Page 1 of 187
Table of Contents Page
1.3 Project Objectives------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.4 Project Outcomes-------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.5 Project Requirements--------------------------------------------------------------3
2.0 Literature Review and Onsite Research Analysis
2.1 Chapter 1: Mechanical Ventilation and HVAC system
2.1.2 Literature Review
18.104.22.168 Mechanical Ventilation--------------------------------------6
22.214.171.124 Air Conditioning---------------------------------------------8
2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System---------------------------------------10
126.96.36.199 Case Study – Bangsar Village 1--------------------------10
2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System
188.8.131.52 Case Study – Bangsar Village 1--------------------------12
184.108.40.206 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart----13
2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant------------------------------------------------------14
2.1.7 Cooling Tower-----------------------------------------------------------22
2.1.8 Air Handling Unit (AHU)----------------------------------------------24
2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit------------------------------------------------------------28
2.2 Chapter 2: Electrical Supply System
2.2.1 Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------33
2.2.3 High Tension Room----------------------------------------------------37
2.2.4 High tension room components and devices------------------------38
2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of
high tension room--------------------------------------------------------------39
2.2.6 Analysis and observation based on observation of
low voltage room--------------------------------------------------------------40
2.2.7 Genset Room-----------------------------------------------------------49
2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006----------------------------------------50
Page 2 of 187
2.3 Chapter 3: Mechanical Transportation System
2.3.1 Literature Review--------------------------------------------------------52
2.3.2 Hydraulic Elevator (Cargo Lift) --------------------------------------52
2.3.4 Operating Panel----------------------------------------------------------58
2.3.5 Machine Room Less Elevator (Passenger Lift)---------------------60
2.3.8 Escalator Arrangement
220.127.116.11 Parallel Stacked Arrangement------------------------------------70
18.104.22.168 Crisscross Arrangement-------------------------------------------70
22.214.171.124 Safety Features---------------------------------------------72
126.96.36.199 Inclined Travelator-------------------------------------------------74
2.4 Chapter 4: Fire Protection System
2.4.1 Chapter Introduction---------------------------------------------------77
2.4.2 Literature Review------------------------------------------------------77
2.4.3 Introduction To Fire---------------------------------------------------82
188.8.131.52 Science Of Fire--------------------------------------------84
184.108.40.206 Panic Behaviour-------------------------------------------89
220.127.116.11 Onsite Research and Analysis---------------------------91
18.104.22.168.1 Active Fire Protection System-------------92
22.214.171.124.2 Passive Fire Protection System-----------161
126.96.36.199.3 Potential Hazards---------------------------177
3.0 Final Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------185
4.0 Reference List----------------------------------------------------------------------------186
Page 3 of 187
Bangsar Village offering over 110,000 square feet of retail space, Bangsar Village l &ll is a
boutique shopping centre catering to high-income residents in the Telawi area. Opened in
2004, the complex houses over 70 specialty stores mainly made up out of international
fashion labels and quirky cafes.
The twin buildings are connected via a sheltered pedestrian sky-bridge which is accessible
via the first floor. A family- friendly venture, this complex is a favourite haunt of the
city‟s young urbanites and expatriate community. Stores stocking luxury and household
items are spread across Bangsar Village‟s two wings and cover just about every
brand name imaginable, although the new wing houses the brunt of its fashion apparel
Page 4 of 187
The research report will be looking into the workings of the services system in Bangsar
Village 1 such as the Mechanical Ventilation & Air Conditioning System, Electrical Supply
System, Mechanical Transportation System and Fire Protection System. The report will
aim at introducing the fundamentals of all the mentioned systems as well as an analysis
of the system that have been analyzed and synthesized to our own understanding and also
based on the regulations of buildings and its services such as Uniform Building By
Law (UBBL). Requirements and adherence will also be analyzed based on each services
respected controlling arm.
We would like to thank Mr Yong to allow our team to visit Bangsar Village 1 building as
he brought us for a tour around the building through the prominent service rooms such as
electrical rooms, lift motor rooms, chiller room, fire fighting system room. Apart from
that, he provided us with all of the necessary information throughout the building including
statistics information and schematics drawing. We are grateful that he relentlessly explaining
the systems of each room and the machines within. Without his helps, we won‟t be able
to finish the project with the require information. Lastly, a special thanks we would like to
give to Mr Adib for guiding us through each tutorials and providing us with an aim to accomplish.
Page 5 of 187
1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES
1. To introduce students to the basic principles, process and equipment of various building
services systems through real life project (experiential learning).
2. To expose students to the integration of various building services systems in a building.
3. To allow students to demonstrate their understanding of building services systems
4. To develop students‟ understanding and familiarity on the drawing conventions and standards
for different building services systems
1.4 PROJECT OUTCOMES
1. Identify and understand relevant information related to water and electrical supply,
sewerage, mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning as well as fire protection systems.
2. Understand how each building services functions including the connections and
position of different parts equipment.
3. Understand and explain the principles and systems as well as space implications
and regulations related to different building services
Page 6 of 187
1.5 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
Identify all the required building services components installed in the building.
Perform a thorough study on all the services systems;
i) mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system,
ii) electrical supply system,
iii) mechanical transportation system, and
iv) fire protection system
Obtain estimate dimensions and sizes of the spaces required for all the equipment and plant
rooms identified. Provide brief explanation on how the building services components function.
This explanation shall be in qualitative form and therefore no calculation is required.
Summarize the systems in diagrammatic form.
Page 7 of 187
2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
Page 8 of 187
2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
Mechanical ventilation systems circulate fresh air with ducts and fans and make up for the
unreliability of natural ventilation systems. However, with the mechanical provision of
constant airflow from the outdoors, the admissible air quality has to be well sustained.
This can be achieved through the use of diffusers and more importantly, the placement of
inlet and outlet ducts in a building.
Air conditioning is basically the control of temperature, humidity, air quality, air movement
& heat radiation through mechanical systems in order to achieve human thermal comfort.
Human thermal comfort is define by ASHRAE the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction
with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 55). Heating, cooling, dehumidification, humidification, ventilation, and
sterilization are different methods for air conditioning in a building.
Page 9 of 187
2.1.2 Literature Review
188.8.131.52 Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation is the air movement from one space to another and the supply of
fresh air at the same into the air conditioned spaces. Mechanical ventilation is a way of
forced or induced ventilation by using mechanical air handling systems. It helps in controlling
the humidity, contaminants, air borne particles and general air quality.
For the intent of transporting and removing air from a space, a few components such as blowers,
fans, filters, and ducts are used in mechanical ventilation. A building ventilation system with
the usage of powered fans or blowers to provide clean air to rooms when the natural forces of air
pressure are not sufficient for the optimum air circulation in a building. Mechanical ventilation is
utilized to control indoor air quality, excess humidity, smells, and contaminants can often be
controlled via dilution or replaced them with the outside air.
PRESSURE SYSTEM is a system where the air pressure in the building is slightly greater than
that of the outer atmosphere to allow the air blown through the building by a fan or other blower
placed at the inlet.
VACUUM SYSTEM is a system where occurrence of an inrush of fresh air done by an
exhaust fan placed at the outlet to the vent flue or stack. The air pressure in the building is
slightly lower than that of the outer atmosphere.
Figure 184.108.40.206: Fresh air is introduced into the
building with mechanical air filter system while the
heat is distributed out from the building naturally
Figure 220.127.116.11: The hot air is vacuumed out from the space
with the help of the mechanical fan system installation in the
building and then, the hot air is moved out from the building
while the fresh air flows into the building naturally (through
Page 10 of 187
BALANCE SYSTEM is a system consists the combination of pressure system and vacuum
system in order to supply fresh air and extract stale air at the same time using fan. The amendment
done in this system is to achieve slight pressurization of the air inside the building by using
an extract fan smaller than inlet fan, to prevent dust, draughts and noise. This combination is able
to help to provide sufficient fresh air into the space or building as well as extract the heat
out from the building with the help of mechanical ventilation „balance system‟.
Installation of fan and fresh air filter system
together in a building helps to extract the heat out
from the exterior spaces and provide fresh air into
the building itself to achieve thermal comfort.
Page 11 of 187
18.104.22.168 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning in a building primarily achieves five factors:
a) Thermal comfort (control air temperature and humidity)
b) Ventilation (control air circulation and quality)
c) Health (minimal smoke, dust, etc.)
d) Performance (improve workers‟ and machinery efficiency)
e) Equipment (lengthen machinery lifespan)
Two main cycles are involved in air conditioning, namely, the refrigerant cycle and the
air cycle. Refrigeration is a process that removes heat from an enclosed space in order to
lower and maintain room temperature. Heat inside a room is transferred through the
evaporator and removed to the outside air through a condenser. On the other hand, the
air cycle is a process of distributing conditioned air through ducts or chilled water pipes
into an enclosed space. Air or water can be used to absorb the heat where returning air
absorbed by the evaporator slowly removes latent heat from the enclosed space as the
internal air becomes cooler.
Basic principle behind the refrigerant cycle:
Page 12 of 187
Basic principle behind the air cycle:
Page 13 of 187
2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System
22.214.171.124 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1
Wall fans are part of the mechanical ventilation systems but they do not provide real ventilation
because they don‟t introduce fresh air into a space. The use of wall fans is to circulate air
within a room for the purpose of bringing down the perceived temperature by the method
of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupiers. A wall fan is found at the entrance
of the stock placement store. It is installed above the door and provide ventilation to the workers
but the air circulation is limited.
The vacuum system is used in Bangsar Village 1 where stale and hot air is extracted by means
of fans to the building exterior. It creates an air pressure in the building that is slightly lower
than that of the outer atmosphere.
Wall Industrial Metal Fan found at the entrance
of the stock placement store.
Wall Industrial Metal Fan
Page 14 of 187
An axial fan is installed in the Low Voltage (LV) Room, is located at the basement level
of Bangsar Village I. Axial fan can be differentiated from each other by the type of blades.
The blades force the air to flow parallel to the shaft and in linear direction. One of the
advantages of axial fan‟s usage is to allow both direction of the wind flow, either sucking
or blowing. The axial fan installed in LV room rotates in clockwise direction and directes
the air out of the way as the fan‟s specification is shown in Figure 126.96.36.199, which means that
the role of this axial fan is to vacuum the hot air out from this room, to optimize the room
temperature so that the electrical components in LV room can last longer.
Mechanical ventilation is clearly barely utilized in Bangsar village 1 except as backup systems.
This may be due to the harsh tropical climate especially in an urban setting such as Kuala Lumpur
where the building is located that negatively affects users and equipment in the building.
Figure 188.8.131.52: Axial Fan in
Figure 184.108.40.206: Specification of the Axial Fan
Page 15 of 187
2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System
220.127.116.11 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1
Bangsar Village 1 is centrally air-conditioned through an “air and water system.” The main
components of this system comprise of the refrigeration plant, cooling tower, air handling
unit (AHU) and fan coil unit (FCU). Refrigerant is water-cooled in the plant room and
distributed via piping to AHUs and FCUs located throughout the building.
In the air system, treated & cooled air is supplied from the AHU and distributed to rooms via
a network of air ducts based on a single zone ducting system where conditioned air is
delivered at a constant temperature at low velocity. On the other hand, the water system is
defined by the employment of FCUs which are independent units that each draw a mixture
of outdoor and indoor air over their coils of chilled water supplied through piping into
rooms and recirculates them.
Chiller System Overview:
Chillers employ either a vapor-compression cycle or an absorption refrigerant cycle to cool a fluid
for heat exchange. Nevertheless, both types rely on three common basic principles:
a) Liquid heated vaporises into gas, and gas when cooled will condense into liquid.
b) Pressure lowered above a liquid reduces its boiling point while pressured raised above a liquid
increases its boiling point.
c) Heat flows from hot to cold.
In Bangsar Village 1, the vapor compression cycle is used to cool water and thereafter, rooms in
the building. Using chilled water to cool a building is efficient and flexible. Chilled water also
provides accurate temperature control for rooms that are to be cooled. A vapor-compression
chiller consists of a compressor, evaporator, condenser and a metering device or valve that
circulates a refrigerant. The compressor is a very important component in a vapor-compression
chiller as it acts as a pump for the refrigerant.
Cooling Tower System Overview:
Cooling towers are used together with water-cooled chillers. They remove heat that is carried in
the water collected from the chiller. The cooled water is then pumped back to the chiller where it
works to cool the condenser coil. There are two common types of cooling towers, namely,
induced draft and forced draft. The ones used in Bangsar Village 1 are induced draft towers which
feature large propeller fans at the top of each tower (discharge end) to draw air counterflow to the
water. They are economical as they require smaller fan motors than forced draft towers for the
same capacity. Induced draft towers are also less susceptible to recirculation of exiting warm air,
which results in reduced efficiency.
Page 16 of 187
18.104.22.168 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart
CT: Cooling Tower
FCU: Fan Coil Unit
AHU: Air Handling Unit
CDWP: Condensed Water Pump
CHWP: Chill Water Pump
Page 17 of 187
2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant
The refrigeration plant or the chiller room in Bangsar Village 1 is on the basement level. It houses
the chillers, chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, control panel and automatic
temperature controller. Its location is easily accessible as it is next to the building‟s major
Equipment layout in chiller room:
Page 18 of 187
- Ceiling height is measured to be 4000mm with ducting suspended at an average level of
- Loud noise emitted by the equipments obstructed any conversation attempted in the chiller room.
Nevertheless, the loud noise is isolated in the chiller room and does not affect public spaces.
- Natural and mechanical ventilation in the chiller room is provided via an air grille and ducting:
- The chiller room is cluttered with old and unused equipment piled up near the doorway:
- The chiller room is roughly more than 5% of f the total floor area of the rooms to be air-
conditioned in Bangsar Village 1.
Page 19 of 187
Chillers are usually the largest electricity consumers in a building. They can be water-cooled, air-
cooled or evaporatively cooled, typically classified according to their methods of compressing
refrigerants. Common compressors are reciprocating, screw, scroll, and centrifugal types.
Reciprocating compressors are usually for small applications up to 150 tons, whereas centrifugal
compressors are generally for large applications up to 2000 tons. The helical-rotary or screw
compressor is used in Bangsar Village 1 which is suitable for medium applications up to 1000
The three chillers used in Bangsar Village 1 are water-cooled screw chiller types which are
certified in accordance with ARI Standard 550/590 and are ASHRAE 90.1 compliant. They emit
consistent noise at levels above 80dBA when in operation. Five basic components of the chiller
used comprise of the compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve and refrigerant.
The chillers in Bangsar Village 1 use the R-132A or HFC-134a refrigerant which is proven to be
an optimal refrigerant in chiller applications these days due to its absence of chlorine and and the
Page 20 of 187
fact that it does not contribute to ozone depletion which was an issue with older types of
The compressor in a refrigeration system functions to raise the pressure of the refrigerant vapor by
compressing it, thus causing it to heat up to as high as 200°F, then pumps it to the condenser.
Compressors used in Bangsar Village 1 are twin-screw, rotary-screw types. The compressor
housing is made of cast iron, precision machined to provide minimal clearance for the rotors. The
rotors is manufactured from forged steel.
The helical-rotary compressor basically employs two screw-like rotors to trap refrigerant vapor
and compress it by gradually reducing the volume of the refrigerant. Oil is used to seal the gap
between the two rotors, thus preventing a leak of compressed refrigerant vapor. One rotor is
driven by the compressor motor where its lobes would then engage and drive the other rotor,
causing the two parts to counter-rotate. This continued rotation of the meshed rotor lobes would
drive the trapped refrigerant vapor towards the discharge end of the compressor.
Based on the external fluid, condensers can be classified as air cooled condensers, water cooled
condensers and evaporative condensers. The condensers in Bangsar Village 1 are water cooled
horizontal shell and tube types where refrigerant flows through the shell while water flows
through the tubes in two passes.
The refrigerant enters the condenser in a superheated state and changes from vapor to liquid as
great amount of heat is rejected to an external medium. The condensed refrigerant collects at the
Page 21 of 187
bottom of the shell where the coldest water indirectly contacts the now liquid refrigerant and goes
through sub-cooling as the liquid refrigerant is drained from the bottom to the receiver.
Valves used in chillers can be categorised into fixed opening types where the flow area remains
fixed and into variable opening types where the flow area changes with changing mass flow rates.
The slide valve is used in chillers for Bangsar Village 1. The valve basically functions to modulate
the flow of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator according to evaporator load requirements so as to
prevent any liquid flood backs into the compressor.
An evaporator, like condenser is also a heat exchanger. In an evaporator, the refrigerant
evaporates changing from liquid to vapor and in doing so absorbs great amounts of heat from the
passing water throught indirect contact.
Evaporators are classified depending upon the heat transfer process or refrigerant flow. The ones used in
Bangsar Village 1 are shell and tube, flooded types which are water cooled where refrigerant flows
through the tubes and water flows through the shell. The refrigerant enters the shell through a float valve,
which maintains a constant level of liquid refrigerant in the shell.
Page 22 of 187
Basic principle behind the chiller system:
- The compressor oil is replaced annually whereas its air filter is washed monthly.
- The refrigeration system shuts down at 10pm daily in Bangsar Village 1.
Page 23 of 187
- Piping insulation reduces heat gain into the chilled water and therefore the efficiency of the
cooling system. Chilled water piping is insulated because the water in it is below the dewpoint
temperature. Otherwise, condensate would form on it and heat gain would occur. The goal of the
insulation is to minimize heat gain into the chilled water and maintain the outer surface above the
ambient air dewpoint. Any cooling effect that is lost due to heat gain is additional load on the
chiller plant. In order to make up for the temperature rise, the chilled water setpoint must be
lowered to provide the correct supply water temperature at the load.
- Jacketing of water pipes (picture on the right) with a type
of foam prevents condensation and heat loss to the
surroundings which improves system efficiency. Water
pipes are generally galvanized iron types, expected to last
for 10 years.
- Condenser water piping is typically not insulated in Malaysian climate since there will be
negligible heat gain or loss between the surrounding daytime temperature of an average 30 °C and
its water temperature of an average 32 °C.
According to MS 1525 code 8.4, “All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings
should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with
vapor barriers may be required to prevent condensations under some conditions.”
Page 24 of 187
According to MS 1525 code 8.11.1,
At the time of visit, the water from an evaporator in Bangsar Village 1 had a leaving temperature
of 44°F (6.67°C) and a return temperature of 54°F (12.22°C). On the other hand, water from the
condenser had a leaving temperature of 96.48°F (35.82°C) and a return temperature of 87°F
(30.56°C). It is clear that the evaporator‟s performance in Bangsar Village 1 is only slightly short
of the Malaysian standard as the chill water cooled is not cool enough by a mere difference of
0.025°C on average.
Page 25 of 187
2.1.7 Cooling Tower
Cooling towers function to lower the water temperature in large chiller systems by removing heat
energy absorbed by the chiller into the atmosphere through evaporation. Consequently, they need
to be connected to a water tank to replace water lost by evaporation. They are usually located on
the top levels of buildings or an open space for optimum ventilation.
Basic principle behind the cooling tower system:
Page 26 of 187
Cooling tower filtration
The service lifespan of the cooling tower may be lengthened with the use of a filtration system.
Over time, thick layer of solid contaminants would build up in the cold water basin which reduces
the benefit of treatment chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors for the basin surface. Filtration of
water would alleviate this issue besides reducing maintenance cost in the long run as the solid
buildup require removal. Furthermore, there would be less shut-down time for the manual
cleaning of cooling towers, thus improving overall efficiency of the system.
2.1.8 Air Handling Unit
AHUs function to condition and circulate air through
a network of ducts which distributes and returns
conditioned air. Each unit is usually equipped with
switches and a thermostat to control chilled water
flow and the temperature of its cooling coil.
An AHU is typically flexible due to its modular
assembly where individual components can be
Page 27 of 187
assembled into one unit (usually a large metal box). Below are common components of an AHU:
a) Supply duct
b) Fan compartment
c) Vibration isolator (flexible joint)
d) Heating/cooling coil
e) Filter compartment
f) Mixed air duct
Page 28 of 187
The diagrams below illustrate the dynamics between the air conditioning system and mechanical
ventilation system where air is distributed and collected through ducting with the aid of
mechanical supply and exhaust air fans:
Page 29 of 187
7 of 8 AHUs are located on the first floor of Bangsar Village 1. The other one is located in the
basement level. This may be due to the convenience of location and the flexibility of a relatively
small building area. The total AHU room area is more than 3% of the floor area serviced by the
Page 30 of 187
The photos above show diffusers installed on supply air ducts from AHU. According to the
maintenance person in charge, all diffusers on walls are installed on supply air ducts in Bangsar
Village 1, but not all ceiling diffusers are installed on exhaust air
The photo on the right is an example of a round diffuser installed
on a supply air duct in the electrical room. It is of the single duct –
single zone system.
Page 31 of 187
2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit
The Fan Coil Unit (FCU) is a part of HVAC systems commonly employed in buildings with space
constraints. Unlike Air Handling Units (AHUs), FCUs do not require ducting. Two types of
motors can be installed in a FCU, either the Direct Currect (DC) motor or the Electronically
Commutated (EC) motor.
FCUs installed in Bangsar Village I employ the DC motor due to its energy efficiency. FCUs aid
in air circulation within a room by supplying and extracting air at the same time. There is a total
of 24 FCUs in Bangsar Village 1. Most of the FCUs are found at the basement of the shopping
FCUs can be found in either residential, commercial or industrial building. It is a device
consisting of a heating or cooling coil and a fan. A typical FCU is not connected to ductwork. It
functions to control the temperature in a space, or multiple spaces. It can be controlled by manual
switch or by thermostat. The advantage of installing FCUs in a building is that it is more
economical to install than ducted or central heating systems with air handling units and FCUs
allow installation in a building with space constraint as well.
Page 32 of 187
The chilled water is piped to the FCU which located within the space and the chilled water pipe is
connected to the cooling coil of FCU. The air in the space is drawn into FCU where it is cool or
dehumidified. The FCU has filter located at the fan to filter the air, with the purpose of reducing
the level of air borne contamination within the air condition space. Any change of air temperature
pressure in the room will cause the room thermostat to send signal to the automatic valve so that it
will be opened or closed to regular the chill water flow into FCU. This function is to able to
provide the right amount of cooing to the circulating air.
Diagram of Fan Unit Coil with Detailed Component
Diagram of connection between Chiller Pump and Fan Coil Unit
Page 33 of 187
Under UBBL 1984 Section 41: Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning
1) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building
by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at
the discretion of the local authority.
2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition
to the permanent air conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of
ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half-an-hour of the air-conditioning
system failing, not less that the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be
introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air conditioning system is not
3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are
mechanically ventilated or air conditioned.
4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or
corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third
schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and
natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors.
Chilled Water pipe connection in Fan Coil
Air filter located at the bottom of the fan
to filter the air
Page 34 of 187
The mechanical and air conditioning system in Bangsar Village 1 is fairly well designed and
maintained. Economy of space is utilized as seen in the refrigeration plant and steps were taken to
improve machinery efficiency such as for the water piping and cooling tower. Building laws are
generally conformed to and very little fault was to be found in the operating system.
Page 36 of 187
2.2 Electrical Supply System
2.2.1 Literature review
In Malaysia, Tenaga Nasional Berhad is the largest electrical utility company that are involved in
activities of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Supply of electricity is
connected with power from hydroelectric or thermal plants through a network of transmission
system which are made up of transmission networks, substations and distribution lines.
Above shows the national grid network of Malaysia, from the power station 25KV of
power is produced, but in order to transmit power supply to the whole country step-up
transformers steps up the voltage to 132KV or higher. Voltages in the national grid system have to
be maintained in a high level to prevent power loses. Step-down transformers will then step- down
the power to usable levels to the heavy industry 33KV, light industry 11KV and to homes 230V or
400V. In addition, transmission voltages that are provided by TNB networks are 500kV, 275kV
and 132kV, whilst the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 400/230 volts.
Substations provide necessary monitoring, protection and control of the circuits under
manual control or SCADA supervision. Substations are high- voltage system facility, it changes
AC voltages to other levels or to DC voltages. In general, elements within a substation are
primary breaking devices, transformer, switchgear, relays, meters, SCADA system, cables or bus
duct and communication cables.
Figure 3.1 shows the national grid network
Diagram 3.1 shows the overall electrical supply system to Bangsar Village I
Page 37 of 187
Bangsar Village receives 11KV from the TNB distribution substation nearby that supply
11/33KV. This TNB distribution substation is larger compared to the indoor TNB substation and
it has rather larger transformer, more switches and equipment. Bangsar Village I have an indoor
TNB substation that receives power from the distribution substation and steps-down to usable
voltages. This TNB substation is not accessible by the management due to high voltage that is
Page 38 of 187
Bangsar Village I is a 3 storey building that has a monthly electrical bill of RM 303,000.
Electrical supply is critical in running the shopping centre; electricity is needed for many systems
such as ventilation, mechanical and other appliances (refrigerant).Below is the flow supply of
electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I.
Diagram 3.2 shows the electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I
TNB room, High tension room, Low voltage room and Gen-set room locate side by side to
reduce occurrence of voltage loss through travel distance, due to the resistance in the transmission
gh Tension Room Scale 1: 600Diagram 3.3 shows the placement of the voltage rooms and gen-set room Scale 1:600
Page 39 of 187
2.2.3 High Tension Room
High tension room is also known as the high voltage room, the components include TNB
meter, check meter, battery for mechanics, 2 transformers and vacuum circuit breakers. All the
components in HT room have to be checked every year by the government corporate Suruhanjaya
Tenaga (Energy commission of Malaysia) regulator to renew the licence.
Figure 3.2: Figure 3.3: Figure 3.4:
Placement of equipment in HT room Schematic diagram License
Page 40 of 187
2.2.4 High tension room components and devices
Figure 3.5 TNB electrical meter Figure 3.6 Electrical check meter
TNB meter measures the electricity consumption and demand of the building in (watt-hour)
meters. Figure 3.5 shows an electronic meter that is commonly used nowadays; it use current,
voltage transformer and microprocessors to record data. In addition, a check meter is added beside
the TNB meter for accurate billing of electrical demand and consumption.
Figure 3.7 iSCADA system and DC distribution board Figure 3.8 24V DC supply battery bank
Battery is widely used in the industry for many purposes due to its affordability. There are
various kinds of battery but, the only limitation of it is the size and weight factor. To generate a
vast amount of power supply, larger storage space is required therefore, it is not suitable to be
used for long-term electrical supply. Battery generates electrical energy by the conversion of
chemical energy from the electrochemical cell. The electrical energy generated is called the direct
current that has electrical charges which only flows in one direction whereas alternating current
has electrical chargers that flow in reverses direction.
Batteries in high voltage room are used by the electrical protective devices and SCADA system.
Protective devices are also called as the secondary equipment, thus, in an overcurrent situation the
vacuum circuit breaker functions from the DC supply to the main power supply. Figure 3.7 shows
a DC distribution board that includes a charger which regulates and charges the battery. Figure 3.8
shows the 24VDC battery bank.
SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) technology that provides monitoring
and control distributed systems from a central location. This system enables the manager to
monitor and control process of electrical distribution, once there is a fault in certain sections, the
system would analyse and isolate the faulty section and remain other energised sections. It
functions as a switch capacitor and operator.
Page 41 of 187
Alternating current is supplied from TNB and is used for the heater within the units to
avoid condensation which triggers rusting and deterioration of equipment. Electrical battery
generates direct current and has to be replaced when it expires.
Vacuum circuit breaker
Vacuum circuit breaker is preferred in the high voltage room; it is an overcurrent
protective device that prevents conductors from high current by opening the circuit. Within the
VCB contains a fuse it functions as a fusible link that melts and opens when there is an
overcurrent condition. Figure VCBs are located in panel boards. VCBs can be used as
disconnects for installation and maintenance of other electrical devices.
In order to distribute power over long distances, voltage is raised to increase the efficiency.
Through increasing voltage current is reduced correspondingly. Utilities use transformers
throughout the grid system to step down voltages down to usable levels of loads.
Bangsar village I has 2 sets of transformers. These transformers step down high voltage
current to 415V and 2000A, 4000A of power supply for bangsar village 1 in the total of two
Transformers of Bangsar village I have to conduct maintanance service in 2 year interval.
Temperature readings are shown though the digital panel in front of the panelboard for
referrencing and recording purposes. From our observation, transformer No.2 has a higher
Figure 3.9 VCBs Figure 3.10 exterior panel Figure 3.9 Manual switch
Figure 3.11 -2 Transformers within the panel boxes Figure 3.12 Temperature reading
Page 42 of 187
temperature reading compared to transformer No.1; when electricity demand increases,
temperature within transformer increases.
Cable trench cover slab
There are many major cables under the floor of high tension room; the underfloor cables
are covered by the cable trench cover slab throughout the room. Sand is added as an insulator to
prevent over heating of cables.
Page 43 of 187
2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of high tension room
Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I:
Figure 3.14 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16
Danger sign board on the door Air conditioned Air conditioning switching box
To maintain the safety of high tension room, air conditioner was added to maintain a
cooling environment for the equipment. This is because high room temperature damages the
equipment and will cause electrical and fore hazards.
Precautions that should be taken based on observation:
Figure 3.17 broken cable trench slab and little amount of sand
From the figure 3.17 above of the broken cable trench, the underfloor cables are exposed
and are very dangerous for the maintenance staff during work. As a suggestion, broken cable
trench should be replaced and the level of sand should be added till optimum amount.
Page 44 of 187
3.5 Low voltage room
Figure 3.18 Low voltage room Figure 3.19 Low voltage room schematic diagram
Components in the Low voltage room include Main switchboards, bus bar coupler, air
circuit breaker, bus duct, MCCB capacitor bank, sub switchboards, distribution boards, panel
boards, earth leakage relay.
3.5.1 Low voltage room components and devices
Main Switch Boards
Figure 3.20 Main Switch board No.1 Figure 3.21 Main Switch board
A switchboard divides the power distribution system into units; in general it supplies
power to panel boards throughout the building. Each switchboards are protected and controlled by
electrical disconnect switches and circuit breaker. There are 2 main switch boards in the low
voltage room. The step down transformers distribute electricity through under floor cables to their
respective switch boards. In Bangsar Village I, each switch board has its own assigned zones of
distribution. Switchboard No.1 is for is assigned to the most of the tenants in Bangsar village I
and switchboard No.2 is assigned to mostly public areas, least tenants and the generator set.
Within the switchboards has a meter that records electrical supplied to the zones. Below is
the example of a comparison between the readings of the switchboards.
Readings of main switchboards:
Switch board No.1 (Tenants)
R: 950 Y: 870 B: 783
Page 45 of 187
Switch board No.2 (Least tenants, public area facilities and generator set)
R: 1376 Y: 1400 B: 1375
The reading from switch board No. 2 is more than the readings of switch board No.1; the
sum of No 2 zones electrical usage is more than No 1 zone usage. This is because zone 2 consist
more areas of the building compared to zone 1. The main switchboards are under warranty and
maintenance services are done every two year to ensure that the switchboards are in good and safe
Figure 3.33 Maintenance service sticker from manufacturer
Bus bar Coupler
Bus bar coupler is a device that is used to couple one bar to the other without any interruption in
power supply. This device has conductor such as metal, it is usually supported by insulators covering the
bars while exposing the connection points. Bus bar coupler is positioned in the centre of main switch
board 1 and main switch board 2 for shorter route for the transmission of power.
Figure 3.34 Figure 3.35 BBC between MSBs Figure 3.36 ACB
In the bus bar coupler panel, it has two components which are bus bar distribute and air
circuit breaker. During electric break down, bus bar coupler has to be on manually or on through
SCADA system and it acts as a standby power transmitter between the two switchboards. Below
is a functional example of a bus coupler during a shutdown of transformer No.2.
Main Switch board No 1 Bus bar coupler Main Switch board No 2
Page 46 of 187
Scenario: Maintenance services of Transformer No. 2
Figure 3.37 shows overhead current transmission cable from the main switchboard No. 1 to the feeders.
Essential Main switchboard
During emergency, essential main switchboard supplies power to equipment that are essential.
Air circuit breaker
Figure 3.39 Air circuit breaker Figure 3.40 Figure 3.41 Inspection tag from
Main Switch board No 1
Power source from
Transformer 1 =2000A;
Retain 1300A for electricity
supply to dominant zone.
Transfers 700 A from
MSB 1 to MSB 2
Main Switch board No 2
Receives 700A from MSB 1
and supplies to the other
Page 47 of 187
Air circuit breaker is commonly used in the low voltage room, it functions when there is
an over current. Overcurrent can be the result of ground fault, shot circuit and over load. Air
circuit breaker interrupts the current flow and condensed air becomes the medium of the arc of
disconnected circuit. Air contains oxygen; oxygen ignites sparkles during the manual setting.
After a power breakdown, precautionary actions should be taken during turning the manual open
button on; maintenance staff would stand by the side of the panel box and keep the door open for
escape. Figure 3.41 shows an inspection tag from the manufacturer, maintenance is required to
ensure a safe environment for maintenance staff.
Page 48 of 187
Incoming supply from main switchboard
Figure 3.42 above shows the schematic diagram of incoming supply from main switchboard
Capacitor bank and moulded circuit breaker (MCCB)
Figure 3.43 Figure 3.44 Capacitor bank switching Figure 3.45 10 steps of single unit
To improve the quality of electrical supply, moulded circuit breaker acts as a protection
device to prevent explosion of capacitor bank. During an occurrence of over current, the switch
mechanism within MCCB will open and disconnect the current. In an electrical failure, MCCB
also protects the electrical system by shutting the connection of the faulty capacitor to prevent
Figure 3.46 Figure 3.47 – 9 sets of triple pole switches
Page 49 of 187
The switching of electricity is the alternation between energized and de-energized states
by opening or closing of the conductor in a circuit. It can be summed as the complete interruption
or resumption of the electrical power to a device. Switching is accomplished with sets of contact
that make or break multiple contacts simultaneously. A pole term is a set of contacts that belong
to a single circuit. A throw term is a position that a switch can adopt. Figure 3.47 shows 9 sets of
triple pole switching which has to be reset manually after and overcurrent condition. In addition,
having multiple switching can be an advantage when identifying the problem of the faulty switch.
Earth leakage relay
Relays can function as an automatic switch which is also a separate electrical circuit. This
earth relay circuit has 13 components and every component have their own air circuit breaker.
There is a digital meter displaying digital data of the device. The mechanical manager of the
building has a check list on the readings from the relay device.
The setting of the meter was done by the mechanical manager, which is 0.3A in 1 sec. If the
electric power exceeds the reading the fuse in the air circuit breaker will open and cut the
A panel board functions as a distribution board, this elements is used to divide and supply
electricity with the collaboration with protective devices. It is made up of fuse links, bus bars,
switches and circuit breakers. Figure 3.51 shows the wall mounted power distribution cabinet
containing overcurrent protective devices for lighting, appliances, or power distribution branch
Figure 3.48 Figure 3.49 Earth relay setting plate Figure 3.50
Page 50 of 187
Figure 3.52 above shows several sub panels of chiller plants and the public toilet
Main cables that are assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures, it brings the main power
into the building.
Emergency light control panel
Figure 3.54 emergency lighting control panel in the LV room
Page 51 of 187
Emergency lighting system provides lighting to the emergency situation, escape routes,
corridors and stairways, exit doors are lighten. This lighting system important during a fire, it
ensures the visibility of escape routes and increase the speed of evacuating people out of the
building. This emergency light panel operates when there is an electrical shortage, DC current
from the battery is supplied to this control panel and the emergency light throughout the building
will be lighted up.
Cable tray system
Figure 3.55 cable tray systems on the LG floor
Raceway cable-tray systems are preferred because of their accessibility and ability to
accommodate change. This kind of setting allows ease in changing cables and also facilitates the
inspection of cables. Current is supplied from the low voltage room through the cable tray system
and send it throughout Bangsar Village I shopping mall.
Page 52 of 187
2.2.6 Analysis and observation based on observation of low voltage room
Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I:
Figure 3.56 shows the entrance of Low voltage room has a green
light indicating the room is under a safe condition. Furthermore, the room is air conditioned thus
the original louvered doors have to be covered with a piece of solid wood to prevent cool air from
escaping the room. Rubber mats are placed on the floor beside the main switch boards for safety
measures as above figure 3.57. It acts as a cushion that protects the maintenance crew from
becoming a conductor during leakage of high voltage current. Years before voltage rooms are not
equipped with air condition services, the rooms were heated up and stuffy when the maintenance
staffs conduct their check-ups and works. Due to mainly discomfort and damages to the
equipment, the maintenance manager decided to set up air condition services in the voltage rooms.
Figure 3.58 shows a thermometer showing temperature of low voltage room that is maintained at
24 Celsius degree, to ensure equipment is not heated up to have better efficiency.
Precautions that should be taken based on observation:
Figure 3.59 Figure 3.60
Above the figure 3.59 the cooling fan on the left was not functioning. It
should be fixed or replaced to prevent overheating of the equipment within the panel box. Used batteries
are left low voltage room figure 3.60; used batteries should be disposed properly to prevent the leakage of
the chemical within the cell
Figure 3.56 Figure 3.57 Figure 3.58
Page 53 of 187
3.6 Electrical riser room
Figure 3.61 Figure 3.62 Figure 3.63
An electrical riser room figure 3.56 has distribution equipment such as switchgears and
distribution panels that supplies electricity AC current to a particular level in a building. Electrical
riser room is located in every floor of Bangsar Village I, electricity is distributed through a series
of cable try system to the risers around the building. Figure 3.63 shows series of switching of
tenant of the shopping centre, when there is an electric fault in one of tenant electrical supply can
be shut through the switches in this riser room.
Page 54 of 187
2.2.7 Genset Room
Bangsar village I uses diesel generator as the secondary power source to generate power
during power failure. The generator set figure 3.64 has been used once last year, every year
supplier of the generator will conduct a maintenance service and issue a letter to prove the
functionality during emergencies. This Gen- set generates 600A and the diesel tank figure 3.65
has a capacity of 2000 litre.
This Gen-set has to go through a maintenance service every year to check on the efficiency
of the engines. Figure 3.67 shows the letter issued by the authority. The diesel generator is
connected to the switchboards of the low voltage room through cables as shown in figure 3.68 and
When the Gen-set is on for emergency electrical supply, the engines of the Gen-set will
release heat and the room would be heated up. Figure 3.70 and 3.71 shows the ventilation specially
design to excrete the heated air and absorbs fresh air into the room.
Figure 3.65 diesel tank Figure 3.66 control panel of Gen- setFigure 3.64 diesel generator set
Figure 3.68 over head cableFigure 3.67 maintenance letter Figure 3.69 cable from gen-set to low voltage room
Figure 3.70 Figure 3.71 Gen-set room ventilation
Page 55 of 187
2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006
From our analysis, Bangsar Village I had fulfilled section 253 (1), (2), (3), (5 a&b).
Emergency power supply is provided from the diesel generator set that functions as the power
source during power failure. The generator set provides power during emergency, such as smoke
control system in the atrium, fire alarm system, fire pumps, public address systems and fire lifts.
In the high voltage room, there is a storage battery that provides DC voltages when is needed
during power failure.
Bangsar village is a well-known shopping mall that functions well every day to ensure a
happy visit to its shoppers. From this statement, I believe that the maintenance team has done a
great job in managing the systems in this building. The electrical supply system runs efficiently
due to minor modification for the rooms such as adding air conditioning system. Furthermore,
many precautions are taken by the management to ensure a safety working environments for the
maintenance team. Maintenance of the rooms and equipment are done frequently as they have log
books record of the services. On my own opinion, bangsar village I should introduce passive
designs and photovoltaic cells to generate power in the long run to reduce the amount of the
monthly electricity bill.
Page 56 of 187
2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
Page 57 of 187
2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
2.3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Mechanical transportation normally use in building to transport passengers from one vertical
floors to another inside a building. All buildings with more than one storey must have at least one
set of stairs and the provision of stairs is a very important consideration when designing building
in order to ensure all the occupant of the building can travel between different floors.
Mechanical transportation such as lift is advance vertical transportation which provides
convenience to passengers to travel between floors. Lift is an electrical apparatus for raising and
lowering people or goods to different floors of the buildings. A lift installation has an important
bearing on the efficient functioning of the building it serves, and to obtain different efficient
service the number and type of lifts must take into account several factors including the type of
building and nature of its occupancy.
On the other hand, escalators are moving stairs that designed to provide efficient vertical
conveyance of people. It transports the users adequately, instantaneously, safely as well as
continuously with consistent speed.
2.3.2 HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR (CARGO LIFT)
A hydraulic elevator's function is based on Pascal's law of the incompressibility of fluids: an
above-ground or in-ground piston mounted inside a cylinder is pressurized to raise and lower the
car. Hydraulic systems are commonly used in low-rise buildings up to five stories. Speeds rarely
exceed 150 feet per minute (fpm).
Page 58 of 187
Figure 3.2.1 indicate the cargo lift at ground floor to the first floor
Page 59 of 187
In lift machine room, there are four major components to the hydraulic system: a tank (fluid
reservoir); a pump powered by an electric motor; a valve between the cylinder and the reservoir;
and the cylinder.
Page 61 of 187
Originally the fluid used to drive the piston was water, hence the name hydraulic; today, the fluid is
typically an oil-based "hydraulic fluid."
2. Pump and Motor
Page 62 of 187
The main function of the pump used in hydraulic elevator is constantly pushing fluid into the cylinder
to lift the elevator. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the elevator car.
When the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return to the
fluid reservoir. When the car approaches the correct floor, the control system sends a signal to the
electric motor to gradually shut off the pump and close the valve. With the pump off, there is no more
fluid flowing into the cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder can't flow backward
through the pump, and the valve is still closed. The piston rests on the fluid, and the car stays where it
Page 63 of 187
3. Control Valve
Control Valve is the device on hydraulic elevators which controls the oil flow to and from the jack.
Hydraulic elevators only perform as well as the valve. The main functions of the Valve are lets
fluid out of the system; keeps the pressure low when open; increases pressure when closed. To
lower the car, the elevator control system sends a signal to the valve. When the valve opens, the
fluid that has collected in the cylinder can flow out into the fluid reservoir. The weight of the car
and the cargo pushes down on the piston, which drives the fluid into the reservoir. The car
gradually descends. To stop the car at a lower floor, the control system closes the valve again.
Page 64 of 187
2.3.4 OPERATING PANEL
An alarm button or switch, which passengers can use to warn the premises manager that they have
been trapped in the elevator.
An elevator telephone, which can be used (in addition to the alarm) by a trapped passenger to call
Floor numbering with switch buttons to choose a floor.
Page 65 of 187
Key Switch Panel
Key switch panel is located at the control room which allows admits to control the lift car when
emergency or breakdown happens. Besides, immediate answer when emergency happens from the
elevator and the system clearly stated the location of calls from which level and shaft of elevator.
Page 66 of 187
Emergency Power Operation
In hydraulic elevator systems, emergency power will lower the elevators to the lowest landing and
open the doors to allow passengers to exit. The doors then close after an adjustable time period
and the car remains unusable until reset, usually by cycling the elevator main power switch.
Typically, due to the high current draw when starting the pump motor, hydraulic elevators are not
run using standard emergency power systems. Buildings like hospitals and nursing homes usually
size their emergency generators to accommodate this draw.
2.3.5 MACHINE ROOM LESS ELEVATOR (PASSENGER LIFT)
Page 67 of 187
Machine room less elevators (M.R.L.) is a type of traction elevator which do not have a machine
room at the top of the hoistway, instead the traction hoisting machine is installed either on the top
side wall of the hoistway or on the bottom of the hoistway. Most machine room less elevators are
used for low to mid rise buildings. In mid-rise buildings, M.R.L. typically serves up to 20 floors.
Page 68 of 187
Figure 3.3.1 indicate the passenger lift at lower ground floor to the first floor
Page 69 of 187
1. Gearless Traction
All traction elevators are gearless traction. This design eliminates the need of a fixed machine
room and thus saves much building‟s space.
Page 70 of 187
2. Hoisting Motor & Controller
While the hoisting motor is installed on the hoistway side wall, the main controller is installed on
the top floor next to the landing doors. This controller is situated behind a locked cabinet which
have to be unlocked using a key for maintenances, repair or emergency purposes. Most elevators
have their controller installed on the top floor but fewer elevators have their controller installed on
the bottom-most floor. Some elevators may have the hoisting motor located on the bottom of the
elevator shaft put, thus it is called as bottom drive „M.R.L.‟. Whereas, some elevators have the
controller cabinet installed within the door frame instead on the wall to save space.
Page 71 of 187
3. Steel Cord Ropes
Like normal traction elevators, M.R.L. elevators use the conventional steel cord ropes used as the
hoisting cables. Some elevators are using flat steel belts instead of conventional ropes.
Manufactures using these technologies claimed that with flat steel belt ropes, it saves much space
on the hoistway and to allow a minimum size of the hoisting sheave. With flat steel belts also
allows 30% lighter than conventional steel ropes.
Page 72 of 187
4. Waterproofing lift pits
Lift pits normally extend below ground or slab level and, therefore, like basements are susceptible
to water ingress under hydrostatic pressure. In new-build situations, lift pits are usually
waterproofed externally using the same methods employed to waterproof new build basements.
5. Emergency stop button
Elevators often have a red two-way button on the control panel which is either marked
"Emergency Stop" or "Run/Stop". Normally, the button is in the unpushed position, allowing the
elevator to run in normal service. When the button is pushed, the elevator comes to an immediate
stop. When the button is pulled back out, it resumes normal service, thus the reason for the use of
the phrase "Run/Stop". In some cases the switch is similar to a light switch with the switch being
in the up position for the elevator to "run" in regular service, and thrown down to "stop" the
Page 73 of 187
The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave. A sheave is just a pulley
with a groove around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes, so when rotate the
sheave, the ropes move too.
Page 74 of 187
Counterweights are often used in traction lifts. The conventional steel cords rope that life the cars
are also connected to the counterweight, which hangs on the other side of the sheave. The
counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity. In other words,
when the car is 40 percent full, the counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced. The purpose
of this balance is to conserve energy.
Page 75 of 187
An escalator is a moving staircase which is a conveyor transport device for carrying people
between floors of a building.
Escalators have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same
physical space as one might install a staircase. They have no waiting interval (except during very
heavy traffic), they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and they
may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. A non-functioning escalator can function as a normal
staircase, whereas many other conveyances become useless when they break down.
Page 76 of 187
Figure 3.4.1 indicate the escalator at ground floor to the first floor
2.3.8 ESCALATOR ARRANGEMENT
22.214.171.124 PARALLEL STACKED ARRANGEMENT
In Bangsar Village 1, they use parallel stacked arrangement for escalator. A parallel stacked
arrangement defines usage by the physical arrangement of the stairs. The essential difference
between the two basic arrangements is that in the crisscross arrangement, the upper and lower
terminal entrances and exits to the up and down escalators are separated by the horizontal length
of an escalator, whereas in either of the parallel arrangements the two escalators face in the same
126.96.36.199 CRISSCROSS ARRAGEMENT
This arrangement is rapid, pleasant, and very economical of space because the stairs nest into each
other. It can be used for as many as five floors without excessive annoyance to the rider.
Sometimes, this arrangement requires floor space around the escalators, which is used in stores to
display special sale merchandise. Indeed, this display purpose is the reason that stores force
passengers to endure the potentially annoying walk-around.
Page 77 of 187
Truss- is a welded steel frame that supports the entire apparatus.
Track- is steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided, thus controlling
the motion of the steps.
Handrail- is driven by sheaves powered from the top sprocket assembly to provide stability to
riding passengers and support for entering and leaving passengers.
Balustrade- is designed for maximum safety of persons stepping on or off the escalators.
Control cabinet- is normally located near the drive machine, contains malfunction indicators in
addition to the drive controls.
Page 78 of 187
188.8.131.52 SAFETY FEATURES
Safety is a major concern in escalator design. Protection of passengers during normal operation is
ensured by a number of safety features associated with moving stairway:
Steps are large and steady and are designed to prevent slipping.
Handrails and steps travel at exactly the same speed (0.51 m/s) to ensure steadiness and balance
and to aid stepping on or off the comb plates.
Balustrade is designed to prevent catching of passengers‟ clothing. Close clearance provide safety
near the comb plates and step treads.
Step design and step levelling with the comb plates at each landing prevent tripping upon entering
or leaving the escalator. This is accomplished with 2 or 3 horizontal steps at either end of the
Operation of an emergency stop button is wired to the controller and placed near or on the
escalator housing at both ends, stops the drive machine and applies the brake.
Page 79 of 187
There are two pairs of travelator in Bangsa Village 1 what connect the basement to the ground
floor. Travelator is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports people across a horizontal
or inclined plane over a short to medium distance. Moving walkways can be used by standing or
walking on them. They are often installed in pairs, one for each direction.
Travelator are built in one of two basic styles:
Pallet type- a continuous series of flat metal plates join together to form a walkway and are
effectively identical to escalators in their construction. Most have a metal surface for extra traction.
Moving belt- these are generally built with mesh metal belts or rubber walking surfaces over
metal rollers. The walking surface may have a solid feel or a „bouncy‟ feel.
Page 80 of 187
Figure 3.5.1 indicate the travelator at lower ground floor to the ground floor
184.108.40.206 INCLINED TRAVELATOR
An inclined travelator is used in Bangsar Village 1 to move people from basement to the ground
floor with the convenience of an elevator and the capacity of an escalator. The shopping carts
that people can take along their suitcase have either a brake that is automatically applied when
the cart handle is released, strong magnets in the wheels to stay adhered to the floor, or
specially designed wheels that secure the cart within the grooves of the ramp, so that wheeled
items travel alongside the rides and do not slip away.
Page 81 of 187
Travelator is manufactured in only one design: a derivative of the escalator, which uses a flattened
pallet in place of a step. In all other respects, the drive mechanism, safeties, brake, handrails- the
unit is similar to an escalators.
Mechanical transportation plays an important role in shopping mall like Bangsar Village 1 which
able to bring convenience to the occupants and disable people. According to Uniform Building By
Laws (UBBL), Bangsar Village concerns on the human flow inside the building which provides 1
pair of escalator, 2 pairs of travelator and 1 group of lift. Proper maintenance check-up held
regularly ensure occupants use this services comfortable and convenience.
Page 82 of 187
2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS
Page 83 of 187
2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS
Bangsar Village Shopping Mall
2.4.1 Chapter Introduction
This chapter contains the analysis explanation of the data of the fire protection system collected
at the selected site, Bangsar Village Shopping Mall as stated in the earlier Project
According to the analysis we have done, this chapter contains the fire protection systems that
applied in the stated shopping mall, based on our project group research and observation. The
data is collected through interviews, photographing, video recording, actual site measurement
and observation. The below explanation and comparison for the functioning system are based
on the technical information provided by the manager and data research that our group has
Based on twice site visit to Bangsar Village Shopping Mall that conducted by our group in
September 2014, the following images contained in this chapter are mostly the site images
2.4.2 Literature Review
Active Fire Protection System Definition
1. Active system is the manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires. For example,
the use and installation of a fire sprinkler system or finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or
(retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection)
2. Active Fire Protective System is a system which will be activated by the surrounding
environment, which is in the event of fire by detecting smoke and temperature. They are
first to act in the case of fire. The focus of active system is to extinguish fire by:
a. Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building.
b. Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire.
c. Control the movement of fire and smoke.
d. Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. (NAFFCO, 2004)
Passive Fire Protection System Definition
1. Passive system an integral component of the three components of structural fire
protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread,
through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP
systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order
to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes.
It is also ncludes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fire-
resistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting
Page 84 of 187
of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire
origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the
building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge.
(retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_fire_protection)
Building Service Definition
1. Building services systems are the electrical and mechanical installations inside a
building that provide the internal infrastructure for the proper functioning of the building
(Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government buildings,
25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk)
2. Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, and operation and
monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe,
comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. ... In India the
engineers are known as facilities planners. A Building Services Architect is an engineer
with experience in the integration of all Building Services.
(Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_services_engineering)
Fire Protection System (Definition)
1. Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially
destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression
and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and
development, production, testing, and application of mitigating systems. the owners and
operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that
is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by
the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the
version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is
(Retrieved from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection/)
2. The discussion of fire protection begins with basic design considerations for fire resistance.
Smoke management (for safe evacuation and for limited smoke damage) is considered next,
followed by fire-suppression systems such as sprinklers and non-water-based approaches.
(Retrieved from Walter T. Grondzik, Alison, Benjamin, John S,Chapter 24 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment For Buildings,
eleventh edition, 2010)
Page 85 of 187
Fire-fighting equipment or fire safety installation (Definition)
1. means anyequipment or installation for:
(a) extinguishing, fighting, preventing, or limiting a fire;
(b) giving warning of a fire;
(c) providing access to any premises or place or to any part
thereof for the purpose of extinguishing, fighting,
preventing, or limiting a fire;
(d) providing emergency power supply in the event of normal
(e) providing emergency lighting for purposes of escape from
(f) giving direction towards an escape route or place of refuge;
(g) providing adequate, safe egress for the purpose of
evacuation or exit of occupants in the event of fire
(LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988)
(a) any unlawful alteration to any building such as might render
escape from any part thereof in the event of a fire materially
more difficult or less easy than it would be if the alteration had
not been made;
(b) the overcrowding of any place of public entertainment or public
gathering such as might render escape from any part thereof in
the event of a fire difficult;
(c) any removal or absence from any building of any fire- fighting
equipment or fire safety installation that is required by law to be
provided in the building;
(d) the presence within or outside any building of any fire-fighting
equipment or fire safety installation or any facility, installed in
accordance with the requirement of any written law or as required
by the Fire Services Department, that is not in efficient working
(e) inadequate means of exit from any part of a building to any place,
whether within or outside the building, that provides safety to
persons in the event of a fire; or
(f) any other matter or circumstance that materially increases the
likelihood of a fire or the danger to life or property that would
result from the outbreak of a fire, or that would materially hamper
the Fire Services Department in the discharge of its duties in the
event of a fire;
(LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988)
Page 86 of 187
Definition of high-rise buildings.
High-rise structure is one that extends higher than the maximum reach of available fire-fighting
equipment and it is between 75 ft and 100 ft. A particular building is deemed a high-rise
specified by the fire and building codes in the area in which the building is located (Craighead,
Terpak, (2003) defined high-rise building is any building exceeded 75 ft
where fire department operation cannot be considered ground based.
Encyclopaedia Britannica define high-rise building as a multi-story building with a height that
require the use of a system of mechanical vertical transportation such as elevators (Britannica
A building is defined by the Uniform Building Codes as a high-rise building when it has floors
for human occupancy which are more than 75 ft above the lowest level of fire
department access. Second definition as stated in Uniform Building Codes is the
buildings meet the definition to be equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system
designed in accordance with requirements in Uniform Building Codes (Patterson, 1993).
LAWS OF MALAYSIA
FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988
An Act to make necessary provision for the effective and efficient
functioning of the Fire Services Department, for the protection of
persons and property from fire risks and for purposes connected
—1 January 1989, P.U. (B) 701/1988]
Page 87 of 187
Significance of Building Services
Building services systems has an important role for building where it has stands about 20% to 40% of the
total construction cost. Figure 1 shows the example of a cost breakdown of a typical government office
(Retrieved from Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government
buildings, 25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk)
Page 88 of 187
2.4.3 Introduction to Fire
According to research on ten years fire statistics in Malaysia (1990 to 1999), it shows that there were
154,987 fire cases in Malaysia. From 23,911 or 15.45% cases involved buildings, about more than 2000
fire cases annually involved buildings are significantly high. Among the types of building, residential
buildings are the highest i.e. 9,512 cases followed by shops 2,767
cases, plants 2,636 cases and stores 1,489 cases (Bomba, 2001). From this statistic, its how is that
residential buildings are the highest risks of possibility of fire break out. It includes high-rise
accommodation buildings i.e. flats buildings, apartment buildings and condominiums. At this moment the
recent statistics for the next ten years of fire statistics is not available and due to be compiled in the year
2010. Also, for most of the cases, the fire occurred not naturally but most of the cases were due to either
the human faults or human ignorance (retrieved from Yahya Mohamad Yatim, Fire Safety Models for High-Rise Residential
Buildings in Malaysia, June 2009)
By conclusion against the research above, it is important that precise consideration should be
taken into account during building design especially regarding the fire escape route in high-rise
residential buildings to speed out evacuation time, thus, to reduce the percentage of injury and death
It is also important to study into the human behaviour during fire. i.e Panic Behaviour, to firmly
understand the basic reaction and needs of the building user.
Hence, there were several considerations should be taken into account during design, as below:
For every fire safety design, the following fire safety objectives should be met:
(a) Life Safety
Fire safety provisions should be provided for:
1. Protection of life of building occupants
2. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments
3. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire
4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel
(b) Property Protection
Fire safety provisions should be provided for:
1. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments
2. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire
3. Minimization of fire spread between buildings
4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel
Page 89 of 187
Fire Safety Risk Analysis
Life Safety and property protection guidance framework (FPA, 2003)
Page 90 of 187
220.127.116.11 Science of Fire
Aspect: 1. Fire Triangle (Oxygen, Fuel and Heat)
Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration
Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire, role of ventilation
Aspect 1: Fire Triangle
(Retrieved from http://www.pslc.ws/fire/images/firetria.gif)
Fire triangle is the basic explanation of how does fire occurs with the present of three main
elements: fuel, oxygen and energy in the form of combustion heat, in a chemical reaction. The
absent of either one element will alter the either the rate of fire burning or even put off the fire.
Hence, to stop the fire, we need to elimate either one of the above elements.
Once the fuel is ignited, a fire will spreads across the fuel object almost instantly until it
reaches the stage where it is fully develop into uncontrollable fire. The main factors of how
fast the spread speed of fire across the surface of the material are the fuel composition,
orientation, surface to mass ratio, incident heat and air supply. The relationship of the fire and
the above elements can be explained with the following:
Page 91 of 187
Fire normally develops through a consistent stages until it reaches the highest stage where it is
become fully develop. The increase in heat release rate against time is manipulated by the variables
of incident heat, air supply and fuel. There are basic three types of growth rates in fire, “slow
growing rate”, “medium growing rate” and “fast growth rate”. When the burning time is prolonged,
the burning rate will be controlled or limited by the decreasing in either one of the three main
elements. Once one of them is omitted, the burning will stop. This is a gradual process which is the
decaying process of fire.
Heat Release Rate for Office Module (Madrzykowski 1996)
Fire Growth Rates (from SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
Page 92 of 187
Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration
Smoke is produced at the instant of fire ignition on a fuel. The smoke is then being transported
by a smoke plume and became collection of smoke on the upper portion of the space, forming a
layer which will soon increase in depth and temperature. The high heat energy smoke layer is
then radiates the heat energy back onto unburned fuels in the space, thus causing the
surrounding materials, which the potential fuels to increase in temperature. “Flashover” is the
condition whereby the small unburned object surround the burning object suddenly ignited
simultaneously. Flashover usually happened in a compact or a small space where the heat
energy can be radiated at a higher speed. Hence, also the combustion is exothermic reaction.
Products of burning are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water. Some of these products
cause death when inhaled at a considerable amount.
Major Factors Influencing Fire Growth
Page 93 of 187
Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire and role of ventilation
The fully- developed fire is at a stable burning stage with a constant rate loss of mass. This is the
stage where fire and fuel are at a considerably equal stage, where equilibrium is reached by either
the limitation of air supply (in ventilation controlled fires) or the characteristic of the object being
burnt. Also, the heat release (temperature) is relatively stable with no further influx.
1. Fuel Controlled Fires
This is the stage where the supply of air and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is
limited by fuel mass or fuel characteristics. The amount of carbon in the material becomes the
factor that controls the whole burning process.
2. Ventilation Controlled Fires
This is the stage where the fuel mass and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is
limited by the supply of oxygen. The air supplied from openings or HVAC systems become the
factor that controls the whole burning process.
A standard fire curve in enclosed spaces (CIBSE, 2003)
Page 94 of 187
Classes of Fire
In Europe and Australia, classes of fire are grouped into six groups as follows:
• Class A: Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper,
and some types of plastics.
• Class B: Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as
petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but NOT
cooking fats or oils.
• Class C: Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen,
• Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium,
• Shock Risk Fire (formerly known as Class E) : Fires that involve any of the
materials found in Class A and B fires,
but with the introduction of an electrical
appliances, wiring, or other electrically
energized objects in the vicinity of the
fire, with a resultant electrical shock
risk if a conductive agent is used.
• Class F: Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the
Oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids
making normal extinguishing agents ineffective
Comparison of Fire Classes Standard Between Australia, European and North America
Page 95 of 187
18.104.22.168 Panic Behaviour
It is important that for a designer to consider the panic behaviour of the occupants during fire,
regarding the possible rational and irrational decisions that they might make and the route of
escape from the burning building as protection towards user. Definition of panic as below:
1. “panic” by original greek language “Panikos” have the meaning of a sudden uncontrollable fear
or anxiety, often causing wildly unthinking behaviour. (Retrieved from Wikipedia)
2. A sudden, overpowering terror, often affecting many people at once.
(Retrieved from http://www.the freedictionary.com/panic/. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright
2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.)
3. A sudden overwhelming fear that produces hysterical behaviour and that can spread quickly
through a crowd. An instance, outbreak, a period of such fear. An anxiety disorder characterized
by feelings of impending doom and physical symptoms such as trembling and hyperventilation.
(Random House Kernerman Webster‟s College University, copyrights 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House,
Inc. All rights reserved.)
The Panic Phenomena. Retrieved from http://bp1.blogger/com/“
“Psychological crowd” as a group of people where individuals have lost their own
personality to share the same motivations and thoughts as the crowd, which is
composed of the lowest common denominator as “a crowd displays a singular
Page 96 of 187
“In other psychology and sociology literature also define the term “panic”.
Goldenson define panic as “reaction involving terror, confusion and irrational
behaviour precipitated by a threatening situation.”
Johnson wrote, “behavior involves selfish competition uncontrolled by social
and cultural constraints,” and “breaking of social order, competition
unregulated by social forces.”
Keating outlined four elements of panic:
a) hope to escape through dwindling resources;
b) contagious behaviour;
c) aggressive concern about one's own safety; and
d) irrational, illogical responses
Quarantelli describes panic as an acute fear reaction
marked by flight behaviour and the panic participant as no rational in his
flight behaviour. In the human behaviour literature, „panic‟ is usually
defined as some sort of irrational behaviour, and research findings
consistently show that people do not exhibit such irrational behaviour in
fires. In fact, altruistic behaviour is seen to be the norm in serious
fires.17 Human behaviour under stress is relatively controlled, rational
and adaptive.15 It is also found that cooperation rather than selfish behaviour
are predominant even among total strangers”
It is important to consider panic behaviour in space planning for Fire Protection System to
minimize the risk of death due to trampling or panic.
(Case studies: Stardust Nightclub Fire, Ireland, February 13, 1981. Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th
In other hand, proper design planning for fire protection system might actually helps to protect
the user while wrong design decisions might kills many life.
(Case Studies: Gothenburg Discotheque Fire, Sweden, October 29, 1998; Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th
Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,’Panic’ and human behaviour in fire, 13th
Page 97 of 187
2.4.4 Onsite Research and Analysis
This chapter will be further divided into sub-units of the elements of Active and Passive Fire
Protection System, also the potential hazards caused by human found in Bangsar Village Shopping
Mall, stated as below:
Active Fire Protection System:
1. Fire Detection and Alarm System
2. Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet
3. Carbon Dioxide System
4. Smoke control System
5. Water Tank and Pump
6. Standpipe and hose system
(Standard Hose Compartment)
7. Portable Fire Extinguisher
8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light
9. Circuit cutter
10. Fire Rated Door
11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage
12. Sign, Warnings
13. Fire Alarm Panel
Passive Fire Protection System:
1. Emergency Escape Corridor
2. Emergency Staircase
3. Stairwell and staircase design
4. Escape Route Floor plans and Gathering Space
1. Human Fault
Page 98 of 187
22.214.171.124 Active Fire Protection System
1. Fire Detection and Alarm System
2. Smoke control System
3. Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet
4. Carbon Dioxide System
5. Water Tank and Pump
6. Standpipe and hose system
(Standard Hose Compartment)
7. Portable Fire Extinguisher
8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light
9. Circuit Breaker
10. Fire Rated Door
11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage
12. Fire Alarm Panel
Page 99 of 187
1. Fire Detection and Alarm System: Smoke and Heat
The conventional Fire Alarm System is provided in the building. The system is designed to monitor
all the fire detection and warning devices located at various strategic locations as required by
Jabatan Bomba. The detecting devices are the manual call-points and the warning devices are the
alarm bells. Fire Alarm panel is located at Ground floor lift lobby. A mimic is provided to indicate
the various zoning and fire protection equipment on the various floors.
Fire Mode Conditions:
The following conditions are observed on fire conditions.
a. Alarm bells will ring continuously
b. Alarm zoning will be indicated at fire alarm panel
The Gent 7800 Series Detector Range
The comprehensive range of low profile smoke and heat detectors are deigned to comply with EN54
Part 7. With extra low quiescent current consumption and twin 360°C view angle fire LEDs, this
range benefits from state of the art electronic sensing technology incorporating smoke scatter
principles and manufactured from Vo grade flame resistant materials.
All models fit on a standard base with flush and surface wire base options available. Diode bases are
used to achieve head removal requirements with no additional end of line devices required.
The Gent 7800 series detectors will operate with the current range of GENT conventional type
control panels and GENT System 3400 or 34000 addressable interfaces.
(Image retrieved from http://www.firedetectionshop.co.uk/gent-s-quad-s4-711-st-vo-dual-optical-heat-detector-
Page 100 of 187
Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall
7840 Optical Smoke Detector
It is particularly effective in detecting large visible smoke particles such as those produced by
smouldering wood, paper, PVC or polyurethane foam. It is also suitable for general use.
Inside the optical chamber there is an infra red “light” beam and a photo sensor unit, fitted at an
obtuse angle. Normally very little light from the beam reaches the sensor, but when smoke enters
the chamber, the beam is scattered and more light reaches the sensor, this triggering the alarm.
Pulsed light source keeps the power consumption low, and thus enabling more detectors to be used
per circuit. To reduce the risk of false alarms, inside each detector, 3 pulses from the light source
must reach the photo sensor before an alarm is activated. A built in microprocessor chip inside
monitors and compensates for any changes due to dust or other contaminants. This drastically helps
to reduce or minimise the risk of fake alarms.
(Image retrieved from http://img.directindustry.com/images_di/photo-m2/smoke-detector-55817-2393971.jpg)
Page 101 of 187
7850 Fixed Temperature Heat Detector
Ideal for normal property protection purposes, and particularly suited to areas where temperature
can fluctuate for natural reasons – e.g where there are large windows or industrial heat producing
Present to trigger alarm when temperature reaches approximately 57°C therefore it is an excellent
way of avoiding continual false alarms in areas where the temperature changes rapidly.
Electronic thermistor type detector element guarantees high accuracy because there are no moving
parts. Excellent reliability as detector is automatically resettable when thermistor element state
cools down Factory calibrated sensitivity to BS 5445 Part 5 Grade 2.
(images retrieved from http://www.pennylaneelectrical.co.uk/images/fireline_Csd2.jpg)
Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.
Page 102 of 187
7860 Rate Of Rise Heat Detector
Suitable for most normal property protection purposes and providing a high degree of protection in
areas where the temperature is normally fairly stable – useful for low ambient temperature areas
where the response of fixed temperature may be slower.
Rate of Rise heat detector respond to rises in temperature, but also include a fixed temperature
“backstop” circuit, present at approximately 57°C for even greater safety. Electronic thermistors
type detector elements guarantees high accuracy and, because there are no moving parts, give
excellent reliability. Sensitivity to BS5445 Part 5 Grade 1 allowing this detector to be used for
maximum ceiling heights as specified by BS 5839 Part 1, 1988.
(images retrieved from http://static.squarespace.com/static/5170401be4b00853b233dbd2/t/518d4f6be4b01d03877bac20/1368215404470/heat_fig1.jpg)
(Images retrieved from http://www.apollo-fire.co.uk/media/753732/heat.jpg)
Page 103 of 187
2. Smoke Control System
Based on the operating manual of fire protection system of Bangsar Village Shopping Mall, it is
stated that, the smoke control system has been designed to provide emergency smoke and heat
exhaust ventilation in the event of fire to allow both safe evacuation of people and the entry of the
fire fighting services.
In case of fire, the system is designed to maintain a smoke free clear layer for 4m from floor level
unless the fire exceeds 3m X 3m with a heat output of 5MW. With the sprinkler system in operation
this fire size is not likely to be exceeded before evacuation is complete. The smoke control system
stated in the operating manual is designed for emergency use only.
The smoke control system activation is based on a “Double-Knock” detection system.
In an emergency event, the first line of detectors (usually smoke detector) will put the system into
standby mode. Upon confirmation of an emergency via a second line of detector (Sprinkler
activation, flow switch) the Fire Alarm Panel will then send a fire mode signal to the Master Smoke
Control Panel where the panel will then activate the smoke control equipment.
Once the system is activated, it can only be deactivated when the Fire Alarm Panel is normalized
and the “RESET” button on the Master Smoke Control Panel is press. This action will then reset all
the equipment to their normal condition, except the smoke extract fans. The fans can only be reset
from the Fan Starter Panel in the first floor AHU Room.
From the Master Smoke Control Panel, the individual group of equipment can be manually control
or isolated via a selector switch.
Should the control wiring be damage or disconnected prior to the activation of the signal, the
individual equipment can be activated from their respective control panel nearby. But once the
system is activated by the Fire Alarm Panel or the Master Smoke Control Panel and damage to the
control signal wiring will not reset or stop the system. They will then have to be individually reset
from their respective control panel.
In the event of power failure the compressor set retain sufficient air to close the ventilators twice
and hold them closed for a limited period. If power to the compressor is lost for a significant period
the ventilators will creep open as pneumatic pressure to build sufficiently to fully close all
In the event of power failure to the control panel the ventilators will go to failsafe open position.
Reset will be automatic when power is restored.
Page 104 of 187
(images retrieved from http://www.idastech.com.sg/Images/Smoke_Control_Schematic.jpg)
UBBL Laws and Regulations on Smoke Control System
Under UBBL 1984 Section 153: Smoke Detectors for Lift Lobbies.
1. All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.
2. Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam
or photo detectors unless incorporated with force close feature which after thirty seconds of any
interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a pre-set time.
According to the guidelines, the fire control room has to meet the requirement of the
building that has an effective height of more than 50 meters. It should be separated from the rest of
the building by two hour fire rated elements of structure.