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Review for Test 2:Cardiac:Remember that the test questions start on material after the vascular section.-Make sure you kno...
6) Non-pacemaker Repolarization = closure of open calcium channels andopening of outward potassium channels7) Non-pacemake...
-Hemodynamic Section; for resistance to blood flow, the important part ofthe equation, (ηL8)/(r4π) is r which is the insid...
vasodilation = decreased BP-Changes to BP will affect afterload and will therefore affect cardiac activity-Responses to ex...
PULMONARY:-Know all the functions of the lungs-Know the 2 circulations that are part of the lungs:1.) The pulmonary circul...
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Cardiac & Pulmonary Review

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Cardiac & Pulmonary Review For Human Physiology 1 (Intro) Key Concepts

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Cardiac & Pulmonary Review

  1. 1. Review for Test 2:Cardiac:Remember that the test questions start on material after the vascular section.-Make sure you know your definitions!-Know that in terms of feeding the heart tissue, the greatest amount of bloodis delivered to the heart tissue during diastole through the open cardiacarteries but that during systole, there is no delivery of blood through thecardiac arteries as they are often occluded during systolePacemakers:-Be very aware of the ions that control depolarization/action potentials inboth the pacemaker/slow-response cells and the pacemaker/fast-responsecells.1) Pacemaker Action potentials = initiated by closure of any open potassiumchannels and opening (briefly) of T-type calcium channels and F-typesodium channels2) Pacemaker Depolarization = phase 0 = opening of loner-lasting calciumchannels(NOTE: remember, the initiation of the action potential and depolarizationrequires inward flux of different ions through different channels in thepacemaker cells due to the intrinsic activity (i.e. spontaneous activity) ofthese cells)3) Pacemaker Repolarization = closure of calcium channels and opening ofoutward potassium channels (NOTE: full return to “resting” potentialrequires activation of the ion ATPases and transfer of sodium and calciumout of the cell and potassium into the cell)4) Non-pacemaker Action Potentials and Depolarization = opening of fastsodium channels5) Non-pacemaker Plateau Phase = opening of calcium channels resulting ina halt in depolarization as positive calcium ions are entering the cell
  2. 2. 6) Non-pacemaker Repolarization = closure of open calcium channels andopening of outward potassium channels7) Non-pacemaker Resting Potentials = return to the resting state requiresactivation of the ion ATPases to move sodium and calcium out of the celland potassium into the cell-Know conduction pathwayi.e. SA node to AV node to Bundle of His to the left and right bundlebranches to the Purkinje Fibres-Also know the rates/timing of the various parts of the conduction pathway.ie: Where is the fastest rate for electrical conduction and where is theslowest-ECG: Know what all the waveforms and complexes represent in terms ofcardiac activityMake sure you know your equation for cardiac output and understand all thefactors that can impact CO such as stroke volume (SV), venous return,preload, afterload, contractility. Remember that although HR and SV will both increase CO, there is a limit to how much CO can be increased. In terms of HR, too high a HR means less time spent in diastolic filling of the heart chambers and therefore decreased SV and decreased CO. In terms of SV, there is a limit to how much stretch and contractility the heart muscle can have, so SV will only increase up a point Venous return to the heart relies on activity of the skeletal muscles and the respiratory pump, so decrease in activity of either will decrease the volume of blood returning to the heart and therefore decrease how much blood can be pumped back out in terms of CO
  3. 3. -Hemodynamic Section; for resistance to blood flow, the important part ofthe equation, (ηL8)/(r4π) is r which is the inside vessel radius because in ahealthy adult, that is the only factor that can be altered.-Alteration of radius is through vasoconstriction or vasodilation;Vasoconstriction: the radius becomes smaller which results in an increasein resistance and a decrease in blood flow through that vesselVasodilation: the radius becomes larger which results in a decrease inresistance and an increase in blood flow through that vessel-Know the definitions for; Inotropy Dromotropy Chronotropy Lusitropy- Autonomic nervous system control:Sympathetics is through the release of norepinephrine from neural fibreswithin the heartParasympathetic control is through the release of acetylcholine which iscontrolled by the vagus nerve-Know what cardiac effects (i.e. HR, CO, contractility, etc) will be seen withthe; Release of acetylcholine, and what will happen with the release of norepinephrine- Bloodborne regulation: bloodborne regulation primarily will affectvasoconstriction or vasodilation and BP in term of cardiovascular activity.-Remember that; ADH and angiotensin II will increase BP through increases in plasma volume ANP will decrease BP through increased loss of plasma volume*Most local factors such as the kinins, histamine and NO will cause local
  4. 4. vasodilation = decreased BP-Changes to BP will affect afterload and will therefore affect cardiac activity-Responses to exercise: You must know the changes to mechanical,metabolic and autonomic control and hormonal release during exercise As well, remember that there are various compensations that occur during exercise to maintain high CO (i.e. resetting of arterial baroreceptors so that higher BP does not result in a reflex decrease in HR) Also, know how CO is maintained at high levels during exercise even though HR is high enough that filling time is reducedCapillary Regulation:*I will not ask you to know the equation for Starling’s Hypothesis. Whatyou do need to remember is that fluid moves (usually) from the interstitialtissues into the capillaries and that changing the direction of flow such thatfluid/water moves from the capillaries into the interstitium usually onlyoccurs with changes to venous or arterial pressure and is not the normaldirection
  5. 5. PULMONARY:-Know all the functions of the lungs-Know the 2 circulations that are part of the lungs:1.) The pulmonary circulation is the gas exchange circulation and is a highcompliance, low resistance system2.) The bronchial circulation is the circulation that feeds the lung tissue andis a high pressure, high resistance systemGas Exchange:Oxygen Concentrations: Oxygen Concentrations are highest in the alveoli and lower in the blood which allows for diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood and at the tissue level, oxygen concentrations are highest in the blood and lowest in the tissues again allowing for diffusion of oxygen from the blood into the tissues Remember that the majority of oxygen travels bound to hemoglobin (98.5%) Oxygen Saturation: i.e. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, temperature and acidity and how they affect hemoglobin’s ability to carry oxygen Carbon Dioxide: Know how and where carbon dioxide is produced and the 3 ways (including percentages of each) that carbon dioxide is carried in the blood

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