Fakulteti i Ndërtimtarisëdhe ArkitekturësKonstruktiv PROF. : Nedime Belegu PUNOI : Durim Bajrami
THEME• The Great ALBANIA• English Grammar• Translated Words
Ethnic Albania is a term used primarilyby Albanian nationalists to denote theterritories claimed as the traditionalhomeland of the ethnic Albanians. These territories include Albania, Kosovo,Presheva, Medvegja and Bujanovci inSerbia, and parts in Montenegro (Podgorica,Ulcinj), etc.Parts of the Epirus region of Greece referred toby Albanians as Çamëria are also sometimesincluded in this definition.According to the Gallup Balkan Monitor 2010report, the idea of a Greater Albania issupportedby the majority of Albanians in Albania (63%),Kosovo (81%) and the Republic of Macedonia(53%).In different territories in Balkans that are inhabited by Albanians, armed forces werecreated during the 90s.
Beginning in the 7th century BC, Greek colonieswere established on the Illyrian coast.The most important were Apollonia, Avlona(modern-day Vlorë), Epidamnos (modern-dayDurrës), and Lissus (modern-day Lezhë).The rediscovered Greek city of Buthrotum (modern-day Butrint),In the westernmost parts of the territory of Albaniaalong with the Illyrian tribes lived the Bryges, aPhrygian people, and in the south lived the Greektribe of the Chaonians.In the Middle Ages, the name Arberia (see Originand history of the name Albania) began to beincreasingly applied to the region now comprisingthe nation of Albania. Beginning in the late-14th century, the OttomanTurks expanded their empire from Anatolia to theBalkans (Rumelia). By the 15th century, the Ottomans ruled most ofthe Balkan Peninsula.
Many Albanians had been recruited into theJanissary, including the feudal heir Gjergj Kastriotiwho was renamed Skanderbeg (Iskandar Bey) by hisTurkish trainers at Edrine.After some Ottoman defeats at the hands of theSerbs, Skanderbeg deserted and began a rebellionagainst the Ottoman Empire.After deserting, Skanderbeg re-converted to RomanCatholicism and declared a holy war against theOttoman Empire, which he led from 1443 to1468.Under a red flag bearing Skanderbegs heraldicemblem,an Albanian force held off Ottoman campaigns fortwenty-five years and overcame sieges of Krujë ledby the forces of the Ottoman sultans Murad II andMehmed II.However, Skanderbeg was unable to receive any ofthe help which had been promised him by the popes.He died in 1468, leaving no worthy successor. Afterhis death the rebellion continued, but without itsformer success.
The loyalties and alliances created andnurtured by Skanderbeg faltered andfell apart, and the Ottomansreconquered the territory of Albania in1478. Shortly after the fall of Krujes castle,some Albanians fled to neighboringItaly, giving rise to the modernArbëreshë communities. However, inthe 19th century after the fall of theAlbanian pashaliks and the Massacre ofthe Albanian Beys an Albanian NationalAwakening took place and many revoltsagainst the Ottoman Empire wereorganized. Such revolts included theAlbanian Revolts of 1833-1839, theRevolt of 1843-44, and the Revolt of1847. A culmination of the AlbanianNational Awakening were the League ofPrizren and the League of Peja, butthey were unsuccessful to an Albanianindependence, which occurred only in1912, through the Albanian Declarationof Independence.
Kosovo is landlocked and borders CentralSerbia north and eastward, the Republic ofMacedonia to the south, Albania to thewest and Montenegro to the northwest(the latter three recognise it asindependent).The largest city and the capital of Kosovois Pristina (alternatively spelled Prishtinaor Priština), while other cities include Peja,Prizren, Gjakova, and Mitrovica. During classical antiquity, the territoryroughly corresponding to present-dayKosovo was inhabited by the Dardani.Subsequently, Dardani were conquered bythe Roman, Byzantine, Bulgarian andSerbian empires.As a region within the Serbian medievalstate, Serbs came to consider Kosovo asthe cradle of Serbian culture, religion andnational identity; despitethe fact that medieval Serbia did notevolve from Kosovo itself.
After the Kosovo War and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the territory came under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), most of whose roles were assumed by the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) in December 2008. In February 2008, the Assembly of Kosovo declared Kosovos independence as the Republic of Kosovo.
Albanians refer to the area as theLugina e Preshevës or simply“lugina", and usually associate themunicipality of Medveđa at thenorthern edge with the area. InSerbian official statements, the areais usually referred to as the territoryof municipalities of Preševo andBujanovac and also Medveđa butonly when denoting political contextof the region.the region. In 2001, as a follow-upto the Kosovo War, there werereported clashes between Yugoslavsecurity forces and ethnic Albanianguerrillas linked to the UÇK. The aimof the movement was to take fullcontrol of Preshevës, Bujanocitdhe Medvegjës and hold them untilsuch time as the adjacent lands,Kosovo and Western Macedonia,also came under Albanian control
The Albanians of the area are represented politically by the Albanian Coalition from Preševo Valley, which won one seat in the 2007 Parliamentary election.Representatives from the municipalities of Preševo, Bujanovac and Medveđa have adopted a declaration asking for the formation of the "Preševo Valley region" in early August 2009
Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro .In accordance with the decision of the Berlin Congress in 1878, Podgorica was integrated into Montenegro, marking the end of four centuries of Turkish occupation, and the beginning of a new era in the development of Podgorica and Montenegro. The city developed quickly and became a strong marketplace. Roads were built to all neighbouring towns and, in 1902, a tobacco plant became Podgoricas first significant commercial company.The area is crossed with rivers and the city itself is only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Lake Skadar. The Ribnica rivers flow through the city, while the Zeta, Cijevna, Sitnica and Mareza flow nearby. This richness in bodies of water is a major feature of the city.
The wider area of Ulqinit has beeninhabited since the Bronze Age, based ondating of Illyrian tombs (tumuli) found inthe village of Zogaj, in the vicinity ofUlqinit . The town is believed to havebeen founded in the 5th century BC bycolonists from Colchis, as mentioned inthe 3rd century BC poem by Apolloniusof Rhodos. Illyrians lived in the region at thetime, and under Greek influence builtimmense so-called Cyclopean Walls. In163 BC, the Romans capturedColchinium from the Illyrian tribe ofOlciniates and renamed the townOlcinium (akaUlcinium) after the tribe.Under Roman rule the town received thestatus of Opidum Civium Romanorum(Town with Special Privileges).
Çamëria is a term used mostly byAlbanians for parts of the coastalregion of Epirus in southernAlbania and northwesternGreece Today, it is usedmostly by Albanians as it isassociated with the ChamAlbanians. Most of what is calledChameria is divided between theGreek prefectures of ThesprotiaandPreveza, the southernextremity of Albanias SarandëDistrict and some villages ineastern Ioannina Prefecture. Theterm is disused in Greece due inpart to its perceived connotationof Albanian irredentism, andbecause the Greek toponymsEpirusand Thesprotia have beenestablished for the region sinceantiquityThe region is named after ChamAlbanians, by adding the suffix -eria, which in Albanian languagedenotes "land of the Chams".
In modern times, the region of Chameria was reduced to the dialectological territory of the Chams, stretching between the mouth of the Acheron river in the south, the area of Butrint in the north, and the Pindus in the east. After the permanent demarcation of the Greco-Albanian border, only two small municipalities were left in southern Albania (Markat and Konispol), while the remainder of the territory fell under the Greek prefectures of Thesprotia (a name revived by the Metaxas Regime in 1936) and Preveza, with a few villages in Ioannina PrefectureThe region is mostly mountainous, with valleys and hills concetrated in the southern part, while farmlands are in northern part. Most of them with gridded roads and ditches are within the valleys in the central, southern and the western part. There are five rivers in the region, namely Pavllo in the north, Acheron, Louros Arachthosand Thyamis. Four of them are in Greece, with only the first in Albania
Grammar: Present ConditionalsPresent Real ConditionalUSEThe Present Real Conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-life situations.Examples:If I go to a friends house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.If the weather is nice, she walks to work.Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.I read if there is nothing on TV.A: What do you do when it rains? B: I stay at home.A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney? B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.IMPORTANT If / WhenBoth "if" and "when" are used in the Present Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happens less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happens regularly.Examples:When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. I regularly have days off from work.If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach. I rarely have days off from work.
Present Unreal ConditionalUSEThe Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would generally do in imaginary situations.Examples:If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I dont own a car.She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesnt have much money.I would read more if I didnt watch so much TV.Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.If they worked harder, they would earn more money.A: What would you do if you won the lottery? B: I would buy a house.A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.? B: I would live in Seattle.EXCEPTION If I were ...In the Present Unreal Conditional, the form "was" is not considered grammatically correct. In written English or in testing situations, you should always use "were." However, in everyday conversation, "was" is often used.Examples:If he were French, he would live in Paris.If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.I would play basketball if I were taller.I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in conversation.)
IMPORTANT Only use "If"Only the word "if" is used with the Present Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.Examples:I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. Not CorrectI would buy that computer if it were cheaper. CorrectEXCEPTION Conditional with Modal VerbsThere are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:would + can = couldwould + shall = shouldwould + may = mightThe words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would." Instead, they must be used in these special forms.Examples:If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not CorrectIf I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. CorrectIf she had time, she would may go to the party. Not CorrectIf she had time, she might go to the party. CorrectThe words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would."Examples:If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. Not CorrectIf I had more time, I could exercise after work. CorrectIf he invited you, you really would should go. Not CorrectIf he invited you, you really should go. Correct
DICTIONA RYNr English Transcription Shqip.1. glass [glæs] qelq2. ceramics [səræmıks] qeramik3. carriage [kærıdʒ] karroce4. barrel canon [bærəl kænən] cilinder5. screwdriver [skru:,draıvər] kaqavida6. insulator [ınsə,leıtər] izolant7. complex [kɒmpleks] bllok8. tree [tri:] dru9. window [wındəʋ] dritare10 insolation [,ınsəʋleıʃən] ] izolim.11 isothermal [,aısəɵɜ:rməl] izotermal.12 gypsum [dʒıpsəm] gips. Seminary from English Language
Nr English Transcription Shqip.15 concrete [kɒŋkri:t betoniere. mixer mıksər]16 brick [brık] tulle.17 ebb and flow [Eb ænd flow] batice dhe. zbatice18 frontal [frʌntəl] ballor.19 grocer [grəʋsər] bakall.20 dwelling [dwelıŋ] banes.21 colaboration [coləboræʃən] bashkepunim.22 pedium [‘pi:dıəm] bazament.23 front [frʌnt] ] Ballin Seminary from English Language.
Nr English Transcription Shqip.29 former [fɔ:rmər] formist.30 ratio [reıʃəʋ] fuqi.31 builder [bıldər] firme ndertimi.32 mortar [mɔ:rtər] llaq.33 enamel [ınæməl] llak.34 nail [neıl] gozhde.35 scull , spade [Skʌl , speıd] lopate.36 blak [blek] tra.37 girder [gɜ:rdər] tra mbajtes Seminary from English Language.
Nr English Transcription Shqip.43 urbanization [,ɜ:rbənəzeıʃən] urbanizim.44 bridge [brıdʒ] ure.45 screwnail [skru:neıl] vide per dru.46 trip hammer [trıp,hæmər] qekan. mekanik47 maul,hammer [mɔ:l] , qekiq. [hæmər]48 mallet [mælıt] qekiq druri.49 cementation [,si:mənteıʃən] qimentim.50 quadrate [kwɒdreıt] drejtkendesh.51 cement [sıment] qimento Seminary from English Language.
Nr English Transcription Shqip.59 magazine [,mægəzi:n] dhome , magazine.60 cast [kæst] dredh.61 performance [pərfɔ:rməns] efektshmeri , rendi..62 deformation [,di:fɔ:rmeıʃən] deformim.63 erector [ırektər] elektricist.64 power [paʋər] energji.66 cleat [kli:t] Gozhdë, rrip ,. mbajtëse67 hammerer [hæmərər] godites me qekan.68 intakte [intækt] intakte Seminary from English Language.
Nr English Transcription Shqip.74 fatigue [fəti:g] lodhje e. metaleve75 tolerance [tɒlərəns] lejes.76 pinnacle [pınəkəl] maje.77 pitch [pıtʃ] hap.78 punch [pʌntʃ] shpues.79 employee [,emplɔıi:] punonjës.80 clearance [klırəns] hapsire.81 tool [tu:l] vegël.82 integrate [ıntə,greıt] bashkoj Seminary from English Language.
Nr. English Transcription Shqip90. bonnet [bɒnıt] mbulesë91. axle cap [æksəl cæp] kapuq , bucele92. body [bɒdı] shasi93. steam [,sti:mdʒækıt] kemish avulli jacket94. damper,cli [dæmpər , klıp] kllape p95. crankshaft [kræŋk,ʃæft] kollodok96. cornice [kɔ:rnıs] kornize97. metals [metəlz] metale98. abradant [əbreıdənt] gerryes99. pig-iron [pıg,aıərn] gize10 inlet [ınlet] hyrje0.10 absorber [goditjeshues] shuese1. Seminary from English Language10 boss [bɒs] gunge