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Research on Wind Power in the Built Environment by Case van Dam


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Presentation on urban wind in California by
Case van Dam, UC Davis. The presentation was part of the Urban Wind Roundtable at the Consulate General of the Netherlands in San Francisco, March 16, 2011.

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Research on Wind Power in the Built Environment by Case van Dam

  1. 1. Research on wind power in the built environment C.P. (Case) van Dam, Bruce White, Scott Johnson, Daeseong Kim, Henry Shiu, Matt Seitzler, Rob Kamisky, Charles Turner Urban Wind Roundtable San Francisco March,16 2011 1 Outline! UC Davis/CWEC overview! Atmospheric Wind Tunnel! UC Davis projects 1. San Francisco wind resource study 2. San Francisco building-integrated wind power 3. Rooftop wind turbine demonstration site 4. California wind maps web tool! Concluding Remarks! DOE Built-Environment Wind Turbine RD&D Roadmap Source: Mayda 2
  2. 2. UC Davis Energy Institute! Established Fall 2007 as home to major UC Davis energy research centers and education programs! Campus-wide & administered through Office of Research with multi-college support! Created to focus and bring together campus strengths in energy research, education, and outreach, and to build new interdisciplinary programs and capabilities! Strategic planning for effective energy transformation! Approximately 150 faculty members across campus California Renewable Energy Collaborative
  3. 3. California Wind Energy Collaborative Mission Statement: Support the development of safe, reliable, environmentally sound, and affordable wind electric generation California capacity within the state of California Energy by managing a focused, statewide Commission Industry program of scientific research, technology development & Public deployment, and technical training. Academia programs CALIFORNIA WIND ENERGY COLLABORATIVE Federal, state, and Government and local government industry research agencies labs ! A partnership of the California Energy Commission and the Education Inter-agency, University of California & Inter-sector ! Established in March 2002 Outreach Coordination ! Engineering ! Research CWEC Research Focus CALIFORNIA WIND ENERGY COLLABORATIVE Coordination Research Training ! Recent projects: " Conversion TechnologyDevelopment ! Blunt trailing edge airfoils (DOE, SNL)Resource Assessment!Wind turbine wake effects ! Rotor analysis (DOE, SNL, TPI,!Complex terrain Conversion Technology Clipper)!Shear / wind patterns at tall heights!Offshore Blades and Rotors ! Rotor passive load control, STAR !Computational design and analysis!Long range forecasting !Wind tunnel analysis (DOE, SNL, K&C)!Improve accuracy of wind assessment in small wind applications !Active and passive load control !Development of improvements to blade ! Rotor active load control (SNL)!Wind assessment in urban environments design and analysis methods !Design and analysis of alternative ! Load limiting algorithm (CEC/EISG,Permitting configurations NREL)!Research to support the development of safe, fair permitting criteria Emerging Technologies !Offshore " Development !Evaluation of emerging technologies ! Wake effects (CEC)Grid Integration ! Forecasting (CEC, EPRI)!Application of forecasting to day-ahead Operation ! Turbine setback (CEC) and hour-ahead energy markets!Forecasting of power generation ramps Asset Management/Optimization for Reliability " Grid Integration!Impact of distributed generation on distribution networks !Performance analysis and health monitoring ! IAP (CEC)!Support future integration studies!Applications and impacts of energy !Condition monitoring !Forecasting for maintenance scheduling ! Ramping, variability of windplants storage and plant/turbine operations (SMUD) Anemometer Calibration ! Value of wind forecasting (CAISO) !Expand wind tunnel calibration capabilities !Anemometer sensitivity to complex, " Operation real-world flows: inclined flows, turbulence, effects of nacelle and ! Anemometer calibration (CEC, Otech) mounting fixtures ! Performance analysis of windplants (SMUD)
  4. 4. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel at UC Davis! Tunnel specs ! Open-return type ! Overall length = 21.3 m ! Test section = 2.44m x 1.66m x 1.18m! Typical model scale = 1:600 7Environmental Fluid Dynamics Lab at UC Davis! AIR QUALITY & PLUME DISPERSION " LLNL, LLBL & Industrial Safety Studies " Sports Stadium Analyses (Pac Bell, etc.)! LARGE SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES " Owens (dry) Lake Mitigation Studies " Martian Dust Storm Analysis (NASA)! PEDESTRIAN LEVEL WIND STUDIES " San Francisco, Oakland & L.A. Studies " Getty Museum Wind Analysis! WIND ENERGY APPLICATIONS " Altamont Wind Farm Forecasting Studies " Turbine Siting in Complex Terrains " Urban Wind Energy Studies Source: Mayda 8
  5. 5. Physical Modeling of San Francisco Wind Project 1 Power Resources (1)! Objectives: " Gain further understanding of wind resource in urban environments (San Francisco)! Testing Scheme: " Pick sites for study ! Taller than surrounding buildings, conventional shape " Perform wind tunnel tests ! 3-4 predominant wind directions per site ! Take measurements on building for each wind direction " Obtain full scale winds from wind-tunnel data " Estimate energy production for various turbines ! Integrate data with turbine power curves 9 Physical Modeling of San Francisco Wind Project 1 Power Resources (2)! Approach: " Use ABLWT to simulate wind flow over cityscapes, San Francisco, and complex terrain " Measures mean wind speeds and turbulence intensities near surfaces " Measurements performed for each wind direction of significance Source: Mayda 10
  6. 6. Physical Modeling of San Francisco Wind Project 1 Power Resources (3) ! Wind Data: " Anemometer data from old Federal Building ! H = 40.2m (132 ft) above ground " Data from 1945 – 1947 ! Used because of completeness and representative of typical San Francisco wind conditions (White, 2006) " Average wind speed was 5 m/s (11 mph)! Fluid parameters taken into consideration when modeling flow in wind tunnel (see Appendix)! Free-stream wind speed in wind tunnel = 3.8 m/s " Data collected from wind tunnel experiments ! Wind speed ratio (R-value) ! Turbulence intensity value Source: Mayda 11 Physical Modeling of San Francisco Wind Project 1 Power Resources (4) ! Test Sites: " 3 existing (The Fox Plaza, Bank of America, CSAA buildings) " 2 potential future developments Courtesy Environmental Science Associates, 2006 ! Measurement Locations: " Numerous points tested " Building faces, corners, rooftop perimeter & profiles at specific locations above the roof. Source: Mayda 12
  7. 7. Project Sample of Results – Fox Plaza 1 ! Wind-tunnel data used to predict annual average wind power densities for each measurement location on each building: • “poor” (white dots): Pannual average/area: less than 100 W/m2 • “good” (green dots): Pannual average/area: between 100-700 W/m2 • “great” (yellow dots): Pannual average/area: greater than 700 W/m2 An example of annual average wind power densities in graphical form for each point is shownabove. The building’s points are shown in four views above. Similarly-styled results were obtained for all buildings in this study. **Manwell, J. F., J. G. McGowan, A. L. Rogers. Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2003. Project Project Outcomes 1 ! Wind tunnel tests showed the best place for a turbine is on or above the roof level. ! However, also showed that each building had its own specific set of wind characteristics. " Therefore, testing on a specific site might be necessary before installing a turbine. Recommendations ! Conduct more wind tunnel tests: " If more buildings are tested, might be possible to generalize wind characteristics of certain types of cityscapes. ! Analyze impact of turbulence levels on turbines ! Compare wind tunnel tests with field anemometers Source: Mayda 14
  8. 8. Project 2Building Integrated Wind Energy Project Full-scale 1:150 scale wind tunnel model 15 Project 2Building Integrated Wind Energy Project Full-scale 1:150 scale wind tunnel model 16
  9. 9. Project 2Building Integrated Wind Energy Project 17Building Integrated Wind Energy Project Project 2Wind Tower Detail 18
  10. 10. Small Turbine Demonstration Site at UC Project 3 Davis! Bergey XL1 on roof of Bainer Hall! Used as a demonstration site… " Collecting meteorological data and performance data " Undergraduate senior design research projects (redesign blade set) " Basis for providing general wind energy information (group tours, interested students) 19 ProjectRoof-Mounted Turbine Power Curve 3
  11. 11. Project GIS Map Tool Interface 4 ! Effort funded by California Energy Commission ! Develop an online wind assessment tool for general public " CEC/PIER funded development of detailed wind maps for California ! Maps provide annual wind power and speed at several heights above the ground ! Maps generated by AWS TruePower ! Maps are available in pdf format from CEC website ! Difficult to pinpoint locations and determine wind speed at specified location and height ! CEC has GIS-based version of wind maps ! Disadvantage of GIS-based wind maps is that specific software (ArcExplorer) is needed to access information " Develop a web-based version of GIS-based wind maps ! Combine GIS-based wind maps with Google maps ! Allow users to click on or search for a particular location to view wind data information ! Able to get wind data as function of height Source: Mayda 21 ProjectCalifornia Wind Maps 4! Maps of annual average wind speed and power have been produced for California! Maps have a grid resolution of 200 m! Actual winds at a specific site for the turbine can vary significantly from the map! Maps are good tools for guiding and estimating but do not replace Micro-siting Wind energy density at 50 meters above ground. California Energy Commission.
  12. 12. Project GIS Map Tool Interface 4 Source: Mayda 23 Concluding Remarks! San Francisco is an excellent location to study wind in the built environment: " Good wind resource " Strong support by City " High electricity rates " Availability of net metering and CA rebate programs " Prominently mentioned in DOE built- environment wind turbine RD&D roadmap! Effort should include: " Develop detailed wind map for City ! CFD ! Anemometer measurements ! Wind tunnel " Benchmark wind turbine test sites Danielle Murray " Web-based data & info site! Effort should involve: " Government (SF, CEC, DOE, et al.) " Industry " Academia
  13. 13. DOE Built-Environment Wind Turbine RD&D Roadmap ! Purpose of roadmap to provide a framework for achieving vision set forth by attendees of Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop (Aug 2010, NWTC/NREL) ! Workshop vision statement: “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