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the bureaucracy


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the bureaucracy

  1. 1. SSU3208- ModernOrganizations and Social Movements A Bureaucracy is a way of administratively organizing a large number of people. Who need to work together.Organizts in the public and private sector in changing universities and Gv rely on bureaucracy to function.Eventhough bureaucracy sometimes seems inefficient or wasteful. Setting up a bureaucracy help ensure that thousands of people work together in compatible ways of defining everyone’s roles within a hierarchy. The job of a bureaucratic is to implement government policy to take the laws and decisions made by elected officials and put them in to practice. One useful approach to understanding what bureaucratic do is to examine the actions of different governmental agencies. Sri Lanka like most third world countries which emerged from colonialism inherited as part of her colonial legacy. A highly centralized practical and administrative system the imperatives of development at the independence in 1948.Brought this system under severe strain, successive Gv’s therefor deplored these centralizing trends and accepted decentralization and popular participation as part of their policies. Decentralization has received added imputes and its focus has undergone change during the last decade. Since Sri Lanka has been in the theories of an ethnic conflict which escalated in to violence and the demand for a separate state backed by organized military and terrorism. In relation to Sri Lanka it should be noted that the issue of decentralization and devolution of power has been the subject of debate and experimentation. Since independence in 1948 not exclusively in response to the ethnic factor. But also in recognition of the need for participatory development and as a reaction against a highly centralized colonial bureaucratic structure. Its applicability was considered not only concerning the geographic areas of ethnic concentration but in relation to the entire country. Nevertheless the ethnic factor too has had an impact on attempts at decentralizations especially since independence. The most post colonial third world states, Sri Lanka inherited a highly centralized bureaucratic structure designed by the British mainly for political integration and maintenance of law and order. Within this deconcentraded administrative structure local government was introduced by the British in the late 19th and early 20th century. But severely limited in scope of activity and in financial resources they become mere field units of the department of local Gv, where the real agent for development functions were agencies of department’s life agricultural, rural development, agrarian services irrigation etc. Which functioned in each area the bureaucratic is the administrative system governing any large institiution.The determination of unnecessary bureaucratic is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaign. Sri Lanka conflict profile has been ravaged by a long running and bloody civil war due to ethnic tension between the Buddhist Sinhalese majority and the Hindu Tamil miniority.The conflict cost the lives of an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 citizens and hundreds of thousands of civilians were displaced.
  2. 2. The violent ethnic conflict that has ravaged Sri Lanka for a decade resulted in an agreement between the Gv’s of Sri Lanka and India. Social and economic development during the early colonial period under Portuguese and then the Dutch commercialization of agriculture, the registration of title to land, registration of births and deths, proselyzation contributed towards a freezing of ethnic boundaries. Sri Lankan society is an ethno-religious mosaic and within the ethnic groups, there are clear religious divisions as well. To a certain extent ethnicity and religion also have a regional basis, which is a significant reason why the Tamil militancy has a strong geographical dimension. By the time Sri Lanka achived independence in 1948 from the uk, therewere expectations that the country would become a model democracy. Universal adult franchise had been introduced in the 1931 Democratic institutions and traditions had been in place and political violence was not an issue. Moreover by the 1950s literacy in Sri Lanka was on the rise and there were no serious indicators of economic or social catastrophes of the years to come. However even before independence there were clear indications of ethnic politics that were to emerge later. In addition to the barriers imposed by the continued use of the English language as the official language after independence, the emerging nationalist forces perceived that Sri Lankan Tamils had access to a disproportionate share of power as a consequence of educational opportunities in the colonial period and were also disproportionally represented in the civil administration, Moever considerable mercantile interests were also controlled by non –Sinhalese groups. These fears and concerns were basis for the politics of language that was to emerge. Since the early 1980s many have stressed the role school texts play in shaping ethnic relations in the country. Ethnic politics have also been played out in the process of texts have been removed in the process of revision and re-writing. Ironically however sometimes this has gone to the opposite extreme. In some texts all references to ethnicity and related issues have been removed. The issue of ownership over and access to land has also been a sonsistenent area in which ethnic politics in Sri Lanka have manifested and have sustained themselves over the years. As noted one of the peculiarities in the demographic patterns in Sri Lanka is the relative concentration of certain ethnic groups in certain geographical regions.