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Snake gourd

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This presentation is done by 2010/2011 batch of Export Agriculture students of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka as a requirement for the subject which is “Fruit & Vegetable Cultivation”. Note that the information included here is relevant to Sri Lankan condition.

Published in: Food
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Snake gourd

  1. 1. Trichosanthes cucumerina Snake Gourd
  2. 2. Introduction • Snake gourd plant is a annual creeper, belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family • This subtropical plant is native to South-eastern Asia and Australia • Mostly popular in India • Widely grown in Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Nigeria and Australia • It is suitable for growing for home garden and fresh market
  3. 3. Scientific classification • Kingdom: Plantae • (unranked): Angiosperms • (unranked): Eudicots • (unranked): Rosids • Order: Cucurbitales • Family: Cucurbitaceae • Genus: Trichosanthes • Species: T. cucumerina • Binomial name: Trichosanthes cucumerina L. • Synonyms: Trichosanthes anguina L.
  4. 4. • Nature of cultivation – Medium scale – Home garden • Growing seasons – January-March – September-December • Major growing areas in Sri Lanka – Matale – Kandy – Rathnapura – Hambanthota
  5. 5. • Total extent ─ 3167 ha (2009) • Production ─ 33421 mt (2009) • Average Yield ─ 10.55 tonnes/ha (2009)
  6. 6. Morphological Characteristics • Fruit – narrow and longish fruit can grow more than 150 cm (5 feet) in length – dark green with several light green lines or totally white – It is soft and breaks easily when bend – numerous seeds; relatively large and slightly gray – When it is fully ripe, inside of this fruit will turn red • Flower – lace-like flower – White in color
  7. 7. • Foliage – more or less palmate, two or three lobed or slightly wavy leaflets with serrated edges
  8. 8. Uses • As vegetable – Snake Gourd is grown principally for the immature fruit that can be cooked – Can be served as a vegetable like zucchini squash • As medicine – Roots and seeds are used to expel worms and to treat diarrhea and syphilis – acts as an excellent anti-inflammatory – makes digestion easy
  9. 9. Nutrient Value • The nutritive value of snake gourd is unbeatable compared to other vegetables • The gourd comprises of protein, fat, carbohydrate and soluble fiber • Its mineral and vitamin content are calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin and carotene
  10. 10. Varieties • TA 2 ─The length of the pods exceeds 1 m ─whitish ash color pods ─with maturity green lines can be seen ─can be harvested within 60 – 75 days after planting • MI Short ─The length of the pods is ½ m and whitish ash in color. ─Spacing - 1.5 x 1.5m ─Seed rate - 4kg/ ha ─Yield - 20Mt/ ha
  11. 11. Field Establishment Climate – Requires tropical , warm & humid climate for best growth ∙ minimum temperature -18oC during early growth ∙ optimal temperature - 24–27oC – Cannot tolerate heavy rainfall as flowering is greatly affected – very heavy rainfall will make the plant susceptible to various fungal & mycoplasma diseases – every cold climate is not suitable, & it cannot tolerate frost
  12. 12. Soil – Tolerates a wide range of soil – prefers a well drained sandy loam soil that rich in organic matter. – soil pH range - 6.0 to 7.0 – Good drainage
  13. 13. Land Preparation ─ Plough the field to fine tilth ─ dig pits of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm at 2.5 x 2 m spacing and form basins. Seed Treatment – Treat seeds with Trichoderma viride or Pseudomonas fluorescens or Carbendazim
  14. 14. Sowing – Well rotten FYM and fertilizers are mixed with topsoil in the pit – Seeds are sown at 4-5 per pit – After two weeks remove the unhealthy plants retaining three plants per pit – Erect pandals for trailing snake gourd – Provide bamboo stakes and cross wires for spreading the vines
  15. 15. Cont’d….. – Seedlings when starts producing tendrils; • should be staked to thin bamboo poles using banana fibres • to enable the vines to spread on the pandal -Snake guard grown in pandal system-
  16. 16. Training of developing fruit • Five days after fruit set, at the tip of the developing fruits, a small stone is tied using a piece of banana fiber • Otherwise the developing ovary will be coiled • Short fruited types do not require such training (Ex: Co 2 variety)
  17. 17. Quality seedling production Nursery raising • Sow the snake gourd seeds in trays containing well decomposed cocopeat medium • Sow only one seed per cell • Keep the trays under shade net house • Water regularly with the help of rose can • Transplant about 12 days old seedlings to main field
  18. 18. Water Management • light irrigation must be given immediately after sowing - to maintain the moisture level in the soil • After germination- dried leaves can be used as mulch to retain moisture • Growth stage-watering must be done at least thrice a week
  19. 19. Nutrient Management • Apply FYM at 20-25 t/ha as basal dose along with half dose of N (35 kg) and full dose of P2O5 (25 kg) and K2O (25 kg/ha) • The remaining dose of N (35 kg) is applied in several split doses at fortnightly intervals Weed Management • Conduct weeding and raking of the soil at the time of fertilizer application
  20. 20. Pests and Diseases Pests • Fruit flies • Epilachna beetle • Red pumpkin beetle • Leaf caterpillers Diseases • Downy mildew • Mosaic
  21. 21. Control Measures of Pests and Diseases • Fruit flies – Collect the damaged fruits and destroy – Neem oil as foliar spray • Powdery mildew – Can be controlled by spraying Dinocap
  22. 22. Flowering & Harvest • Fruits start forming 60 to 70 days after sowing • At flowering stage , one spray of plant hormones (Ex: NAA -to increase the number of female flowers) • Fully developed tender fruits can be harvested every 4 to 5 days • Tying a small stone to the stigmatic end of the fruits is a widely practiced method • under organic practices, the plant will continue to yield for up to 2 months
  23. 23. Post Harvest Handling • Well packed in a air-tight pot ( Sealed box or Plastic bag ) • Kept in the refrigerator
  24. 24. Present by • U.L.D.M.S.Gunasinghe - UWU/EAG/11/0007 • R.M.M.K.Wijerathna - UWU/EAG/11/0012
  25. 25. Thank you

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