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Industrial en lowres


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Industrial en lowres

  1. 1. Best Practice in Steel Construction - Industrial Buildings INDUSTRIAL Contents The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) develops and promotes the effective use of steel in construction. It is an independent, 01 Introduction 1 membership based organisation. SCI’s research and development activities cover multi-storey structures, industrial buildings, bridges, civil engineering and offshore engineering. Activities encompass design guidance on structural steel, light steel and stainless steels, dynamic performance, fire engineering, sustainable construction, architectural design, building physics (acoustic and thermal performance), value engineering, and information technology. 02 Key Design Factors 2 This publication presents best practice for the design of steel construction technologies used in industrial buildings, and is aimed at architects and other members of the design team in the early stages of planning an industrial building project. It was prepared as one of a series of three under an RFCS 03 Support Structures dissemination project Euro-Build in Steel (Project n° RFS2-CT-2007-00029). The project’s objective is to present design information on best practice in steel, and to take a forward look at the next generation of steel buildings. The other 15 publications cover best design practice in commercial and residential buildings. The Euro-Build project partners are: 04 Roof Wall Systems ArcelorMittal Bouwen met Staal Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique (CTICM) 25 Forschungsvereinigung Stahlanwendung (FOSTA) Labein Tecnalia SBI The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) 05 National Practice Technische Universität Dortmund Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data 33 and information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, the partners in the Euro-Build project and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or 06 Case Studies damage arising from or related to their use. ISBN 978-1-85942-063-8 47 © 2008. The Steel Construction Institute. This project was carried out with financial support from the European Commission’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel. Front cover: Mors company building, Opmeer / Netherlands Photograph by J. and F. Versnel, Amsterdam EURO-BUILD in Steel
  2. 2. Introduction 0101 IntroductionLarge enclosures or industrial type buildings are very common in businessparks, leisure and sports buildings. Their functionality and architecturalquality are influenced by many factors, e.g. the development plan, thevariety of usages and the desired quality of the building. Steel offersnumerous possibilities to achieve both pleasant and flexible functional use.For buildings of large enclosure, the In most cases, an industrial building iseconomy of the structure plays an not a single structure, but is extended byimportant role. For longer spans, the office and administration units or elementsdesign is optimised in order to minimise such as canopies. These additionalthe use of materials, costs and elements can be designed in a way thatinstallation effort. Increasingly, buildings they fit into the whole building design.are designed to reduce energy costs andto achieve a high degree of sustainability. This publication describes the common forms of industrial buildings and largeIndustrial buildings use steel framed enclosures, and their range of applicationstructures and metallic cladding of all in Europe. Regional differences that maytypes. Large open spaces can be created exist depending on practice, regulationsthat are efficient, easy to maintain, and and capabilities of the supply chain,are adaptable as demand changes. are presented in Section 5.Steel is chosen on economic grounds,as well as for other aspects such as fire, The same technologies may be extendedarchitectural quality and sustainability. to a range of building types, including sports and leisure facilities, halls, supermarkets and other enclosures.Figure 1.1 Leisure building using a steel framed structure EURO-BUILD in Steel
  3. 3. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings 02 Key Design Factors The design of industrial buildings is affected by many factors. The following general guidance is presented to identify the key design factors and the benefits offered by steel construction. Industrial buildings are generally Forms of Industrial Buildings Forms of Industrial designed as enclosures that provide The most elementary system used for functional space for internal activities, an industrial building consists of two Buildings which may involve use of overhead columns and a beam. This configuration cranes or suspended equipment as can be modified in numerous ways using well as provision of office space or various types of connections between the Fire Safety mezzanine floors. beams and columns and for the column base. The types of structures most Various structural forms have been commonly used in industrial buildings are developed over the last 30 years that portal frames with hinged column bases. optimise the cost of the steel structure Portal frames provide sufficient in-plane Building Physics in relation to the space provided. stability, and thus only require bracings However, in recent years, forms of for out-of-plane stability. expressive structure have been used in architectural applications of industrial Figure 2.1 shows a variety of rigid frames Loading buildings, notably suspended and with fixed (a) or hinged (b) column bases. tubular structures. Fixed column bases may be considered when heavy cranes are used, as they Concept Design A single large hall is the main feature deflect less under horizontal forces. of most industrial buildings. Hinged column bases have smaller Considerations The construction and appearance foundations and simple base of an industrial building provides the connections. In examples (c) and (d), design engineer with a wide range of the structure is located partly outside the Floors possible configurations in order to building, and so details concerning the realise the architectural ideas and the piercing of the building envelope have to functional requirements. Generally, be designed carefully. The complex detail an industrial building has a rectangular in these types of structure also serve floor space, which is extendable in its architectural purposes. Service Integration long direction. The design of the building has to be coordinated with functional In Figure 2.2, different structures consisting requirements and the energy-saving of beam and columns are presented. concept, including lighting. Figure 2.2 (a) shows an example of a Lighting structure without purlins, that is stiffened The following forms of industrial buildings by diaphragm action in the roof and represent an overview of the possible bracings in the walls. In Figure 2.2 (b), architectural and constructional solutions. purlins are used, leading to a simple Exhibition halls, railway stations, airports design of the roof cladding, which has and sports arenas tend to be special reduced spans and only serves to structures. However, the following support vertical loads. The roof is general issues are restricted to stiffened by plan bracing. The structure ‘standard’ floor plans. without purlins may offer a more pleasant EURO-BUILD in Steel
  4. 4. Key Design Factors 02 (a ) Frame with fixed column bases (b) Frame with hinged column bases Figure 2.1 Examples of rigid (c) Frame with lattice girders (d) Suspended portal frame framed sructures (a ) Structure without purlins, roof (b) Structure with purlins stiffened by trapezoidal sheeting (c) Lattice girder with purlins (d) Cable suspended beams with purlins Figure 2.2 Examples of column and beam structuresappearance when viewed from the inside. individual directional load paths. In addition to the primary steel structure,Figures 2.2 (c) and (d) show lattice trusses Spatial structures and space trusses are a wide range of secondary componentsand cable suspended beams, which may non-directional structures; they can be has also been developed, such asbe beneficial to achieve larger spans, as expanded, but would become heavy for cold formed steel purlins, which alsowell as desirable for visual reasons. long spans. Figure 2.4 shows some provide for the stability of the framework examples of spatial structures. (see Figures 2.6 and 2.7).Arch structures offer advantageous load-carrying behaviour as well as having a Portal frames These simple types of structural systemspleasant visual appearance. In Figure 2.3 Steel portal frames are widely used can also be designed to be architecturally(a), a building with a three-hinged arch is in most of the European countries more appealing by using curvedshown. Alternatively, the structure can be because they combine structural members, cellular or perforated beamselevated on columns or integrated in a efficiency with functional application. etc., as illustrated in Figure 2.8.truss structure, as in Figure 2.3 (d). Various configurations of portal frames can be designed using the same Innovative structural systems have alsoThe forms of buildings with primary and structural concept as shown in Figure 2.5. been developed in which portal framessecondary structural elements described Multi-bay frames can also be designed, are created by moment resistingabove are all directional structures, for as in Figure 2.5 (e) and (f), either using connections using articulations and ties,which the loads are carried primarily on single or pairs of internal columns. as given in Figure 2.9. EURO-BUILD in Steel
  5. 5. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings (a ) Three-hinge lattice (b) Elevated curved beams arch with purlins (c) Arch-structure using space frame (d) Elevated curved trusses Figure 2.3 Examples of curved or arch structures (a ) Girder grid on columns (b) Suspended girder grid with fixed bases (c) Space frame on columns (d) Curved space frame on with fixed bases columns with fixed bases Figure 2.4 Examples of spatial structures 6˚ 6m 6m 25 - 40 m 25 - 30 m (a) Portal frame - medium span (b) Curved portal frame 6˚ 8m 8m 3.5 m 8m 9m 8m 25 m (c) Portal frame with mezzanine floor (d) Portal frame with overhead crane 6˚ 6m 25 m (e) Two bay portal frame 6˚ 6˚ 8m 3.5 m 10 m (f ) Portal frame with integral office 3˚ 10˚ 6m 40 m (g) Mansard portal frame Figure 2.5 Various forms of portal frames EURO-BUILD in Steel
  6. 6. Key Design Factors 02Figure 2.6 Linked single bay portal frameFigure 2.7 Two bay portal frame with purlins and roof bracing Kingspan LtdFigure 2.8 Curved beams used in a portal frame structure EURO-BUILD in Steel
  7. 7. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 2.9 Innovative moment- resisting connections in an industrial building Figure 2.10 Installation process for a modern portal frame Barrett Steel Buildings Ltd The installation process of the primary However, columns can also be internal forces are accounted for in the structure and secondary members, such constructed in a similar way, as illustrated design of the lattice members, when the as purlins, is generally carried out using in Figure 2.13, in order to provide lattice truss acts to stabilise the building mobile cranes, as illustrated in Figure 2.10. in‑plane stability. against lateral loads. Lattice trusses Using lattice structures, a comparatively Suspended structures Long span industrial buildings can be high stiffness and load bearing resistance By using suspended structures, long- designed with lattice trusses, using C, H can be achieved while minimising material span buildings with high visual and or O sections. Lattice trusses tend to be use. Besides the ability to create long architectural quality can be realised. beam and column structures and are spans, lattice structures are attractive rarely used in portal frames. Various and enable simple service integration. The division into members that are configurations of lattice trusses are predominantly subject to either tension illustrated in Figure 2.11. The two generic A pinned structure is an idealisation used or compression permits the design of forms are W or N bracing arrangements. in design. Moment-resisting connections lightweight structures. However, structures In this case, stability is generally provided can be designed using bolted or welded that save on materials use do not by bracing rather than rigid frame action. connections. The resulting additional necessarily lead to economic solutions. EURO-BUILD in Steel
  8. 8. Key Design Factors 021.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m 6˚ 8m 8m 8m 25 m 25 m 25 m (a) Lattice girder - W form (b) Lattice girder - N form (c) Duo-pitch lattice girder 2.5 m 2.5 m1.5 m 1.0 m 1.0 m 8m 8m 8m 25 m 25 m 20 m (d) Articulated lattice girder (e) Curved lattice girder (f ) Curved lattice truss and canopy 1.0 m 6˚2.5 m 6m 6m 20 m 20 m (g) Articulated bow-string (h) Mono-pitch lattice girder with canopy Figure 2.11 (Above) Various forms of lattice truss used in industrial buildings Figure 2.12 (Left) Lattice truss using tubular members EURO-BUILD in Steel
  9. 9. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 2.13 Lattice frame using lattice columns Particularly in space structures, the joints the following fire safety issues should performing fire tests, three levels of fire may be very complex and more time be addressed: design calculations: consuming to construct and install. • Means of escape (number of Level 1: Classification of structural Therefore, possible applications of this emergency exits, characteristics of components by using tables. type of structure are industrial buildings exit signs, number of staircases, Level 2: Simplified calculation methods. that also serve architectural purposes width of doors). Level 3: Advanced calculation methods. rather than merely functional buildings. • Fire spread (including fire resistance and reaction to fire). Building physics Suspended structures can be designed • Smoke and heat exhaust Thermal insulation by extending columns outside the building ventilation system. The main purpose of thermal insulation envelope, as illustrated in Figure 2.14. • Active fire fighting measures (hand in industrial buildings is to ensure an Suspended structures accomplish longer extinguishers, smoke detectors, adequate indoor climate depending spans, although the suspension cables or sprinklers, plant fire brigade). on the use of the building. During the rods also penetrate the building envelope, • Access for the fire brigade. heating season, one of the main and can be obstructive to the use of the functions of the building envelope is external space. Fire resistance requirements should be to reduce the heat loss by means of based on the parameters influencing fire effective insulation. This is particularly Lattice and suspended structures are growth and development, which include: true for buildings with normal indoor complex and are not covered in detail in • Risk of fire (probability of fire temperatures, such as retail stores, this Best Practice Guide. occurrence, fire spread, fire duration, exhibition halls and leisure centres, fire load, severity of fire, etc.). it is true to a lesser extent for Fire Safety • Ventilation conditions buildings with low indoor temperatures, Even though the general context of fire (air input, smoke exhaust). such as workshops and warehouses. safety regulations is the same throughout • Fire compartment Europe, national differences do exist. (type, size, geometry). For large panels, thermal bridges For example a single-storey industrial • Type of structural system. and airtightness of joints have a major building in the Netherlands with a • Evacuation conditions. influence on the energy-balance of compartment size of 50 x 100 m has no • Safety of rescue team. the building. The thermal insulation requirements concerning fire resistance, • Risk for neighbouring buildings. has to be placed without gaps and whereas in France, a fire resistance of • Active fire fighting measures. the building envelope must be sealed 30 minutes is required in many cases, and made airtight at longitudinal and and in Italy the requirement is possibly as The new generation of European transverse joints. high as 90 minutes. At the design stage, regulations allow, in addition to EURO-BUILD in Steel
  10. 10. Key Design Factors 02 Figure 2.14 Suspended structure used at the Renault Factory, Swindon, UK built in the 1980’s Architect:Richard Rogers PartnershipIn the summer, the role of the building for industrial buildings, it may be are given in Eurocodes EN 1991‑1‑1,envelope is to reduce the effects of solar necessary to limit values of acoustic 1991‑1‑3 and 1991‑1‑4. Table 2.1 showsgain on the interior space. The summer emissions from particular machinery. the relevant actions and structuralheat reduction depends on the total area components and Figure 2.15 shows aand orientation of openings, as well as the In steel framed buildings, acoustic insula- typical load scheme.effectiveness of solar protection measures. tion is mainly achieved by the construction of the building envelope. All measures of Vertical loadsCondensation risk acoustic insulation are based on the Self weightThermal and moisture protection are following physical principles: Where possible, unit weights of materialslinked closely, because damage arising • Interruption of transmission, e.g. should be checked with manufacturers’from high local humidity is often the result by using multi-skin constructions. data. The figures given in Table 2.2 mayof missing or improperly installed thermal • Sound absorption, e.g. by using be taken as typical of roofing materialsinsulation. On the other hand, lack of perforated sheeting or cassettes. used in the pre-design of a portal framemoisture protection can lead to • Reducing response by increasing the construction. The self weight of the steelcondensation in the construction, mass of a component. frame is typically 0.2 to 0.4 kN/m2,which in turn affects the effectiveness expressed over the plan area.of the thermal insulation. For single sound sources, a local enclosure or isolation is recommended. Service loadsIn multi-skin roof or wall constructions, In order to reach a high level of acoustic Loading due to services will vary greatly,condensation risk has to be controlled insulation, special sound-absorbing roof depending on the use of the building. In aby installing a vapour barrier on the inner and wall cladding are effective. For multi- portal frame structure, heavy point loadsskin of the structure. Wall constructions skin panels the level of sound insulation may occur from such items as suspendedthat are vapour proof on both sides, can be controlled by varying the acoustic walkways, runway and lifting beams or airlike sandwich panels, prevent diffusion. operating mass. Due to the complexity of handling units. The following loads mayHowever, the humidity in the internal this issue, it is recommended to consult be used for pre-design:space also has to be regulated by air the specialist manufacturers. • A nominal load over the whole ofconditioning. Section 4 covers roof and the roof area of between 0.1 andfloor systems. Loading 0.25 kN/m² on plan depending on the The actions and combinations of actions use of the building, and whether orAcoustic insulation described in this section should be not a sprinkler system is provided.In all European countries, minimum considered in the design of a single-requirements exist on the sound storey industrial building using a steel Imposed load on roofsinsulation of buildings. In addition, structure. Imposed, snow and wind loads EN 1991-1-1 and -3 define characteristic EURO-BUILD in Steel
  11. 11. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings wind uplift snow load dead load sway imperfection sway imperfection wind wind pressure suction Frame span Figure 2.15 Loading scheme on a portal frame Action Applied to Self-weight Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Snow Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Concentrated snow Cladding, purlins, (frames), foundation Wind Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Wind (increase on single element) Cladding, purlins, fixings Wind (peak undertow) Cladding, purlins, (fixings) Thermal actions Envelope, global structure Service loads Depends on specification: roofing, purlins, frames Crane loads Crane rails, frame Dynamic loads Global structure (Depends on building use and locality) Second order effects Wall bracings, columns Table 2.1 Actions and relevant (Sway imperfections) structural components Material Weight (kN/m²) Steel roof sheeting (single skin) 0.07 - 0.20 Aluminium roof sheeting (single skin) 0.04 Insulation (boards, per 25 mm thickness) 0.07 Insulation (glass fibre, per 100 mm thickness) 0.01 Liner trays (0.4 mm – 0.7 mm thickness) 0.04 - 0.07 Composite panels (40 mm – 100 mm thickness) 0.10 - 0.15 Purlins (distributed over the roof area) 0.03 Steel decking 0.20 Three layers of felt with chippings 0.29 Slates 0.40 / 0.50 Tiling (clay or plain concrete) 0.60 - 0.80 Tiling (concrete interlocking) 0.50 - 0.80 Table 2.2 Typical weights of Timber battens (including timber rafters) 0.10 roofing materials10 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  12. 12. Key Design Factors 02values of various types of imposed Wind uplift forces on cladding can In the first instance, it is necessary toloads on roofs: be relatively high at the corner of the identify the size of the enclosure and to• A minimum load of 0.6 kN/m² (on plan) building and at the eaves and ridge. develop a structural scheme, which will for roof slopes less than 30° is applied, In these areas, it may be necessary provide this functional space taking into where no access other than for cleaning to reduce the spacing of the purlins account all the above considerations. and maintenance is intended. and side rails. The importance of each of these conside-• A concentrated load of 0.9 kN - this rations depends on the type of building. will only affect the sheeting design. Imperfections For example, the requirements concerning• A uniformly distributed load due to Equivalent horizontal forces have to a distribution centre will be different from snow over the complete roof area. be considered due to geometrical and those of a manufacturing unit. The value of the load depends on the structural imperfections. According to building’s location and height above EN 1993‑1‑1 for frames sensitive to To develop an effective concept design, sea level. If multi-bay portal frames buckling in a sway mode, the effect of it is necessary to review these conside- with roof slopes are used, the effect of imperfections should be allowed for in rations based on their importance, concentrated snow loads in the frame analysis by means of an equivalent depending on the type of building. valleys has to be coonsidered. imperfection in the form of: Table 2.3 presents a matrix which• A non-uniform load caused by snow • initial sway deflections; and / or relates the importance of each drifting across the roof due to wind • individual bow imperfections consideration to particular types of blowing across the ridge of the of members. industrial buildings. Note that this building and depositing more snow matrix is only indicative, as each on the leeward side. This is only Other horizontal loads project will be different. However, the considered for slopes greater than Depending on the project, additional matrix can serve as a general aid. 15° and will not therefore apply to horizontal loading may have to be most industrial buildings. considered, such as earth pressure, Compartmentation mixed use force due to operation of cranes, Increasingly, larger industrial buildingsHorizontal loads accidental actions and seismic action. are designed for mixed use, i.e. in mostWind loading cases integrated office space and / orWind actions are given by EN 1991‑1‑4. Concept design staff rooms for the employees areWind loading rarely determines the size considerations provided. There are different possibleof members in low-rise single span portal General issues locations for these additional spacesframes where the height : span ratio is Prior to the detailed design of an industrial and uses, as shown in Figure 2.16:less than 1:4. Therefore, wind loading building, it is essential to consider many • For single-storey industrial buidings,can usually be ignored for preliminary aspects such as: creation of separate space insidedesign of portal frames, unless the • Space optimization. the building and possibly twoheight-span ratio is large, or if the • Speed of construction. storeys high, separated bydynamic pressure is high. Combined • Access and security. internal walls.wind and snow loading is often • Flexibility of use. • In an external building, directlycritical in this case. • Environmental performance. connected to the hall itself. • Standardization of components. • For two-storey industrial buildings,However, in two span and other multi- • Infrastructure of supply. partly occupying the upper floor.span portal frames, combined wind • Service integration.and vertical load may often determine • Landscaping. This leads to special concept designthe sizes of the members, when alternate • Aesthetics and visual impact. requirements concerning the supportinternal columns are omitted. The • Thermal performance and structure and the building physicsmagnitude of the wind loading can air-tightness. performance. If the office area isdetermine which type of verification • Acoustic insulation. situated on the upper storey of thehas to be provided. If large horizontal • Weather-tightness. industrial building, it may be designeddeflections at the eaves occur in • Fire safety. as a separate structure enclosed bycombination with high axial forces, • Design life. the structure of the building. In this case,then second order effects have to be • Sustainability considerations. floor systems from commercial buildingsconsidered in the verification procedure. • End of life and re-use. can be used, often based on composite EURO-BUILD in Steel 11
  13. 13. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Considerations for concept design Thermal performance and air tightness Standardization of components Aesthetics and visual impact Environmental performance Flexibility of use and space Specialist infra structure Speed of construction End of life and reuse Access and Security Services integration Space optimization Weather tightness Acoustic isolation Sustainability Landscaping Design life Type of single-storey industrial buildings High bay warehouses                Industrial manufacturing facilities              Distribution centres                Retail superstores               Storage / cold storage              Small scale fabrication facilities             Office and light manufacturing                Processing plants              Leisure centres                Sports hall complexes               Exhibition halls                Aircraft or maintenance hangars                 Legend No tick = Not important  = important  = very important Table 2.3 Important design factors for industrial buildings structures, e.g. integrated floor beams. the design, even if there is no internal located on the top floor of the building, Another possible solution is to attach the office space. In order to prevent fire spread, additional escape routes are required and office to the main structure. This requires the compartment size is limited to a active fire fighting measures have to be particular attention to be paid to the stabili- certain value. Therefore fire walls have to considered. Fire-spread has to be sation of the combined parts of the building. be provided for separation and should prevented from one compartment to ensure at least 60 and often 90 minutes another, which can be achieved, for Apart from structural issues, special fire resistance. This is even more vital if example by a composite slab between attention has to be paid to: hazardous goods are stored in the building. the office and industrial space. Fire protection Because the office is designed for use by Thermal insulation For large industrial buildings, fire compart- a larger number of people, fire safety As for fire safety, offices also have mentation may play an important role in demands are stricter. If the offices are higher requirements on thermal insulation.12 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  14. 14. Key Design Factors 02 office office office hall hall hall (a) inside (b) outside (c) on top floor Figure 2.16 Possible location of an office attached to an industrial buildingIn industrial buildings used for storage is required, typically using two layers of ventilation depends on the size andpurposes of non-sensitive goods, thermal synthetic material. orientation of the building. Roof ventsinsulation may not be required. In offices, are a common option for naturalhowever, a high level of comfort is Service integration ventilation in buildings without suitablyneeded, which makes thermal insulation For industrial buildings, special large openings, however these need tonecessary. Therefore the interfaces requirements for building services are be carefully positioned so as to maximizebetween the cold and the warm often defined, which may be necessary their performance. Hybrid ventilationcompartments have to be designed to for the operation of machines and systems are now popular in industrialprovide adequate insulation. manufacturing lines. buildings. They use predominantly natural ventilation, but with mechanicallyAcoustic performance The service integration should be taken driven fans to improve predictability ofEspecially in industrial buildings with into account in the early planning stages. performance over a wider range ofnoise-intensive production processes, In particular, the position and size of weather conditions.a strict separation between the production ducts should be coordinated with theunit and the office areas has to be realised. structure and provisions for natural lighting. Mechanical Heat and VentilationThis may require special measures for Recovery (MHVR) systems use the heatacoustic insulation, depending on the The use of structural systems, such as from the exiting warm stale air to heat upproduction processes. cellular beams and trusses, can facilitate the fresh cool air as it enters the building. integration of services and help to The warm air is vented out of the buildingFloors achieve a coherent appearance alongside the incoming fresh air, allowingIn most cases, the floors for industrial of the building. heat transfer from the exiting to thebuildings are used for vehicles or incoming air. Although this heat transferheavy machinery. They are designed The design of the servicing machinery will never be 100% efficient, the use ofto support heavy loads and have to and rooms can be of major importance MHVR systems can significantly reducebe ’flat’. Concentrated loads due to in industrial buildings. Centralisation of the amount of energy required to warmvehicles, machines, racking and the building services can offer the the fresh air to a comfortable level.containers have to be considered, advantage of easy maintenance.depending on the application. Figure 2.17 shows different possible Further issues which may need solutions of the positioning of the consideration in services design include:Most industrial buildings have a concrete service rooms. • The possible affect of elements forfloor with a minimum thickness of solar protection on air exchange.150 mm on top of a layer of sand or Natural ventilation reduces the reliance • Odour extraction.gravel, which is also at least 150 mm on air conditioning systems, which in turn • Control of humidity.thick. For large floor areas, a sliding layer means a reduction in the building’s CO2 • Control of airtightness.between the base layer and the concrete emissions. The effectiveness of natural • Acoustic insulation. EURO-BUILD in Steel 13
  15. 15. 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Lighting Requirements for the lighting of industrial buildings depend on the type of use. The concept and arrangement of openings to provide natural lighting permit diversity in architectural design. Rooflights and gable glazed roofs are common, along with lightbands in the façade (Figure 2.18). Openings for natural lighting can serve as smoke and (a) separate servicing rooms (b) servicing rooms on the roof heat outlets in case of fire. Well-designed natural daylighting can have a significant impact on a building’s carbon emissions. However, too much natural daylighting can result in excessive solar gain in the summer, leading to overheating, and increased heat loss through the envelope in the winter. The decision to utilise natural daylight (c) internal servicing rooms (d) servicing rooms in the basement within a building and the type of day- lighting selected have important implica- tions for the overall building design. (a) Uniformly distributed rooflights (b) Light-bands in façade Figure 2.17 (Top right) Possible arrangements of the servicing rooms and service routes (c) Linear rooflights (d) Shed bands in roof Figure 2.18 (Right) Examples of ways of providing natural lighting in industrial buildings14 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  16. 16. Support Structures 0303 Support StructuresThis section describes common systems used for main supportstructures in industrial buildings. The characteristics of portal framesas well as column and beam structures are described, together withinformation on secondary components and connections.Portal frame structures A number of types of structure can be Portal frame structuresPortal frame buildings are generally low- classified broadly as portal frames.rise structures, comprising columns and The information given with regard tohorizontal or sloping rafters, connected spans, roof pitch, etc. is typical of theby moment-resisting connections. forms of construction that are illustrated. Column and beam structuresPortal frames with hinged column bases Steel sections used in portal frameare generally preferred as they lead to structures with spans of 12 m to 30 msmaller foundation sizes in comparison to are usually hot rolled sections and are Secondary componentsfixed bases. Furthermore, fixed columns specified in grades S235, S275 or even and bracingrequire more expensive connection S355 steel. Use of high-strength steel isdetails and therefore are predominately rarely economic in structures whereused only if high horizontal forces have to serviceability (i.e. deflection) or stabilitybe resisted. However, pinned columns criteria may control the design. Connectionshave the disadvantage of leading toslightly heavier steel weights due to the Frames designed using plasticlower stiffness of the frame to both global analysis offer greater economy,vertical and horizontal forces. although elastic global analysis is preferred in some countries.This form of rigid frame structure is stable Where plastic analysis is used,in its own plane and provides a clear the member proportions must bespan that is unobstructed by bracing. appropriate for the developmentStability is achieved by rigid frame action of plastic bending resistance.provided by continuity at the connectionsand this is usually achieved by use of Types of steel portal frameshaunches at the eaves. Pitched roof portal frame One of the most common structures forOut-of-plane stability in most cases has industrial buildings is the single-spanto be provided by additional elements, symmetrical portal frame, as shown insuch as tubular braces and purlins Figure 3.2. The following characteristics(Figure 3.1). By using profiled sheeting, emerged as the most economical andthe stiffening of the roof can be obtained can therefore be seen as a basis at anby stressed skin diaphragm action early design stage:without additional bracing. Shear walls, • Span between 15 m and 50 mcores and the use of fixed ended (25 to 35 m is the most efficient).columns can also provide out‑of‑plane • Eaves height between 5 and 10 mrestraint to the portal frames. (5 to 6 m is the most efficient). EURO-BUILD in Steel 15
  17. 17. 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Stiffening in two directions by using Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using bracings in roof and walls as well as in gable bracings in roof and walls with frame in gable wall (roof cladding also provides in-place stiffness) wall for possible further expansion Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using bracings in roof and special bracings for bracings in roof and portal frame in wall for integration of a door in the wall integration of a door Figure 3.1 Examples of out-of plane bracing of a portal frame • Roof pitch between 5° and 10° It can be designed to stabilise the frame. Where the crane is of relatively low (6° is commonly adopted). Often the internal floor requires additional capacity (up to about 20 tonnes), • Frame spacing between 5 m and fire protection. brackets can be fixed to the columns 8 m (the greater spacings being to support the crane (see Figure 3.5). associated with the longer span Portal frame with Use of a tie member between haunches portal frames). external mezzanine across the building or fixed column bases • Haunches in the rafters at the eaves Offices may be located externally to the may be necessary to reduce the relative and if necessary at the apex. portal frame, creating an asymmetric eaves deflection. The outward movement portal structure, as shown in Figure 3.4. of the frame at crane rail level may be of Table 3.1 can be used as an aid for The main advantage of this framework is critical importance to the functioning of pre-design of single span portal frames. that large columns and haunches do not the crane. The use of haunches at the eaves and obstruct the office space. Generally, this apex both reduces the required depth of additional structure depends on the portal For heavy cranes, it is appropriate to rafter and achieves an efficient moment frame for its stability. support the crane rails on additional connection at these points. Often the columns, which may be tied to the portal haunch is cut from the same size of Crane portal frame with frame columns by bracing in order to section as the rafter. column brackets provide stability. Cranes, if needed, have an important Portal frame with a influence on the design and the Propped portal frame mezzanine floor dimensions of portal frames. Where the span of a portal frame is Office accommodation is often provided They create additional vertical loads greater than 30 m, and there is no need within a portal frame structure using as well as considerable horizontal forces, to provide a clear span, a propped portal a mezzanine floor (see Figure 3.3), which influence the size of the column frame (see Figure 3.6) can reduce the which may be partial or full width. section, in particular. rafter size and also the horizontal forces16 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  18. 18. Support Structures 03 Eaves Frame RequiredSnow load Span Roof pitch height spacing cross‑section [kN/m²] [m] [m] [°] [m] Column Rafter 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 IPE 550 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 0.75 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 450 IPE 450 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 360 IPE 360 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 IPE 300 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 500 HEA 500 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 IPE 550 1.20 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 450 IPE 450 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 360 IPE 360 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 650 HEA 650 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 550 HEA 550 2.00 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 HEA 600 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 400 IPE 400 Table 3.1 Pre-design table for portal frames Roof pitch Apex Rafter Eaves Apex haunch Eaves haunch Column Figure 3.2 Single span symmetrical portal frame Mezzanine Figure 3.3 Portal frame with internal mezzanine floor Mezzanine Figure 3.4 Portal frame with external mezzanine floor EURO-BUILD in Steel 17
  19. 19. 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Column bracket Figure 3.5 Portal frame with column brackets Possible location * of out of plane restraint Prop Clear internal height Figure 3.6 Propped portal frame at the bases of the columns, thus leading applications. The rafter can be curved wall is not provided by a portal frame, to savings in both steelwork and to a radius by cold bending. For spans bracings or rigid panels are needed, foundation costs. greater than 16 m, splices may be required as shown in Figure 3.11. in the rafter because of limitations of This type of frame is sometimes referred transport. For architectural reasons, Column beam structures to as a ‘single span propped portal’, but it these splices may be designed to be Column and beam structures require an acts as a two-span portal frame in terms visually unobtrusive. independent bracing system in both of the behaviour of the beam. directions. The beams may be I‑sections Alternatively, where the roof must be or lattice trusses. Tied portal frame curved but the frame need not be curved, In a tied portal frame (see Figure 3.7), the rafter can be fabricated as a series of Column beam structures with the horizontal movements of the eaves straight elements. hinged column bases and the moments in the columns are For simple beam and column structures, reduced, at the cost of a reduction in the Cellular portal frame the columns are loaded mainly in com- clear height. For roof slopes of less than Cellular beams are commonly used pression which leads to smaller columns. 15°, large forces will develop in the in portal frames which have curved Compared to a portal frame, the internal rafters and the tie. rafters (see Figure 3.10 and Figure 2.9). moments in the beam are greater, Where splices are required in the rafter leading to larger steel sections. Since Mansard portal frame for transport, these should be detailed to pinned connections are less complex A mansard portal frame consists of a preserve the architectural features for this than moment resisting connections, series of rafters and haunches (as in form of construction. fabrication costs can be reduced. Table Figure 3.8). It may be used where a large 3.2 gives some indicative column and clear span is required but the eaves Gable wall frames beam sizes for a hinged column base. height of the building has to be minimised. Gable wall frames are located at the ends A tied mansard may be an economic of the building and may comprise posts For this type of support structure, solution where there is a need to restrict and simply-supported rafters rather than bracings in both directions are required eaves spread. a full-span portal frame (see Figure 3.11). in the roof as well as in the walls in order If the building is to be extended later, to provide stability for horizontal loads. Curved rafter portal frame a portal frame of the same size as the For that reason, it is often used for Curved rafter portals (see Figure 3.9 and internal frames should be provided. predominantly enclosed halls (i.e. no Figure 2.8) are often used for architectural In cases in which the stability of the gable substantial openings). This fact also has18 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  20. 20. Support Structures 03 Hangers may be required on long spans Tie Figure 3.7 Tied portal frame Figure 3.8 Mansard portal frame Figure 3.9 Curved rafter portal frame Figure 3.10 Cellular beam used in portal frame Industrial door Gablebracing Finished floor level Personnel door Figure 3.11 End gables in a frame structure EURO-BUILD in Steel 19
  21. 21. 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Eaves Frame Required Snow load Span Roof pitch height spacing cross‑section [kN/m²] [m] [m] [°] [m] Column Beam 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 HEA 550 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 IPE 600 0.75 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 240 IPE 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 200 IPE 360 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 160 IPE 300 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 700 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 550 1.20 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 IPE 550 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 220 IPE 450 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 180 IPE 360 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 330 HEA 900 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 700 2.00 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 240 IPE 500 Table 3.2 Pre-design table for column and 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 200 IPE 450 beam structures Sheet thickness 1.5 - 3 mm H H Height H 175 mm 195 mm 210 mm 240 mm 260 mm Z-shape Sheet thickness 1.5 - 4 mm max. 350 mm Height H min. 80 mm 0 min. 30 mm depending on H max. 10 0 mm C-shape Sheet thickness 1.5 - 4 mm max. 350 mm Height H min. 80 mm 0 min. 30 mm depending on H max. 10 0 mm Figure 3.12 Cold-formed sections typically U-shape used for purlins20 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  22. 22. Support Structures 03to be taken into account during stiffness acts in both directions, and the Purlinsthe installation stage by providing structure is stable after installation Purlins transfer the forces from thetemporary bracings. without additional bracing. roof cladding to the primary structural elements, i.e. rafters. Furthermore, theyColumn beam structures with Secondary components can act as compression members as partfixed column bases bracing of the bracing system and provide limitedWhen using fixed-ended columns, A typical steel portal frame structure with restraint against lateral torsional bucklinglarger foundations are required as a its secondary components is shown in of the rafter. For frame spacings up toresult of the additional bending moment. Figure 3.14. Similar systems are provided 7 m, it can be economic to span theAs the columns have low axial forces, for beam and column splices. profiled sheeting between the raftersthe required size of the foundation without the use of purlins. Larger framewill be large and possibly uneconomic. The bracing systems shown in Figure 3.1 spacings reduce the number of primaryLarge columns for industrial buildings are generally achieved by bracing structural elements and foundations,with a crane may be designed as (usually circular members) in the plane but require the use of heavier purlins.lattice structures. of the roof or wall. Purlins and side In industrial buildings, hot-rolled rails support the roof and wall cladding, I‑sections as well as cold-formed profilesCompared to portal frames, internal and stabilise the steel framework against with Z-, C‑, U- or custom-made shapesmoments in the beams and lateral lateral buckling. Alternatively, panels are used, as shown in Figure 3.12.deformations are greater. The providing shear stiffness or steel profiledadvantages of this system are its sheeting used in diaphragm action When cold-formed purlins are used,insensitivity to settlement and, in the can be used to provide sufficient out-of- they are usually located at spacingscase of the fixed supports, the base plane stability. of approximately 1.5 m to 2.5 m. (a) Support for continuous (b) Support for single-span hot-rolled purlin hot-rolled purlin (c) Support for continuous (d) Support for continuous cold-formed cold-formed Z-shaped purlin custom-shaped purlin Figure 3.13 Possible solutions for purlin-rafter connections EURO-BUILD in Steel 21
  23. 23. 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Purlins Cold rolled Rafter eaves beam 5 Apex haunch Side 4 rails 3 1 Eaves haunch Positions of restraint 2 to inner flange of Column column and rafter Dado wall Base plate FFL Tie rod (optional but not common) Foundation (a) Cross-section showing the portal frame and its restraints Cold rolled purlins Sag bars if necessary Cold-rolled eaves beam Eaves beam strut Plan bracing (b) Roof steelwork plan Sag rod Side rails Diagonal ties Side wall bracing Figure 3.14 Overview of secondary structural components in (c) Side elevation a portal frame structure22 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  24. 24. Support Structures 03 Tension flange welds Rib (tension) stiffener (if needed) hot-rolled I-section Eaves haunch Bolts Grade 8.8 or 10.9 End-plate Compression stiffener (if needed) hot-rolled I-section Figure 3.15 Typical eaves connections in a portal frameThe spacing between the purlins is In order to reduce manufacturing costs,reduced in zones of higher wind and it is preferable to design the eavessnow load, and where stability of the connection without the use of stiffeners.rafter is required, e.g. close to the eaves In some cases, the effects of the reducedand valley. Often manufacturers provide joint stiffness on the global structuralapproved solutions for the connections to behaviour may have to be considered,the rafter section using pre-fabricated i.e. effects on the internal forces andsteel plates, as shown in Figure 3.13. deflections. EN 1993‑1‑8 provides a design procedure, which takes theseConnections ‘semi-rigid’ effects into account.The three major connections in a singlebay portal frame are those at the eaves, The apex connection is often designedthe apex and the column base. similarly, see Figure 3.16. If the span of the frame does not exceed transportationFor the eaves, bolted connections are limits (about 16 m), the on-site apex con-mostly used of the form shown in nection can be avoided, thus saving costs.Figure 3.15. A haunch can be createdby welding a ‘cutting’ to the rafter to The base of the column is often kept simpleincrease its depth locally and to make with larger tolerances in order to facilitatethe connection design more efficient. the interface between the concrete andThe ‘cutting’ is often made from the steelwork. Typical details are presentedsame steel section as the rafter. in Figure 3.17. Pinned connections are often preferred in order to minimizeIn some cases, the column and the foundation sizes although stability duringhaunched part of the beam are construction must be considered.constructed as one unit, and the High horizontal forces may require theconstant depth part of the beam is use of fixed based connections.bolted using an end plate connection. EURO-BUILD in Steel 23
  25. 25. 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Bolts Grade 8.8 or 10.9 End-plates hot-rolled rafter section Figure 3.16 (Right) Typical apex connections in a portal frame Apex haunch Figure 3.17 (Below) Typical examples (if needed) of nominally pinned column bases in a portal frame24 EURO-BUILD in Steel