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Dylan A. lurvey 
Jingze Li 
Emma Reyes 
Michael Magner 
 
 
 
1 
 
Table of Contents 
 
Executive Summary ​­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (3) 
Introduction, The F...
 
Executive Summary 
Total Quality Management plays a major role in business today. In order to fully                     ...
 
The Father of TQM: 
 
Total Quality Management is a form of management that has roots that really took hold in the 
1920...
The image above illustrates his continuous cycle of management: 
 
Walter Shewhart laid the groundwork for the creation of...
groundwork, however the element that truly made Deming shine through in later years was his 
understanding of the employee...
His effectiveness in the Japanese economy was so vast that they even decided to create a national 
award of recognition by...
­ Drive out fear; create trust. 
­ Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts. 
­ Eliminate exhortations for the work fo...
was born in a time where the global market was only just burgeoning into the existence we 
recognize in today's business c...
2­ Management should learn about TQM and agrees to commit to TQM when TQM is                           
identified as one ...
TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force                           
behind leader...
and helps to ensure that measurements focus on improvement of process and are not used to                               
c...
● Natural work teams (NWTs) – These teams consist of small groups of skilled workers                           
who share ...
● Downward communication – This is the dominant form of communication in an                       
organization. Presentat...
these elements, the business entities cannot be successful TQM implementers. It is very clear                           
f...
They then integrate these ideas with their own ideas to develop an organizational                         
model adapted f...
Benefits of Total Quality Management 
 
Through all the steps and strategy of implementing TQM into the business one has t...
the service industry. According to the decision making process these obstacles were ranked as                           
f...
advantages of standardization. However, common standards seemed to focus mainly on the                       
finished pro...
● Section 5 –Defines management’s commitment and responsibilities. What data                 
can be collected by the mana...
studying past data. This means it is more reactionary as opposed to preventive. ISO­9000                           
throug...
products or services. It only means that they have the necessary systems and processes is place                           ...
 
 
 
 
The question is, what is Six Sigma and where did it begin? ​The beginnings                           
of Six Sigma...
represents how well a process is performing and how likely a defect could occur. Six Sigma has                            ...
project team has a road block or need, the Champion has a lot of power to get what the team                               ...
● Poka yoke – these are identifying areas that you can make errors impossible or                           
immediately id...
Lean Manufacturing 
Lean Manufacturing may seem like a term that has nothing to do with quality. Some would think         ...
 
 
along with thousands of articles on lean manufacturing. Lean Manufacturing techniques                     
continues t...
 
 
 
 
Lean Manufacturing – Value Stream Mapping 
When we look at the terminology of Lean Manufacturing one would say it ...
● Time Line – the time it takes for each step in the process. 
There are many tools that can be involved with leaning out ...
So if your company has identified its goals and projects then there is a strong case for                                 
...
and more predictable. TQM efforts lead to workplaces that are more efficient with more                           
developm...
Bibliography 
1­ http://www.businessballs.com/qualitymanagement.htm 
2­ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming (f...
13 ­ Kurtus,Ron,”Comparing ISO9000 and TQM” Ron Kurtus School of Champions., March 
11, 2001, ​http://www.school­for­champ...
24 
­https://www.isixsigma.com/methodology/total­quality­management­tqm/applying­total­quality­
management­academics/ 
25­...
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Total Quality Management

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Total Quality Management

  1. 1.                  Dylan A. lurvey  Jingze Li  Emma Reyes  Michael Magner        1 
  2. 2.   Table of Contents    Executive Summary ​­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (3)  Introduction, The Father of Total Quality Management  ­ History of TQM ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (3­9)  ­ Implementation of Total Quality Management ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (9­15)  Critical Components for Implementing TQM structures   ­ TQM Strategies ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (15­16)  ­ Importance of Leadership ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (16)  ­ TQM Benefits and Obstacles ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (17­18)  The Evolution of TQM  ­ ISO 9000 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (18­22)  ­ Six Sigma ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (23­26)  ­ Lean Manufacturing ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (27­30)  ­ How does TQM – Lean Differ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (30­31)  Where are We Today  Conclusion​ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (31­32)  Bibliography​ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (33­35)    2 
  3. 3.   Executive Summary  Total Quality Management plays a major role in business today. In order to fully                            understand what TQM is, one has to look into where it started and how it has evolved over time.                                      In order for businesses to be successful they must understand the customer needs and produce                              products that meet their needs at a cost they can afford. Managing the quality of the product is                                    critical. This paper will discuss how understanding the process is important to eliminating                          defects and in turn lead customer satisfaction.  In today’s business, tools like ISO, Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing have played                          integral parts in managing quality. However, in order for any of these to work you need                                leadership support and an effort from all to sustain Total Quality Management long term.                                    3 
  4. 4.   The Father of TQM:    Total Quality Management is a form of management that has roots that really took hold in the  1920's but that isn't where it truly started. TQM as a management tactic was founded on the  principle of a company running efficiently. As a result of this efficiency these tactics could help  produce high quality products at a lesser cost to the producer, and also emphasize how a  company needs to run internally to do so. These ways of thinking about business were driven in  the early stages by a man named Walter Shewhart. Shewhart is not the father of TQM however,  but he is the man responsible for planting the seed of thought that eventually led to ​Walter  Edwards Deming becoming the "father of Total Quality Management" (2).    Before we can dive into the  conversation of TQM's father, we  must first pay homage to where  Deming learned these practices.  Walter Shewhart is considered by  many to be the grandfather of Total  Quality Management. Shewharts  methodology stemmed from the  theory that information is key when  making business decisions, and without the appropriate information, then no entity can succeed  to their optimum potential, but moreover the actions that ones take with the collected data are  equally as important when considering the growth of a business. His approach was known as the  Shewhart cycle learning and improvement cycle. This cycle involved four key continuous  process steps, Plan­Do­Study­Act (PDSA). Shewhart believed that if a business conducted this  continuous method of management, then they would eventually ween out enough system errors  to be able to maximize their output and lower costs.     4 
  5. 5. The image above illustrates his continuous cycle of management:    Walter Shewhart laid the groundwork for the creation of Total Quality Management, and  it was his core teachings of incorporating the use of statistical analysis and creative management  solutions that thrust Deming into the world of quality management. Using his famous SPC  control chart, along with other key tools, Shewhart was able to mold the mind of a young man  who would go on to change the mindset of the business community for the remainder of the  century and beyond, and that is why he is known as the "Grandfather of TQM".  Walter Deming was born in the year 1900, and has been one of the biggest influences on  modern business through the years 1900­2000. Having died in 1993 Walter is no longer  personally causing changes regarding TQM, but his sustained influence since its creation was  absolutely paramount when considering how the system of management has taken its hold on the  modern global business market.   Walter was born in Iowa in the year 1900. By the year 1917 he moved away from home,  and attended multiple college institutions before graduating from Yale in 1928. He first earned  his undergraduate degree at the University of Wyoming, and graduated in 1921 having worked  part time as a janitor through his tenor there to subsidize his costs of learning. Deming then went  on to get his Masters of Science in Physics and Mathematics from the university of Colorado,  and eventually wrapping up his documented education with a PH.D. in Physics from Yale. These  degrees and a fastidious work ethic earned Deming the mentorship of Walter Shewhart, and he  worked closely with Shewhart, learning his aforementioned techniques in management.  Shewharts statistically geared approach to management fit in with Demings educational  5 
  6. 6. groundwork, however the element that truly made Deming shine through in later years was his  understanding of the employee. Having been raised in a small Iowa town, and also with his  experience as a janitor, this was a man who understood what it felt like to be an expendable  employee. This background, combined with Shewharts teachings turned Deming into a man who  had a unique perspective on management, but also allowed him to grow his theory of statistical  management into something that would change the business world forever. In 1946 Walter  completed the creation of the American Society for Quality Control, and shortly thereafter he  traveled east to Japan where he directly influenced their management practices, and ultimately  led to an explosion in the Japanese economy specifically in the Automobile, ship building, and  electronic fields of business (2,3)  As Deming worked within Japan he gave a series of twelve major lectures during his  tenor there, and was able to greatly influence the business tactics amongst the Japanese. He  trained nearly 20,000 Japanese Engineers during his ten year period in Japan. One such person  who was greatly influenced by his teachings was Ichira Ishikawa who also happened to be the  president of the Japanese Scientists and Engineers Union (JUSE). Later Ishikawa has become  widely known through his discussions regarding Total Quality Management, both referring to the  practices that were taught to him by Demings, but also adding his own spin on how to interpret  policies of quality. Amidst his Japanese endeavors Deming even found time to push his  management quality agenda in America as well, however it took much longer for the US to adopt  his methodology. When Deming set his aims east towards Japan, it was during a time when their  economy had been down. With his help their economy completely turned around, and today they  are one of the leaders in the technology market (among other categories) in both production and  development. As the Japanese mastered his tactics of management, and even began to develop  their own spin off versions, their advancements in the specified fields of production were  specifically geared towards export and overseas sales. One could argue that Deming not only  taught the Japanese business culture a new way of doing things, but in turn he actually inhibited  the ability for them to become a player on the world stage. Throughout the century Japan has  faced conflict on a global scale, but through their economical vantage point they were able to  reestablish international relationships that they may have otherwise squandered and lost forever.  6 
  7. 7. His effectiveness in the Japanese economy was so vast that they even decided to create a national  award of recognition by the name of “The Deming Prize” in 1951 (4,5).    After the Japanese Economy burst into life in a 30 year period, the Americans finally  decided to commit to his methods of quality management in 1980 after a program was nationally  aired posing the question "Japan can do it... Why not us?".  It was this television program, along  with reports of phenomenal success after TQM implementation that drove the American business  practices away from only product to consumer relations, and began to broaden the scope of  possible profit changing methodologies.  With only 13 short years left of life after the 1980  marker, Deming managed to produce 2 more books regarding the subject matter, and was  honored at the Graduate School of Business of Columbia University. Walter Deming is the true  Father of TQM and this system of management has grown itself into an integral part of arguably  every single successful business in the modern market (4,5)  Deming was a man who believed that the employee had limitless potential and the only  governor to this potential is the environment in which the worker resides He had 14 core steps to  Total Quality Management, and the following points may have been adapted and molded to fit  specific needs over time, but are still incredibly prevalent in today's business tactics.     Demings 14 points (originally presented in his book "out of the crisis")    ­ Create and communicate to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the  company.  ­ Adapt to the new philosophy of the day; industries and economics are always changing.  ­ Build quality into a product throughout production.  ­ End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone; instead, try a  long­term relationship based on established loyalty and trust.  ­ Work to constantly improve quality and productivity.  ­ Institute on­the­job training.  ­ Teach and institute leadership to improve all job functions.  7 
  8. 8. ­ Drive out fear; create trust.  ­ Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts.  ­ Eliminate exhortations for the work force; instead, focus on the system and morale.  ­  (a) Eliminate work standard quotas for production. Substitute leadership methods for  improvement.  (b) Eliminate MBO. Avoid numerical goals. Alternatively, learn the capabilities of  processes, and how to improve them.  ­ Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship  ­ Educate with self­improvement programs.  ­ Include everyone in the company to accomplish the transformation.    Walter Deming lived a long and prosperous life that spanned through multiple world  conflicts, a Great Depression, and other notable occurrences in both American and international  history. That being said business practices are constantly evolving and developing in new regions  of the world, and through the non­stop production of global businesses, other ways of  considering these types of business practices will naturally develop as well. With Deming having  passed away over twenty years ago we have already seen more than two decades worth of  development in management philosophy throughout the world, but still today we can see the  ideals of Walter Deming haunting our marketplace. His theory of employee and employer  cooperation has greatly shaped the opinions of the younger American generations. This can be  seen in the modern media through coverage of protests revolving around higher minimum wage,  or in Union strikes throughout the country fighting for a more mutualistic business model  between those who work for someone, and the managing staff. Looking at his effects through a  more subtle lens however, TQM has clearly influenced the day to day lives of employees in  every work setting. Benefits packages are better than ever before, businesses endorse community  engagement for the purpose of giving back to their stake holders and enhanced public relations,  supply chain management tactics have become more team oriented revolving around trust and  partnership rather than vying to be the cheapest producer in a mass order low cost per unit  strategy, and we have found a way to function in a global market using the tactics of a man who  8 
  9. 9. was born in a time where the global market was only just burgeoning into the existence we  recognize in today's business culture. The history of TQM is engraved into the global economic  culture, and these practices will only continue to grow and evolve into more holistic practices  moving forward, and in the article we will discuss not only the key factors in running a company  in regards to TQM, but also we will discuss what it has evolved into, and where it may be  heading down the road.    Implementation of Total​ Q​uality​ M​anagement  Total Quality Management (TQM) ​is a practical way for improving personal                      effectiveness and performance. TQM is a method for aligning and focusing all individual efforts                            throughout an organization. It provides a structure within the business and both managers and                            employees may continuously improve all aspects of the TQM plan. Total Quality Management is                            not a destination but a journey toward improvement (6).  The term “Total Quality Management” (TQM) defines the quality policy and methods of                          an organization. But, the process to planning and implementing a total quality management                          system or quality management strategy is very difficult. There is no one solution for every                              business. Each organization is exclusive in culture, management practices, and the processes                        used to create and deliver its products and services. The quality management strategy will then                              differ from organization to organization. Still, there are crucial components that must be existent                            to apply TQM structures (7). These components are critical for management to look at in order to                                  determine if they are truly committed to a TQM program. A good place to start is looking into                                    some of the basic components of implementing TQM (7).    Critical Components for Implementing TQM structures   1­ A TQM plan should be developed based on company culture, customer satisfaction, and                          quality management systems.  9 
  10. 10. 2­ Management should learn about TQM and agrees to commit to TQM when TQM is                            identified as one of the organization’s strategies.  3­ Management identifies the core values and principles to be used in TQM and                          communicates these values and principles to each employee.  4­ The organization identifies the customer demands making them a priority and aligns                        products and services to meet those demands.  5­ Management maps the critical processes through which the organization meets its                      customers’ needs.  6­ The TQM plan progress is evaluated and the plan is revised as needed.  7­ An employee’s awareness of TQM plan should be measured periodically and a                        reward/recognition process should be established to recognize these employees who                    apply the TQM plan (8).   After management reviews the critical components of implementing TQM they also must                        look further into the other elements of implementation. Total quality is a description of the                              culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products                            and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company’s                                operations, with processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from                              operations. To be successful implementing TQM, an organization must concentrate on the eight                          key elements within the        company (8):  •       Ethics  •       Integrity   •       Trust   •       Training  •       Teamwork  •       Leadership  •       Recognition  •       Communication  10 
  11. 11. TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force                            behind leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives. For this, TQM requires the                        help of those eight key elements. These elements can be divided into four groups according to                                their function (9). The groups are:  I. Foundation – It includes: Ethics, Integrity and Trust.  II. Building Bricks – It includes: Training, Teamwork and                  Leadership.  III. Binding Mortar – It includes: Communication.  IV. Roof – It includes: Recognition.  I. Foundation  TQM is built on a foundation of ethics, integrity and trust. It fosters openness, fairness and                                sincerity and allows involvement by everyone. This is the key to unlocking the ultimate potential                              of TQM. These three elements move together, however, each element offers something different                          to the TQM concept.  1. ​Ethics – Ethics is the discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation. It is a                                    two­faceted subject represented by organizational and individual ethics. Organizational ethics                    establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that all employees are to adhere to in                                  the performance of their work. Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs.  2. Integrity – Integrity implies honesty, morals, values, fairness, and adherence to the facts and                              sincerity. The characteristic is what customers (internal or external) expect and deserve to                          receive. People see the opposite of integrity as duplicity. TQM will not work in an atmosphere of                                  duplicity.  3. ​Trust – Trust is a by­product of integrity and ethical conduct. Without trust, the framework of                                  TQM cannot be built. Trust fosters full participation of all members. It allows empowerment that                              encourages pride ownership and it encourages commitment. It allows decision making at                        appropriate levels in the organization, fosters individual risk­taking for continuous improvement                      11 
  12. 12. and helps to ensure that measurements focus on improvement of process and are not used to                                contend people. Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction. So, trust builds the cooperative                            environment essential for TQM (9).  II. Bricks  Basing on the strong foundation of trust, ethics and integrity, bricks are placed to reach the roof                                  of recognition. It includes:  4. ​Training – Training is very important for employees to be highly productive. Supervisors are                              solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments, and teaching their                      employees the philosophies of TQM. Training that employees require are interpersonal skills, the                          ability to function within teams, problem solving, decision making, job management                      performance analysis and improvement, business economics and technical skills. During the                      creation and formation of TQM, employees are trained so that they can become effective                            employees for the company.  5. ​Teamwork – To become successful in business, teamwork is also a key element of TQM. With                                  the use of teams, the business will receive quicker and better solutions to problems. Teams also                                provide more permanent improvements in processes            and operations. In teams, people feel more comfortable                bringing up problems that may occur, and can get help                    from other workers to find a solution and put into                    place. There are mainly three types of teams that TQM                    organizations adopt:  ● Quality improvement teams or excellence teams            (QITs) – These are temporary teams with the purpose                  of dealing with specific problems that often recur.                These teams are set up for period of three to twelve months.  ● Problem solving teams (PSTs) – These are temporary teams to solve certain problems                          and also to identify and overcome causes of problems. They generally last from one week                              to three months.  12 
  13. 13. ● Natural work teams (NWTs) – These teams consist of small groups of skilled workers                            who share tasks and responsibilities. These teams use concepts such as employee                        involvement teams, self­managing teams and quality circles. These teams generally work                      for one to two hours a week.  6. ​Leadership – It is possibly the most important element in TQM. It appears everywhere in                                organization. Leadership in TQM requires the manager to provide an inspiring vision, make                          strategic directions that are understood by all and to instill values that guide subordinates. For                              TQM to be successful in the business, the supervisor must be committed in leading his                              employees. A supervisor must understand TQM, believe in it and then demonstrate their belief                            and commitment through their daily practices of TQM. The supervisor makes sure that                          strategies, philosophies, values and goals are transmitted down throughout the organization to                        provide focus, clarity and direction. A key point is that TQM has to be introduced and led by top                                      management. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in                      creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the                            company and in creating and deploying well defined systems, methods and performance                        measures for achieving those goals (9, 10).  III. Binding Mortar  7. ​Communication – It binds everything together. Starting from foundation to roof of the TQM                              house, everything is bound by strong mortar of communication. It acts as a vital link between all                                  elements of TQM. Communication means a common understanding of ideas between the sender                          and the receiver. The success of TQM demands communication with and among all the                            organization members, suppliers and customers. Supervisors must keep open airways where                      employees can send and receive information about the TQM process. Communication coupled                        with the sharing of correct information is vital. For communication to be credible the message                              must be clear and receiver must interpret in the way the sender intended (9 10).  There are different ways that communication that can take place within an organization. Some of                              examples of these are:  13 
  14. 14. ● Downward communication – This is the dominant form of communication in an                        organization. Presentations and discussions basically do it. By this the supervisors are                        able to make the employees clear about TQM.  ● Upward communication – By this the lower level of employees are able to provide                            suggestions to upper management of the effects of TQM. As employees provide insight                          and constructive criticism, supervisors must listen effectively to correct the situation that                        comes about through the use of TQM. This forms a level of trust between supervisors and                                employees. This is also similar to empowering communication, where supervisors keep                      open ears and listen to others.  ● Sideways communication – This type of communication is important because it breaks                        down barriers between departments. It also allows dealing with customers and suppliers                        in a more professional manner.  IV. Roof  8. ​Recognition – Recognition is the last and final element in the entire system. It should be                                  provided for both suggestions and achievements for teams as well as individuals. Employees                          strive to receive recognition for themselves and their teams. Detecting and recognizing                        contributors is the most important job of a supervisor. As people are recognized, there can be                                huge changes in self­esteem, productivity, quality and the amount of effort exhorted to the task at                                hand. Recognition comes in its best form when it is immediately following an action that an                                employee has performed. Recognition comes in different ways, places and time such as,  ● Ways – It can be by way of personal letter from top management. Also by award                                banquets, plaques, trophies etc.  ● Places – Good performers can be recognized in front of departments, on performance                          boards and also in front of top management.  ● Time – Recognition can have given at any time like in staff meeting, annual award                              banquets, etc.  In summary these eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization                                and that the supervisor is a huge part in developing these elements in the work place. Without                                  14 
  15. 15. these elements, the business entities cannot be successful TQM implementers. It is very clear                            from the above discussion that TQM without involving integrity, ethics and trust would be a                              great remiss. In fact it would be incomplete. Training is the key by which the organization                                creates a TQM environment. Leadership and teamwork go hand in hand. Lack of communication                            between departments, supervisors and employees create a burden on the whole TQM process.                          Last but not the least; recognition should be given to people who contributed to the overall                                completed task. Hence, led by example, train employees to provide a quality product, create an                              environment where there is no fear to share knowledge, and give credit where credit is due is the                                    motto of a successful TQM organization (9, 10).  Once the company identifies its wants to go on the TQM journey, it must begin to think                                  about strategy. What is the best way? Or, what tools are available to develop the TQM process?                                  Again, every company is unique, so one or a combination of approaches can be a good fit.   TQM Strategies  A quality management plan can change from organization to organization. To help with this                            there are five strategies to develop the TQM process. These TQM strategies are the TQM                              Element approach, the Guru approach, the Organization Model approach, the Japanese Total                        Quality approach and the Award Criteria Approach (6).  ● The TQM Element approach was extensively used in the early 1980s as companies                          tried to implement parts of TQM as they learned them. The TQM Element approach                            uses key business processes as tools of TQM to nurture improvements.   ● The Guru approach practices the teachings and writings of William Edwards Deming,                        one of the leading quality thinkers, as a guide to apply the TQM program. This                              approach may be effective to determine if the organization has deficiencies. Then, the                          organization makes suitable changes to remedy those deficiencies.   ● The Organization model approach consists of quality circles, statistical process                    control, Taguchi methods, and quality function deployment (6). The Execution of the                        Organization Model approach, individuals or teams visit organizations that have                    taken a leadership role in TQM and determine their processes and reasons for success.                            15 
  16. 16. They then integrate these ideas with their own ideas to develop an organizational                          model adapted for their specific organization.   ● The Japanese Total Quality approach inspect the detailed implementation techniques                    and strategies employed by Deming Prize–winning companies and use this                    experience to develop a long­range master plan for in­house use (6).   ● An organization uses the award criteria approach, for example, the Deming Prize, the                          European Quality Award, or the ​Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award​, to                      identify areas for improvement. Under this approach, TQM implementation focuses                    on meeting specific award criteria. Although some argue that this is not an                          appropriate use of award criteria, some organizations do use this approach and it can                            result in improvement (6).     TQM and the Importance of Leadership    TQM depends on people. Effective TQM depends on effective leadership. Leaders                      should provide examples of how to implement TQM programs and inspire their peers and                            superiors to follow your example provide to implement TQM programs. Top leadership is                          essential, but TQM leaders are needed at all organizational levels. Effective TQM depend on the                              culture of the organization and the enthusiasm of the organizational leaders. They need to have a                                visible commitment to the TQM process of continuous improvement. Leaders need to be led by a                                vision (1).  Leaders should take the Initiative, demonstrate commitment, create more Leaders, guide the                        efforts of others and remove barriers to implement TQM in an organization. In addition, leaders                              will build awareness of the TQM plan in the organization. Understanding what TQM is and why                                it is important to people and the business is one of the first and perhaps the most important step                                      in implementing TQM. ​Every person in the organization must become aware of the need to                              improve, of the promise offered by TQM, ​of the various TQM methodologies and of the tools                                available for improvement efforts. Awareness is the key that opens the door to TQM's potential    16 
  17. 17. Benefits of Total Quality Management    Through all the steps and strategy of implementing TQM into the business one has to ask­                                What is the benefit? Although there are many benefits that can be had among different                              companies, we have listed some of them below that cover some of the broader categories.  ● Cost reduction. When applied consistently over time, TQM can reduce costs throughout an                          organization, especially in the areas of scrap, rework, field service, and warranty cost                          reduction. Since these cost reductions flow straight through to bottom­line profits without                        any additional costs being incurred, there can be a startling increase in profitability.  ● Customer satisfaction. Since the company has better products and services, and its                        interactions with customers are relatively error­free, there should be fewer customer                      complaints. Fewer complaints may also mean that the resources devoted to customer service                          can be reduced. A higher level of customer satisfaction may also lead to increased market                              share, as existing customers act on the company's behalf to bring in more customers.  ● Defect reduction. TQM has a strong emphasis on improving quality within a process, rather                            than inspecting quality into a process. This not only reduces the time needed to fix errors, but                                  makes it less necessary to employ a team of quality assurance personnel.  ● Morale. The ongoing and proven success of TQM, and in particular the participation of                            employees in that success can lead to a noticeable improvement in employee morale, which                            in turn reduces employee turnover, and therefore reduces the cost of hiring and training new                              employees.    Total​ Q​uality​ M​anagement Obstacles  Along with the benefits of Total Quality Management (TQM) there are obstacles as well. Many                                service industries have found it difficult to apply and implement TQM successfully. According                          to quality experts there are some obstacles to a successful implementation of TQM program in                              17 
  18. 18. the service industry. According to the decision making process these obstacles were ranked as                            follow (3):  ● managerial issues  ● people­oriented issues   ● organizational issues   ● lack of communication  ● lack of top­management commitment  ● Employee’s resistance to change   ● Lack of coordination between departments  ● High turnover at management level  TQM requires a significant amount of training for those employees involved in it. The training                              can take people away from their regular work which can actually have a negative short­term                              effect on costs. Also, since TQM tends to result in a continuing series of small changes, it can                                    generate an adverse reaction from those employees who prefer the current system, or who feel                              that they may lose their jobs because of it. TQM works best in an environment where it is                                    strongly supported by management, it is implemented by employee teams, and there is a                            continual focus on process improvement that prevents errors from occurring.  The Evolution of Total Quality Management  TQM is a way of running a business that concentrates on satisfying the customer. By                              empowering the people they would develop effective skills and to make a success of the                              organization. Its use would result in repeat and continued business. As time went on TQM began                                to evolve and some could say form a relationship with what would become ISO (Internal                              Organization of Standards). So what is ISO and where did it come from?  When Quality Management Standardization became          relevant during World War II it was discovered that                  vehicles, ammunition and units of measure were not                the same. The military adopted a standardized way                of making items and soon industries recognized the                18 
  19. 19. advantages of standardization. However, common standards seemed to focus mainly on the                        finished product and not the process itself. Companies became confused with different standards                          in different countries (10).  In 1987 the Internal Organization for            Standardization was formed and a new Quality              Standard was developed. The European Community            consisted of 12 member nations and was established                with the goal of creating a single market, free from all                      barriers of trade. In order for these products and                services to be traded freely, there needed to be                  assurances that those products meet certain standards,              whether they were produced in one of the EC nations                    or in a non­EC nation such as US, Japan, etc. The                      objective of the organization is to promote the creation                  of standards, testing and certification to encourage the international trade of goods and services.                            This lead to what is called, ISO 9000 Quality Standards. The ISO 9000 standards are not product                                  standards (12). They actually have nothing to do with the quality of the products. These are                                process standards that focus on the systems that produce the products. In other words the                              standards are guidelines for design, manufacture, sale and servicing of a product. These                          standards require a business to document their plans, specifications, procedures, activities, and so                          on. ISO 9000 was geared to increase the level of quality and reliability of products while also                                  increasing productivity and safety. Companies that adopt ISO 9000 standards must conform to                          meeting twenty elements that it requires.These elements focus on internal processes (especially                        manufacturing) administration and technical support (13).  The standard is broken out into eight sections. Sections 1 through 3 cover Scope,                            Reference and Terms and Definitions. Sections 4 through 8 are what really define the                            requirements:   ● Section 4 – How you document a management and control system  19 
  20. 20. ● Section 5 –Defines management’s commitment and responsibilities. What data                  can be collected by the management system?   ● Section 6 – Resource Management  ● Section 7 – The controlling of the product or service the companies provide. This                            involves the planning and producing of the product or service  ● Section 8 – This covers the measuring and monitoring product processes as well                          as management processes. This is completed through testing, auditing, and                    validating.  Simply put, ISO revolves around “Say What You Do, Do What You Say”. Company                            departments define their objectives, scope of work and define how they do their job with the goal                                  of continuous improvement of customer satisfaction. Companies that obtain their certification                      identify employees who would become “Lead Auditors” to perform internal audits of the                          program. At defined intervals these auditors will audit the departments to ensure they are                            following their policies and procedures. In other words “doing what you say”. If an auditor                              discovers areas of non­conformance they will issue a Corrective Action with a follow up to                              ensure the non­conformance is fixed. ​If the problem is solved, no additional action is required. If                                the corrective action did not fix the problem, then management must come up with a new                                corrective action, which is then audited and reported at the next management review. This cycle                              continues until the problem is solved. Auditors may also discover areas of improvement or issue                              a Preventive Action. A Preventive Action identifies an area of opportunity to fix a problem from                                occurring ​or to make the process more efficient and effective (13,14).  Total Quality Management (TQM) and ISO­9000 are both very important if an                        organization is looking to become world class. However they are actually quite different.                          Although Total Quality Management (TQM) came on the scene first as a method for companies                              to improve profits and repeat business, complying to the ISO 9000 standards is the first thing a                                  company should consider to improve the way it does business. Why? ​TQM is focused on                              identifying the causes of quality problems and eliminating them. The thought is that by involving                              everyone in solving quality problems, eventually all problems will be corrected and the                          company's quality will continue to get better and better. Unfortunately, TQM is based on                            20 
  21. 21. studying past data. This means it is more reactionary as opposed to preventive. ISO­9000                            through its systems, addresses every area of a business where quality problems can occur. It does                                this by requiring that management define the potential problems and implement appropriate                        practices to prevent them. One of the greatest features of ISO­9000 is that it is self­policing.                                TQM is not. Furthermore, in order to maintain certification, management must be able to prove                              that quality problems are addressed and resolved as they occur.  TQM has a history of fading                              away over time. While ISO­9000 requires documentation and record keeping, there is no such                            requirement in TQM. As a result, improvements are often forgotten as new people, new products                              and new managers come and go in the company. The typical TQM implementation relies heavily                              on the leadership of a "champion." When the champion goes, so does the TQM program. Unlike                                ISO­9000, which requires regular audits by an outside party. Although they have their                          differences and may seem that ISO­9000 is superior, however it does have some negatives. If owners or top management do not have a good understanding of the certification process of                                ISO­9000 and its standards, then the implementation could be a waste of time and money.                              Another negative is the amount of documentation needed to support the program. ISO can                            become a paper work nightmare. It has also been noted that good business decisions could be                                lost due to the amount of documentation requirements redirects their priorities. ISO­9000 can                          become a tedious step by step approach that actually slows down decision making and good                              common sense. The costs of obtaining the certification can come at a very high cost. The less                                  support the implementation gets the longer it will take. Some smaller companies can get certified                              in as little as six months, however it could be as long as 18 months as well. The time and effort                                          spent along with the costs of certification could cost some smaller companies close to $80,000 to                                certify. So, the time and cost of certifying often means that the return on investment does not                                  happen right away (16,17,18)  There are also cases of companies getting the certification but never really supporting it                            through strong internal auditing. This can result in questionable practices as well as quality. This                              looks to be deceptive to the customer and results in a poor business relationships or lost business.                                  It is important to note that a company that is ISO certified does not mean that it produced quality                                      21 
  22. 22. products or services. It only means that they have the necessary systems and processes is place                                (16,17).  Companies that incorporate ISO­9000 and/or TQM have often been proven to be better                          run, have fewer problems and have less              waste. This results in happier customers            which generates more business and          hopefully profit. ​While some may          consider TQM outdated, organizations        still pursue competitive advantage        through improved quality and satisfied          customers. One strong indication of the            continued relevance of quality        management to companies competing in the global market was the revision of the ISO 9000                              series of quality standards (14,15). The 2000 version of ISO 9000—ISO 9000:2000—represents                        a shift from quality assurance to quality management, a significant change in approach to quality                              from one that is totally compliance based to one that includes the evaluation of management                              techniques. Also, the introduction of the ISO 14000 Environmental standards were introduced in                          reaction to the ongoing environmental concerns throughout industry. This change has been                        described as moving the standard away from a technical­practical tool toward a management                          tool. ​TQM and ISO provide some great tools on managing quality, however there is another                            approach that takes even a closer look at improved quality through statistical analysis. This                            methodology is called Six Sigma (16,17,18)    22 
  23. 23.         The question is, what is Six Sigma and where did it begin? ​The beginnings                            of Six Sigma started back to the early industrial era, during the eighteenth century in Europe. A                                  man, Carl Frederick Gauss, introduced it as a conceptual normal curve metric. The evolution of                              Six Sigma took another step when Walter Shewhart showed how three sigma deviations from the                              mean required a process correction. Later in 1980, Six Sigma came to life when a Motorola                                engineer coined the term Six Sigma for this quality management process. Motorola later went on                              and copyrighted the term as well. Six Sigma sounds complicated and it can be, so we will break                                  it down (21,19)  In more laymen terms, Six Sigma is an approach that is data driven to eliminate defects in                                  any process. At any given step, when companies make a product, a defect can occur. Defects                                typically occur because of variation in the process.                Variation can come in two basic forms, Assignable and                  Random. ​Assignable Variation is when the deviation in the                  process can easily be identified. For example, if a new                    employee who is untrained takes the place of a trained one                      in a manufacturing line, you can be sure there will be                      variation and what caused it. ​Random Variation is harder to                    solve as it may be inherent in the process itself. For                      example, if you have two of the same machines but one tends to run hotter. Six Sigma projects                                    are aimed at reducing the causes of variation in the process and in turn reducing the number of                                    defects. The “Six” in Six Sigma comes from the goal of having six standard deviations from the                                  mean and the next specification limit. “Sigma” (σ) represents a unit of measurement that                            represents the spread about the mean or average of a process. A sigma value in business                                23 
  24. 24. represents how well a process is performing and how likely a defect could occur. Six Sigma has                                  a quality goal of 3.4 defects out of every one million units produced (18,19,20).  To achieve the quality goal of Six Sigma, one needs to look at the defect or failure and                                    find a solution to fix it. ​This is done through the use of data and statistics rather than simply                                      guessing at a solution. There are many tools in the tool box to use that drive supporting data but                                      how does one start the Six Sigma process? First, start with its methodology which is made up of                                    five project oriented areas. Below is a brief description of each area.  1) Define – Who are your customers and what are their goals and priorities. What does                              the customer define as being the most critical to the quality of the product?  2) Measure – Identify the areas of the process that impact quality and then determine                            how you will measure.  3) Analyze – Identify what causes the defect (s) and gain an understanding of the                            variations that case these defects.  4) Improve ­ Determine how you will go about eliminating the defect. Put in place                            ranges of acceptance and tolls to measure deviations from the range.  5) Control – Identify ways to maintain the improvements you made through tools, data                          and continuous improvement.  Before implementing tools and data to attack the defects, personnel from the company must be                              trained on how to use the tools. Corporate leadership is the most important function to get the                                  program off the ground. They create the vision of what the Six Sigma program will be. Six                                  Sigma uses a method of martial arts to describe the training level of those participating in Six                                  Sigma projects. ​Master Black belts are the highest trained through deep understandings of                          statistical analysis. They will typically oversee many projects at a high level. Black Belts lead the                                individual teams that are typically made up of ​Green Belts and ​White Belts. Green belts have                                training on the tools and methods of Six Sigma but not to the depth of a Black Belt. Green Belts                                        can also run small projects that are straight forward on analysis and a lower level of difficulty.                                  One of the most important roles is that of the ​Champion. A champion is typically one from upper                                    management. The role of the Champion is to ensure the project stays on track, is reported on                                  progress. The Champion also has a direct line to chief officers of the company. If the Six Sigma                                    24 
  25. 25. project team has a road block or need, the Champion has a lot of power to get what the team                                        needs (18,19,20,21)  When the personnel are trained, project is assigned and teams are formed they can begin                              to apply the analytical tools they were taught to use through the Six Sigma training. The tools                                  used are considered to be both qualitative and quantitative in driving process improvement. The                            tools they use are not considered unique, however how they are integrated as part of a system is.                                    Above was mentioned the 5 methodologies that made up Six Sigma and here we will discuss                                some of the tools used in each area. Again, there are many tools but here are some of the more                                        important ones used:   Define  ● Project Charter – Defines the scope and direction of the improvement team.  ● Value Stream mapping – This lays out the entire process from start to finish. This                              includes time analysis of each step and helps identify value and non­value added steps.  Measure  ● Process Map ­ Graphical depiction of a process.  ● Pareto Charts and Capability Analysis which looks at the ability to meet specifications.  Analyze  ● Root Cause Analysis – uncovers the causes of the defect  ● FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, this is one of the most important tools.                              FMEA requires the team to identify all the possible ways something might fail. Next,                            they determine all the effects or consequences that this failure may cause. Failures are                            then prioritized as to how serious, how frequent and how easily they can be detected.  ● Cause and Effect Diagrams – Also known as the Fishbone Chart shows potential                          relationships between the problem (failure) and potential causes  Improving the Process  ● Kaizen Events – these are used to look at areas for rapid change by focusing on one                                  project and using the employees to motivate each other to do the work.  Control   25 
  26. 26. ● Poka yoke – these are identifying areas that you can make errors impossible or                            immediately identifiable.  ● 5S – This is a visual control of what                  could be called good housekeeping.             Six Sigma has been statistically proven to              improve sales and add value to employees.              General Electric had $8 billion savings during the first three years it ran Six Sigma programs.                                Customers can benefit from Six Sigma through job satisfaction of employees. Because they are                            involved in improving the process and eliminating defects employees want to deliver the best                            service and products possible. However, there are also some downsides. Six Sigma can be                            difficult to implement if management is not fully on board with supporting its success. It requires                                a defined method of communication, inventory control and customer service. If everyone is not                            behind its success it will not be successful. Another downside is that it can be very complicated.                                  Due to the nature of the training it is at times to get employees to want to become Black Belts or                                          Greenbelts. The program is requires a tremendous amount of data and statistical analysis. This                            becomes very time consuming and makes it tough especially for smaller companies to sustain                            long term.  Six Sigma is truly a valuable program to employ if a company is looking to eliminate and                                  control defects. It is also a true partner and extension of Total Quality Management. With the                                evolution of TQM through ISO 9000 and Six Sigma, there is another are of discussion and that is                                    Lean Manufacturing. (24,18,19,20,21)          26 
  27. 27. Lean Manufacturing  Lean Manufacturing may seem like a term that has nothing to do with quality. Some would think                                  it is just an easier more defined way to manufacture goods. Dating back to 1913, Henry Ford                                  would be considered to be the founder of                a process to make automobiles that would              forever change manufacturing. In        Highland Park Michigan Ford would use            interchangeable parts with standard work          along an assembly line to create what he                called “flow production”. Ford would line            up fabricating steps and special          machinery. He would have a “Go/NoGo”            gauges to ensure fabrication of parts fit              perfectly and directly into the line. Although this process worked very well and was                            revolutionary at the time, it was only good at producing one product (22).  It was in the 1930’s when Kiichiro Toyoda, Taiichi Ohno, and others at Toyota looked at                                this situation and more intensely just after World War II. It occurred to them that a series of                                    simple innovations might make it more possible to provide both continuity in process flow and a                                wide variety in product offerings. They therefore revisited Ford’s original thinking, and invented                          the Toyota Production System. This system shifted the focus of the manufacturing from                          individual machines and their utilization, to the flow of the product through the total process.                              Toyota concluded that by right­sizing machines for the actual volume needed, monitoring                        machines to ensure quality, lining the machines up in process sequence, implementing quick                          setups so each machine could make small volumes of many parts, and having each process step                                notify the previous step of its current needs for materials, it would be possible to obtain low cost,                                    high variety, high quality, and very rapid throughput times to respond to changing customer                            desires. Today Toyota has become one of the largest automakers in the world. They continue to                                lead the industry in sales and are the main driver behind Hybrid technology. Hundreds of books                                have been written   27 
  28. 28.     along with thousands of articles on lean manufacturing. Lean Manufacturing techniques                      continues to spread through the world not just through manufacturing but retail, service and                            government (30).  Lean manufacturing is the        production of goods using less of            everything. In using lean        manufacturing the goals would be          to use less waste, less human            effort, less manufacturing space,        less investment in tools, and less            engineering to develop a new          product. Lean manufacturing is        known for its renowned focus on            the reduction of waste, which in turn improves overall customer value.   Lean Manufacturing Identifies the Seven areas of waste referred to the Japanese as                          “Muda”.  1. Over Production – manufacturing a product before it is actually required  2. Waiting – If a good is not be processed there is a waste in waiting for it.  3. Transporting – Transporting product between processes adds no value to the product.                        Excessive movement could cause damage and thus affect its quality.  4. Over Processing – Utilizing the right size equipment and the location of the equipment.                            If the process from equipment to equipment is too far apart there is waste.  5. Inventory – Work in Process is a direct result in over producing and waiting.  6. Motion – Simply put, Ergonomics. These are health and safety issues where if a worker                              is in a position to get injured, waste will result in manpower and other areas.  7. Defects – defects result in rework or scrap material. This is a major area of waste                                (28,30).  28 
  29. 29.         Lean Manufacturing – Value Stream Mapping  When we look at the terminology of Lean Manufacturing one would say it is making the                                process thinner, more streamlined, or more efficient. At a high level this would be accurate, but                                how does a company look at making a process lean? One very good example and tool is called                                    Value Stream Mapping (VSM​). The VSM represents the flow of material from supplier to the                              customer through the organization. This also includes the flow of information associated with it.                            This will allow you to identify areas in the process that have delays, restraints or excess                                inventory. In simple terms it is a step by step guide of how your current state flows from start to                                        finish. This is the first step in identifying how to get to your ideal state by eliminating waste,                                    redundancy, inventory or any other obstacle that does not add value to your process.   ● One must first identify        the product or family that should            be mapped.   ● Through the use of        symbols, identify each step of          the process.  ● Begin mapping out the        process in order of steps through            the system.  ● Add information flows to        the map. How do customers order product, how often and how is it translated to the                                supplier.  ● Collect and process data. This is a team effort on collecting data on each step. The time it                                    takes, shifts worked, number of operators, cycle time etc.  ● Inventory – Where is the inventory built up or even hidden.  29 
  30. 30. ● Time Line – the time it takes for each step in the process.  There are many tools that can be involved with leaning out the process. This was to give an                                    understanding of Lean Manufacturing. So the other question is how does Lean tie to TQM and                                how do they differ. Recall that TQM is mainly the awareness of quality in all processes. It is to                                      find a way of total customer satisfaction at the lowest cost (31).    Total   = Everyone Involved  Quality = what a customer defines as meeting their needs through value.  Management = Putting in place a system or steps to achieve your goal.  How Does TQM Differ From Lean Manufacturing  Since both TQM and Lean both focus on quality we will explore how they differ?  ➢ Lean manufacturing strives to be near perfection by decreasing and eventually                      eliminating all number of possible defects and waste product.  Although both lean manufacturing                          and total quality management both aim to improve quality, total quality management reaches a                            certain point which no more improvements can be made. Lean manufacturing on the other hand                              focuses on taking the quality improvement to the next level or in other words constantly seeks                                continuous improvement.    ➢ Total Quality management also views quality as a conformance to internal requirements                        (ex ISO 9000), while Lean manufacturing focuses on reducing the number of defects. Lean                          manufacturing helps organizations reduce operational costs, cycle time, and cost savings. It tries                        to eliminate costs that are of no value to the customers, like costs due to waste.   ➢ Total Quality management focuses more on improving individual operations within                    unrelated business process, while lean manufacturing tries to improve operations within a single                          business process. Basically, lean manufacturing requires the skills of trained professionals and                        total quality management may not. Total quality management may only be a "part time" thing,                              and can be done with anyone; dedicated or not.  30 
  31. 31. So if your company has identified its goals and projects then there is a strong case for                                  implementing Lean Manufacturing. If its plans are unknown and there is no decisive strategic                            plan then a good starting point would be TQM (22,23,30).  Where are we Today?  It can be said that Total Quality Management has evolved, but it can also be said that Quality                                    Management has not. By Quality Management, we refer to the individuals who manage quality                            within the company. TQM, ISO, Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing all require buy in and                              support from upper management. After all they are the ones who direct the company to success                                or failure. It is an opinion that when Lean Manufacturing concepts from Japan began to take a                                  hold in the United States, it was not implemented with the same drive or passion for team or                                    company success. Many companies were implementing tools like ISO and Lean as a flavor of the                                month and were not fully vested in the true implementation and sustainability of the program.  Six Sigma really started to bring in employee involvement into problem solving. Becoming part                              of a team and solving issues is a positive for any company. The formation of teams of the true                                      experts in the company needs to take place. ​What does this shift in methodology mean for the                                  professional quality manager? The quality team, both managers and technicians, can no longer                          be just the enforcer. Employees, who once decided what was good and what was defective, must                                expand their contributions to the organization. Everyone in the company has a role in quality not                                just the ones with the title. Quality is everyone’s job. The role of the quality professional must                                  become that of teacher and mentor, coach and player. The quality manager’s role is shifting from                                sitting in the quality office telling employees that they have a defect to one of helping employees                                  find the root cause of the defect, working in partnership to find a solution, implementing that                                solution, and ensuring that the employees understand the effects of both the defect and the                              solution. Like the Nike slogan states “Just Do It” (29).    Conclusion  Total Quality Management gives businesses a great opportunity to make a difference. Total                          Quality Management could be the source of organization­satisfaction. It can make jobs easier                          31 
  32. 32. and more predictable. TQM efforts lead to workplaces that are more efficient with more                            development for the corporation and for the people within the corporation. Businesses do not                            make money: people within the business make money.                                          32 
  33. 33. Bibliography  1­ http://www.businessballs.com/qualitymanagement.htm  2­ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming (father of TQM).  3­ http://asq.org/learn­about­quality/total­quality­management/overview/tqm­history.html  4­ http://www.bpir.com/total­quality­management­history­of­tqm­and­business­excellence­ bpir.com.html  5­ http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/total­quality­management­tqm.html  6­ Total Quality Management a guide to implementation. Brian B. Mansir and Nicholas R.  Schacht. LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE, 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda,  Maryland 20817­5886.  7­ The Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence Handbook, pages  293­294.http://asq.org/learn­about­quality/total­quality­management/overview/implement ing­tqm.html.  8­ Identification and prioritization of barriers to total​ ​quality​ ​management​ ​implementation​ ​in  service industry. Authors: ​Talib, Faisal​ and ​Rahman, Zillur​. ​TQM Journal​. 2015, Vol. 27  Issue 5, p591­615. 25p.   9­ http://smartinvestorsreports.blogspot.com/2012/03/role­of­leadership­in­implementation­ of.html  10­ http://www.managementstudyguide.com/elements­of­total­quality­management.htm  11­ http://www.accountingtools.com/questions­and­answers/what­are­the­benefits­of­total­qu ality­management­tqm.html  12­Unknown Author, “What is ISO?”, Total Quality Management, The Worls Press Classic  Theme, September 7, 2008  https://totalqualitymanagement.wordpress.com/tag/future­evolution­of­iso9000​,  April 2016  33 
  34. 34. 13 ­ Kurtus,Ron,”Comparing ISO9000 and TQM” Ron Kurtus School of Champions., March  11, 2001, ​http://www.school­for­champions.com/iso9000/iso_9000_vs_tqm.htm#​, April  2016  14­ BNP, Media Staff,”Dispelling the Myths of ISO 9001”,Quality Magazine, BNP Media  2016,   15 ­ ​http://www.qualitymag.com/articles/85512­dispelling­the­myths­of­iso­9001​ April  13,2016  16 ­ Bruce, Bishop.”Why ISO 9000 should Be A Company’s Guidpost, And Not TQM”,  ManufacturingandTechnologyNews,​http://www.manufacturingnews.com/news/editorials/bis hop.html​ April 13,2016  17 ­Unknown Author,”ISO 9000”, Reference for Business, Advameg 2016, July 1998  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/small/Inc­Mail/ISO­9000.html​, April 2016  18 ­ Introduction to Material Management, J.R. tony Arnold. 1998,1996,1991 Prentice Hall  Inc Columbus Ohio.   19­ Unknown  Author,“About Six Sigma”,Six Sigma.SIXSIGMA.us 2016,  http://www.6sigma.us/six­sigma.php​ April 2016  20 ­ Unknown Author, “Six Sigma Tools”, ASQ American Society for Quality”,  http://asq.org/learn­about­quality/six­sigma/tools.html  ;​http://asq.org/learn­about­quality/lean/overview/five­s­tutorial.html​ April 10​th​ ,2016  21 ­ Operations and Supply Chain management, F.Robert Jacobs/Richard B. Chase,  Published by McGraw­Hill Irwin,1221 Avenue of the Americas, New Your,NY,10020, 2014  22 ­ ​http://businessknowledgesource.com/manufacturing/comparing_lean_manufacturing_to_tqm_025551.html  23​­http://www.bpir.com/total­quality­management­history­of­tqm­and­business­excellence­​bpir.com.ht ml  34 
  35. 35. 24  ­https://www.isixsigma.com/methodology/total­quality­management­tqm/applying­total­quality­ management­academics/  25­ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming (father of TQM)  26­ http://asq.org/learn­about­quality/total­quality­management/overview/tqm­history.html  27­ http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/total­quality­management­tqm.html  28­http://www.emsstrategies.com/dm090203article2.html  29­http://www.qualitymag.com/articles/92184­quality­management­for­the­future  30­ http://www.lean.org/WhatsLean/History.cfm  31 ­http://leanmanufacturingtools.org/551/creating­a­value­stream­map/  35 

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