A cloud is a platform or infrastructure that enables execution of code (services, applications etc.), in a managed and elastic fashion, whereas “ managed” means that reliability according to pre-defined quality parameters is automatically ensured and “elastic” implies that the resources are put to use according to actual current requirements observing overarching requirement definitions – implicitly, elasticity includes both up- and downward scalability of resources and data, but also load-balancing of data throughput. NIST Definition: Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction Essential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, measured service Service models: Cloud Software/Platform/ Infrastructure as a Service Deployed as private (community), public or hybrid cloud NIST: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g. business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises NIST: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf
Merrill Lynch: Cloud computing market opportunity by 2011 = $95bn in business and productivity apps + $65bn in online advertising = $160bn Worldwide by 2012 SaaS: $21bn, 20% CAGR (compounded annual growth rate) PaaS: $9bn, 160% CAGR IaaS: $4bn, 60% CAGR
Explanation for the policy driven scenario calculations in the attached slide Key assumptions: The EU27 and Euro area structure will remain unchanged. No country will exit the Euro area. GDP will show moderate positive growth in 2014-2020. EU average annual GDP growth will reach 1.8%-1.9% in the 2014-2020 timeframe There will be not factors/happenings/external shocks that may cause a big deviation from the long-term average of the EU business and consumer confidence indicators, for a persistently long time-frame. Political instability in the Middle East will remain fluid but will not have a strongly adverse impact on the EU economic growth up to 2020. The €/$ exchange rate will remain relatively stable along the scenario forecast period. Total IT will show positive growth rates, with an anticipated 2014-2020 CAGR of around 4-4.5% (4.3%) By 2020, more IT vendors will have entered the Public cloud market, including traditional vendors and new entrants. The number of available offerings will also have increased, both in the business and consumer areas. By 2020, IT vendors will have made some progress in building an effective channel targeting SMEs with tailored solutions. There will not be a major security accident that may damage EU companies' confidence in the security of cloud services. Cloud adoption of at least one solution will increase across all industries, but cloud intensity will strengthen just in selected verticals (such as finance, high-tech, telecommunications) and generally speaking among large companies. With no clear rules, Public sector will keep on lagging behind other vertical markets.
All these inputs now have to be integrated in order to develop a coherent and overarching EU strategy for cloud computing!
Major industry stakeholders meeting: A consultation meeting with high level industrial representatives held May 23rd to advise and establish consensus on strategic orientations and priority policy actions. Four working groups, have provided an initial list of policy recommendations Groups: WG1 - Data Privacy, Governance and ID WG2 - Trust, Security and Certification WG3 - Interoperability, Data Portability and Reversibility WG4 - Innovation and Uptake Table above XX (orange): major player, has most actions X (yellow): has some actions, less than the other
In the EDA , one of the flagships initiatives for Europe 2020, the EU proposal for growth and jobs, one of the actions was to develop a EU-wide cloud strategy notably for government and science. End of September , the EC released a communication whose overall objective is to unleash the potential of cloud computing in Europe. It intends to enable and facilitate the faster adoption ov cloud computing in all sectors of the economy, helping to cut costs, boost productivity and promote the creation of growth and jobs.
Consultations 2011 Results: Major Cloud Challenges Interoperability & standards lock-in risks portability of data, security settings; Contractual Issues Contract templates Privacy & Legal Data Security and Traceability: where is my data? whose law applies? who can access it? Governance, control no control of licensing terms, SLA, use of legacy application Security, Dependability data, outages ...
There are opportunities both on the supply side, for telcos, equipment vendors and service providers , and on the demand side particularly for start-ups and small and medium enterprises due to the availability of quicker IT services lowering the entry level costs to set-up them.
There is a need for standards in cloud computing, particularly in the area of interoperability and security to avoid lock-in situations. European Telecoms Standard Institute to play an important coordination role here. Data protection is an important challenge, there is a need for technical specifications in this area Certification schemes can help to gain trust and ENISA (European Network and Information Security Agency) may help in this respect The delivery of cloud services needs the building of big data centers. There is need to measure the impact on the environment
There is relatively little experience in setting up cloud sevices contracts. Proper contracts , including service level agreements , are necessary to avoid litigation in case of disagreement. The Common European Sales Law models can be a good starting point for the expert group in charge of examinig this matter Standard clauses for data migration are of special interest for compliance and security. Finally a codo code of conduct by cloud suppliers is a good thing to have and increease trust in cloud services
Public sector is an important potential buyer of cloud services. Common requirements and joint procurement will be beneficial not only to public sector but also to help shape the market for the private sector
The FP7 and CIP have been funding cloud related research for the last year. More that 80 M€ in grants have been provided. The next Research programme Horizon 2020 intends to continue supporting research in this area The future Connecting Europe Facility will surely need support from cloud services Cloud will be a subject to be discussed with other international partners, like the USA and should be part of free-trade negotiations
Summing up Vendor lock-in, security and privacy are a danger for cloud adoption This can be avoided with standards and certification schemes that have to be identified The public sector can help to shape the market
4 francisco garcia_moran_moldova_2013
Unleashing the Potential of Cloud Computing in Europe Francisco García Morán Director General DG Informatics mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org M-Cloud Week in the Government Moldova February 2013 Digital Agenda
Cloud: an elastic executionenvironment of resources involvingmultiple stakeholders and providing ametered service at multiplegranularities for a specified level ofquality (of service).Source: Expert group on Cloud Computing, 2009http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ssai/docs/cloud-report-final.pdf Digital Agenda
ECS. InputIndustry consultationPublic consultationInternational front (EU-US)Additional meetings (SMEs, Telecomm & Web Hosting, User Industries) Digital Agenda
Industry recommendationsGroup Recommendation EC Industry Promote the Digital Single Market to encourage efficient cross border Cloud XX X ServicesLegal Analyse existing legislation and legislation under review to remove barriers to Cloud XXFramework computing Ensure privacy legislation is horizontally assessed for its compatibility with Cloud XX X computing, and is looked at in a global context. SME Cloud Strategy: Raise awareness and encourage uptake of Cloud computing XX XX Public Sector Cloud Strategy for Europe: Raise Awareness & Promote uptake of XX X Cloud computing among public authorities.Market related Advance Practices and Contracting in Cloud Computing XX Ensure a proper response to data breaches in the Cloud XX Investigate further the creation of voluntary and industry led mechanisms of XX enhancing trust and securityTechnology Build on the Past & Foster Collaborative Research in Cloud Computing XXrelated Foster interoperability and data portability in the Cloud X XX Digital Agenda
Public Consultation(538 inputs, companies: 230, individuals: 182, …)EU legal framework unclear Need for clarification on rights, responsibilities, data protection & liability Guidelines for contracting welcomePublic sector can set standards (security, IOP, data portability)International agreements neededImprovement through R&D Digital Agenda
Objective of the EU Cloud StrategyEurope […] should develop an EU-wide strategy on cloudcomputing notably for government and science.” (EDA)1. Enabling and facilitating faster adoption of cloud computing, throughout all sectors of the economy to help cut ICT costs and boost productivity, growth and jobs Digital Agenda Approved 27/09/2012
Opportunities Supply side: for telcos, equipment, services providers Demand side: Productivity potential for all; quicker and less risky professional IT for new companies (e.g. start-ups) Digital Agenda
Key Action 1 : Cutting through the Jungle of Standards ETSI (European Telecoms Standards Institute) to coordinate stakeholders & identify necessary standards (e.g. for security and interoperability) Recognize ICT technical specifications for data protection ENISA & others to assist development of EU-wide voluntary certification schemes Agree with industry harmonised metrics for energy consumption & carbon emissions of cloud services Digital Agenda
Key action 2: Safe and Fair Contract Terms Develop with stakeholders model terms for cloud computing service level agreements for professional cloud users European model contract terms and conditions pursuant to Common European Sales Law; expert group for cloud-related issues beyond the CSL Review standard contractual clauses & binding corporate rules for international data transfers by cloud providers Work with industry towards a code of conduct for cloud providers for Article 29 Working Party to endorse Digital Agenda
Key Action 3: European Cloud Partnership What: Identify common requirements for public sector cloud use Towards common & joint public procurement of cloud services Shape the market to benefit private use How : Steering Board: industry and MS Pre-Commercial Procurement Action with MS (FP7, EUR 10m call published), with industry input Umbrella for MS cloud activities Digital Agenda
Other Actions Focus Future European Research Funding Horizon 2020 support Cloud support for Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Cloud in International Dialogue and free- trade negotiations Digital Agenda
European Cloud Communication: Conclusion• Closed models and vendor lock-in are a danger for Cloud model take-up• Appropriate standards and certification schemes need to be identified• The Public sector has an important role for the shaping of the Cloud computing market Digital Agenda
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Align To Market Trends Align To Market Trends Reducing Cost Reducing CostOur Focus Reducing Delivery Time Reducing Delivery Time Security Security Long Term Sustainability Long Term Sustainability Digital Agenda
Consolidation/Virtualisation Consolidation/Virtualisation Standardisation Standardisation4 Steps Defined Service Request Portal Service Request Portal Automation/Orchestration Automation/Orchestration Digital Agenda
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And our Application Stack….2012 2013 2014 OSS on Linux/VM OSS on Linux/VM Validation Validation CF9 on Linux/VM CF9 on Linux/VM Validation Validation BOXI 3.1 SP5 on Linux/VM BOXI 3.1 SP5 on Linux/VM Validation Validation WL10.3.6 on Linux/VM WL10.3.6 on Linux/VM Validation Validation Ora11GR2 on Linux Ora11GR2 on Linux Digital Agenda
Further InformationEuropean Cloud Computing Strategyhttp://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/cloudcomputing/index_en.htmDigital Agenda for Europehttps://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/Software & Service Architectures and Infrastructureshttp://cordis.europa.eu/software-services Digital Agenda