, flow switch) the Fire Alarm Panel will then send a fire mode signal to the Master Smoke Control Panel where the panel will then activate the smoke control equipment. Once the system is activated, it can only be deactivated when the Fire Alarm Panel is normalized and the “RESET” button on the Master Smoke Control Panel is press. This action will then reset all the equipment to their normal condition, except the smoke extract fans. The fans can only be reset from the Fan Starter Panel in the first floor AHU Room. From the Master Smoke Control Panel, the individual group of equipment can be manually control or isolated via a selector switch. Should the control wiring be damage or disconnected prior to the activation of the signal, the individual equipment can be activated from their respective control panel nearby. But once the system is activated by the Fire Alarm Panel or the Master Smoke Control Panel and damage to the control signal wiring will not reset or stop the system. They will then have to be individually reset from their respective control panel. In the event of power failure the compressor set retain sufficient air to close the ventilators twice and hold them closed for a limited period. If power to the compressor is lost for a significant period the ventilators will creep open as pneumatic pressure to build sufficiently to fully close all ventilators. In the event of power failure to the control panel the ventilators will go to failsafe open position. Reset will be automatic when power is restored.
  104. 104. Page 104 of 187 (images retrieved from http://www.idastech.com.sg/Images/Smoke_Control_Schematic.jpg) UBBL Laws and Regulations on Smoke Control System Under UBBL 1984 Section 153: Smoke Detectors for Lift Lobbies. 1. All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. 2. Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo detectors unless incorporated with force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a pre-set time. According to the guidelines, the fire control room has to meet the requirement of the building that has an effective height of more than 50 meters. It should be separated from the rest of the building by two hour fire rated elements of structure.

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