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GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND DEVELOPMENT
Concepts and Methodologies
1
Gary Gereffi
Duke University
June 17, 2016
World Bank Gro...
AGENDA
1. The New Global Economy
2. Origins of the GVC Framework
3. Clarifying GVC Concepts & Methods
 Value Chain Mappin...
© 2016 Duke CGGC
WHERE DO GVCS COME FROM?
3
© 2016 Duke CGGC
The New Global Economy
Old World of Trade (pre-1980)
• Countries trade finished goods
• Build national in...
© 2016 Duke CGGC
Where does the idea of Value Chains come from?
5
© 2016 Duke CGGC
Google Scholar Publications Referencing
GVC/GCC/GPN Frameworks
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4...
© 2016 Duke CGGC
MAJOR STEPPING STONES
• GCCs (global commodity chains)  GVCs (global value chains)
(1990s-2000s)
• Rocke...
© 2016 Duke CGGC
LANDMARK PUBLICATIONS
• “The organization of buyer-driven global commodity chains:
How U.S. retailers sha...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
CLARIFYING GVC CONCEPTS
9
© 2014 Duke CGGC
TYPES OF CHAINS
• Global Supply Chains
– Logistics (transportation focus: reduce time + costs)
– Trade Fa...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
LINKING GLOBAL CHAINS AND LOCAL CLUSTERS
11
© 2014 Duke CGGC
GOVERNANCE & UPGRADING
12
Global value chain analysis provides both conceptual and
methodological tools f...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
13
1. Value Chain Mapping
2. Geographic Scope
3. Governance Str...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
VALUE CHAIN MAPPING
14
© 2014 Duke CGGC
EXAMPLE 1: FRUIT & VEGETABLES VALUE CHAIN
Analyzing the position of different countries in the value chai...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
UPGRADING TRAJECTORY:
PRODUCTION TO PACKING AND COLD STORAGE
16
Packing&ColdStorage
(FunctionalUpgrading)...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND UPGRADING
17
© 2014 Duke CGGC
JOB PROFILES AND UPGRADING
18
Production for Export Packing & Cold Storage Processing
Skill Level
Value C...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
EXAMPLE 2 -- OFFSHORE SERVICES:
A Simplified View of Upgrading
19
ITO – Information technology outsourcin...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
© 2013 Duke CGGC
OFFSHORE SERVICES GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN
Infrastructure
Software
Network Management
Applicat...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
EXAMPLE 2: OFFSHORE SERVICES
GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DEMAND
21
© 2014 Duke CGGC
MAPPING SELECTED COUNTRIES – OFFSHORE SERVICES GVC, 2008
22
© 2014 Duke CGGC
OFFSHORE SERVICES UPGRADING:
INDIA, PHILIPPINES & CHILE
23
India
1990s – 2010 Early 2000s Mid to late 200...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
VALUE CHAIN GOVERNANCE
24
© 2014 Duke CGGC
PRODUCER-DRIVEN AND BUYER-DRIVEN GLOBAL COMMODITY CHAINS
Source: Gary Gereffi, “The organization of buyer...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
GVC LEAD FIRMS & THEIR SUPPLY CHAINS
26
Giant Retailers: Wal-Mart
 Largest retailer in the world directs...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Five GVC Governance Types
27
G. Gereffi, J. Humphrey & T. Sturgeon, “The governance of global value chain...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Determinants of GVC Governance
Governance
Type
Complexity of
transactions
Ability to codify
transactions
...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Dynamics in Global Value Chain Governance
Governance
Type
Complexity of
transactions
Ability to codify
tr...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Multiple Governance Structures in
UK-African Fresh Vegetable Value Chains
Dolan, Catherine, and John Hump...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Multiple Governance Structures Within the
Offshore Services Value Chain
31
Relational
Governance Structur...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
VALUE CHAIN UPGRADING
32
© 2014 Duke CGGC
ECONOMIC UPGRADING
• Strategies used by firms, clusters, and countries to
improve their positions in glob...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Functional Upgrading in GVCs: Linear View
Upgrading refers to
the strategies that
stakeholders
(countries...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
WHERE ARE THE HIGH-VALUE ACTIVITIES IN GVCs?
35
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Apple’s Smiling Curve and GVC for iPhones
36
Source: Grimes & Sun, “China’s evolving role in Apples GVC,”...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
The Smile Curve in GVCs: Variations
37
© 2014 Duke CGGC
TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE:
Diversified, Inclusive and Green Growth
Economic
Upgrading
Social
Upgrading
Environme...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
GVC Upgrading: Empirical Indicators
©2014 Duke CGGC
• Product Upgrading  Unit price of goods
• Process U...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
COSTA RICA’S MEDICAL DEVICES GVC
40
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Components
Manufacturing
Plastics extrusion
& molding
Precision metal
works
Electronics
development
Softw...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200 1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Expor...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
Entry Year Firm
Characteristics
Main Product
Export Category
Core Market
Segments
Product
Examples
Select...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
UPGRADING SUCCESS:
A LEADING MEDICAL DEVICES MNC
2010
Initial plant reopens
after restructuring
• 2004: M...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
BRAZIL AND MEXICO:
MEDICAL DEVICE EXPORTS, 1998-2011
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,...
© 2014 Duke CGGC
http://www.cggc.duke.edu
ggere@soc.duke.edu
Gary Gereffi
46
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Global Value Chains and Development - Concepts and Methodologies

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Professor Gary Gereffi’s presentation focuses on the origins of the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework. It clarifies key GVC concepts and methods, including value chain mapping, value chain governance and value chain upgrading. The presentation concludes by examining the medical devices GVC in Costa Rica to show the GVC of a small country in high tech. Professor Gereffi presented this overview at the World Bank Group, Trade & Competitiveness GVC workshop on technical tools and operations in Washington, DC.

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Global Value Chains and Development - Concepts and Methodologies

  1. 1. GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND DEVELOPMENT Concepts and Methodologies 1 Gary Gereffi Duke University June 17, 2016 World Bank Group, Trade & Competitiveness GVC workshop on technical tools and operations Washington, DC
  2. 2. AGENDA 1. The New Global Economy 2. Origins of the GVC Framework 3. Clarifying GVC Concepts & Methods  Value Chain Mapping  Value Chain Governance  Value Chain Upgrading 4. Small Countries and High Tech: Medical Devices GVC in Costa Rica
  3. 3. © 2016 Duke CGGC WHERE DO GVCS COME FROM? 3
  4. 4. © 2016 Duke CGGC The New Global Economy Old World of Trade (pre-1980) • Countries trade finished goods • Build national industries (ISI) New World of Trade • Countries trade intermediate goods; imports needed to export • Join global industries (EOI) Trends – GVCs  80% of world trade (UNCTAD, WIR 2013) – Rise of intermediate goods trade (import content of exports): 20% in 1990; 40% in 2010; 60% in 2030 (P. Lamy, WTO) – Consolidation within GVCs in fewer, larger suppliers – Concentration of production and consumption in relatively few large emerging economies
  5. 5. © 2016 Duke CGGC Where does the idea of Value Chains come from? 5
  6. 6. © 2016 Duke CGGC Google Scholar Publications Referencing GVC/GCC/GPN Frameworks 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 GVC & GVCs GCC & GCCs GPN & GPNs GVC: 4090 Publications in 2014 GPN: 1680 Publications in 2014 GCC: 692 Publications in 2014) Google Scholar search results that mention a framework in their titles, abstracts, keywords, or full texts: global value chain (GVC), global production network (GPN), and global commodity chain (GCC). Source: Google Scholar, https://scholar.google.com/. Retrieved Feb. 11, 2015.
  7. 7. © 2016 Duke CGGC MAJOR STEPPING STONES • GCCs (global commodity chains)  GVCs (global value chains) (1990s-2000s) • Rockefeller Foundation’s Global Value Chain Initiative (2000- 2005) -- https://globalvaluechains.org/ • Duke Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (Duke CGGC) (2005-present) -- http://www.cggc.duke.edu/ • Adoption and Elaboration by International Organizations of GVC Approach to Development (ca. 2009-2016) -- https://dukegvcsummit.org/ – E.g., World Trade Organization, OECD, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, ILO, UNCTAD, UNIDO, USAID, DFID, GIZ, etc.
  8. 8. © 2016 Duke CGGC LANDMARK PUBLICATIONS • “The organization of buyer-driven global commodity chains: How U.S. retailers shape overseas production networks,” Gereffi (in Commodity Chains & Global Capitalism, 1994) – 2544 google scholar citations* • “International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain,” Gereffi (J of Internat’l Economics, 1999) – 3256 google scholar citations* • “The governance of global value chains,” Gereffi, Humphrey & Sturgeon (Review of Internat’l Political Economy, 2005) – 4259 google scholar citations* *As of 06/16/2016.
  9. 9. © 2014 Duke CGGC CLARIFYING GVC CONCEPTS 9
  10. 10. © 2014 Duke CGGC TYPES OF CHAINS • Global Supply Chains – Logistics (transportation focus: reduce time + costs) – Trade Facilitation (lower barriers at the border) • Global Commodity Chains – Producer-driven chains: Trade + FDI (e.g., aircraft, autos, mining, oil) – Buyer-driven chains: Trade w/o FDI (e.g., consumer goods); global subcontracting by retailers, brands & supermarkets • Global Value Chains – Rise of intermediate goods trade (import content of exports: 20% in 1990; 40% in 2010; 60% in 2030 – P. Lamy) – Create, capture & sustain domestic value added (e.g., Chinese i- Phone example; build capabilities of domestic suppliers) • Regional Value Chains – Growing in importance, esp. since 2008-09 and in emerging economies; beyond fragmentation and EOI development model. 10
  11. 11. © 2014 Duke CGGC LINKING GLOBAL CHAINS AND LOCAL CLUSTERS 11
  12. 12. © 2014 Duke CGGC GOVERNANCE & UPGRADING 12 Global value chain analysis provides both conceptual and methodological tools for examining the global economy • Top-down: a focus on lead firms and inter-firm networks, using varied typologies of industrial “governance” • Bottom-up: a focus on countries and regions, which are analyzed in terms of various trajectories of economic, social and environmental “upgrading” (or “downgrading”)
  13. 13. © 2014 Duke CGGC DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 13 1. Value Chain Mapping 2. Geographic Scope 3. Governance Structure: Lead Firms & Industry Organization 4. Local Institutional Context 5. Industry Stakeholders 6. Upgrading Trajectories GLOBAL LOCAL
  14. 14. © 2014 Duke CGGC VALUE CHAIN MAPPING 14
  15. 15. © 2014 Duke CGGC EXAMPLE 1: FRUIT & VEGETABLES VALUE CHAIN Analyzing the position of different countries in the value chain can allow you to identify countries that have successfully upgrading & then examine the policies and changes they implemented to successfully achieve that functional upgrading. 15
  16. 16. © 2014 Duke CGGC UPGRADING TRAJECTORY: PRODUCTION TO PACKING AND COLD STORAGE 16 Packing&ColdStorage (FunctionalUpgrading) Typically women are hired to work in the packing plants. They must follow strict procedures to pack the products and prevent losses as well as protect against sanitary problems. Skills Preparation Short training, certification, and/ or on-the-job training Institutions Governments, private sector, buyers, training institutions
  17. 17. © 2014 Duke CGGC WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND UPGRADING 17
  18. 18. © 2014 Duke CGGC JOB PROFILES AND UPGRADING 18 Production for Export Packing & Cold Storage Processing Skill Level Value Chain Segments Job Profiles
  19. 19. © 2014 Duke CGGC EXAMPLE 2 -- OFFSHORE SERVICES: A Simplified View of Upgrading 19 ITO – Information technology outsourcing BPO – Business process outsourcing KPO – Knowledge process outsourcing ITO  BPO  KPO
  20. 20. © 2014 Duke CGGC © 2013 Duke CGGC OFFSHORE SERVICES GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN Infrastructure Software Network Management Applications Management Applications Development Applications Integration Desktop management CRM (Customer Relationship Management) HRM (Human Resource Management) ERM (Enterprise Resource Management) Marketing & Sales Finance & Accounting Procurement, Logistics and Supply Chain Management Training Payroll Recruiting Contact Centers/Call Centers Talent Management Content/ Document Management ITO Information Technology Outsourcing BPO Business Process Outsourcing KPO Knowledge Process Outsourcing Horizontal Activities Vertical Activities a Industry specific b Banking, Financial Services and Insurance (BFSI) Ex. Investment research, private equity research, and risk management analysis Telecommunications Ex. IP transformation, Interoperability testing and DSP and multimedia Manufacturing Ex. Industrial Engineering and sourcing and vendor management Retail eComerce and Planning, merchandising and demand intelligence Health/Pharma Ex. R&D, clinical trials, medical transcript Others Travel & Transportation Revenue management systems, customer loyalty solutions Business Consulting Business Analytics Market Intelligence Legal Services Energy Ex. Energy Trading and Risk Management , and Digital oil field solutions ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning): manufacturing/operations, supply chain management, financials & project management Infrastructure Management IT Consulting Software R&D ValueAdded LOW HIGH 20
  21. 21. © 2014 Duke CGGC EXAMPLE 2: OFFSHORE SERVICES GLOBAL SUPPLY AND DEMAND 21
  22. 22. © 2014 Duke CGGC MAPPING SELECTED COUNTRIES – OFFSHORE SERVICES GVC, 2008 22
  23. 23. © 2014 Duke CGGC OFFSHORE SERVICES UPGRADING: INDIA, PHILIPPINES & CHILE 23 India 1990s – 2010 Early 2000s Mid to late 2000s Philippines Early 2000 Mid 2000s Late 2000 Chile 2000-2008 2007-2010 2010
  24. 24. © 2014 Duke CGGC VALUE CHAIN GOVERNANCE 24
  25. 25. © 2014 Duke CGGC PRODUCER-DRIVEN AND BUYER-DRIVEN GLOBAL COMMODITY CHAINS Source: Gary Gereffi, “The organization of buyer-driven global commodity chains: How U.S. retailers shape overseas production networks,” in G. Gereffi & M. Korzeniewicz (eds.), Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism (Praeger, 1994), p. 98. Producer-driven Commodity Chains Manufacturers Distributors Retailers and Dealers Domestic and Foreign Subsidiaries and Subcontractors Retailers, branded marketers, and traders require full-package supply from overseas factories. U.S. MARKET Buyer-driven Commodity Chains OVERSEAS Branded Marketers Retailers Branded Manufacturers Traders Overseas Buyers Factories Notes: Solid arrows are primary relationships; dashed arrows are secondary relationships. Branded manufacturers ship parts for overseas assembly and re-export to the manufacturer’s home market
  26. 26. © 2014 Duke CGGC GVC LEAD FIRMS & THEIR SUPPLY CHAINS 26 Giant Retailers: Wal-Mart  Largest retailer in the world directs the biggest supply chain  > 60,000 suppliers worldwide and over 80% are in China Global Brands: Nike  Nike, the largest sportswear company in the world, does not own any factories.  Nike products made in 930 factories (subcontractors) in 50 countries  >1 million workers in supply chain, but just 38,000 direct employees in U.S. Manufacturers w/o Factories: Apple  Apple, the top smartphone company in the world, designs and markets its products but owns no factories  Foxconn, the largest electronics contract manufacturer in the world, makes Apple products and employs >1 million workers in mainland China
  27. 27. © 2014 Duke CGGC Five GVC Governance Types 27 G. Gereffi, J. Humphrey & T. Sturgeon, “The governance of global value chains,” Review of International Political Economy 12, 1 (2005), p. 89.
  28. 28. © 2014 Duke CGGC Determinants of GVC Governance Governance Type Complexity of transactions Ability to codify transactions Capabilities in the supply-base Degree of explicit coordination and power asymmetry Market Low High High Modular High High High Relational High Low High Captive High High Low Hierarchy High Low Low Low High Network org. forms Gereffi at al, “The governance of global value chains,” RIPE (2005), p. 87.
  29. 29. © 2014 Duke CGGC Dynamics in Global Value Chain Governance Governance Type Complexity of transactions Ability to codify transactions Capabilities in the supply-base Market Low High High Modular  High  Relational High  Low  High  Captive High High Low Hierarchy High Low Low  increasing complexity of transactions (harder to codify transactions; effective decrease in supplier competence)  decreasing complexity of transactions (easier to codify transactions; effective increase in supplier competence)  better codification of transactions (open or de facto standards, computerization)  de-codification of transactions (technological change, new products, new processes)  increasing supplier competence (decreased complexity, better codification, learning)  decreasing supplier competence.(increased complexity, new technologies, new entrants) High High Gereffi at al, “The governance of global value chains,” RIPE (2005), p. 90.
  30. 30. © 2014 Duke CGGC Multiple Governance Structures in UK-African Fresh Vegetable Value Chains Dolan, Catherine, and John Humphrey. 2004. "Changing Governance Patterns in the Trade in Fresh Vegetables between Africa and the United Kingdom." Environment and Planning A 36:491-509. (2000s)
  31. 31. © 2014 Duke CGGC Multiple Governance Structures Within the Offshore Services Value Chain 31 Relational Governance Structure Modular Governance Structure Market Governance Structure Hierarchal Governance Structure Captive Governance Structure Past Multiple Governance Structures
  32. 32. © 2014 Duke CGGC VALUE CHAIN UPGRADING 32
  33. 33. © 2014 Duke CGGC ECONOMIC UPGRADING • Strategies used by firms, clusters, and countries to improve their positions in global and regional value chains • Product upgrading - moving into more sophisticated product lines • Process upgrading - transforms inputs into outputs more efficiently by reorganizing the production system or introducing superior technology • Functional upgrading - acquiring new functions (or abandoning existing ones) to increase the overall skill content of the activities • Chain upgrading – entry or diversification into a new value chain by leveraging the knowledge and skills acquired in the current chain ©2014 Duke CGGC
  34. 34. © 2014 Duke CGGC Functional Upgrading in GVCs: Linear View Upgrading refers to the strategies that stakeholders (countries, regions and firms) can take to improve their position within the global economy. Gereffi, Gary and Jennifer Bair. 2001. “Local Clusters in Global Chains: The Causes and Consequences of Export Dynamism in Torreon’s Blue Jeans Industry”. World Development. Vol. 29 No. 11 34
  35. 35. © 2014 Duke CGGC WHERE ARE THE HIGH-VALUE ACTIVITIES IN GVCs? 35
  36. 36. © 2014 Duke CGGC Apple’s Smiling Curve and GVC for iPhones 36 Source: Grimes & Sun, “China’s evolving role in Apples GVC,” Area Development & Policy, 2016.
  37. 37. © 2014 Duke CGGC The Smile Curve in GVCs: Variations 37
  38. 38. © 2014 Duke CGGC TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE: Diversified, Inclusive and Green Growth Economic Upgrading Social Upgrading Environmental Upgrading Sustainable Growth Development Outcomes: • Job creation • Exports • Income generation • Added value • Better use of resources • Backward linkages Development Outcomes: • Inclusion of vulnerable groups • Job creation • Improve working conditions • Higher wages • Skills acquisition Development Outcomes: • Soil preservation and improvement • Water conservation • Wildlife conservation • Pollution and waste reduction
  39. 39. © 2014 Duke CGGC GVC Upgrading: Empirical Indicators ©2014 Duke CGGC • Product Upgrading  Unit price of goods • Process Upgrading  Productivity measures • Functional Upgrading  Backward/forward links • Chain Upgrading  Economic diversification into new or related industries • Social Upgrading  Wage rates, working conditions • Environmental Upgrading  Carbon footprint
  40. 40. © 2014 Duke CGGC COSTA RICA’S MEDICAL DEVICES GVC 40
  41. 41. © 2014 Duke CGGC Components Manufacturing Plastics extrusion & molding Precision metal works Electronics development Software Development Weaving/Knittin g Textiles Assembly Packaging Sterilization Assembly / Production Distribution & Marketing Resin Metals Chemicals Textiles Input Suppliers Disposables US$575.5 million Instruments US$270.5 million Capital Equip. US$32.5 million Therapeutics US$301 million Main Segments: Exports Post-Sales Services Consulting Maintenance, Repair Training Research & Product Development Regulatory Approval Process Development Sustaining Engineering Prototype Local firms are mainly in packaging & support services (12 of 19) versus 4 in limited role in plastics molding & metal finishing and 1 OEM with exports under $2 million. Number of Firms 0 - 5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 COSTA RICA IN THE MEDICAL DEVICES GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN, 2012 Wholesale distributors Individual Patients Doctors & Nurses Hospitals (Public/Private) 41
  42. 42. © 2014 Duke CGGC 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 ExportValues($USMilion) Year Costa Rica's Medical Exports by Product Category: 1998-2011 Disposables Therapeutics Instruments Capital Equipment EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL DEVICES EXPORTS FROM COSTA RICA, 1998-2011 • Disposables still the largest product category exported, but no longer a strong growth area. • Exports in surgical instruments have grown steadily since 2005. • Therapeutics has become 2nd largest category since 2008; likely to increase as newly established firms complete transfer of new product lines. • Limited export of highest value capital equipment (eg. Electronic/software devices) 42
  43. 43. © 2014 Duke CGGC Entry Year Firm Characteristics Main Product Export Category Core Market Segments Product Examples Select Firms Up to 2000 24 firms: 8 US 15 CR 1 German 4 OEMs 8 Components 1 Input distributor 7 Packaging 1 Finishing 3 Support services Disposables Drug delivery; Women’s health Intravenous tubing (I) Mastectomy bra (I) Hospira; Baxter; Amoena; Corbel 2001–2004 13 firms: 9 US 3 CR 1 Colombian 3 OEMS 6 Components 1 Finishing 1 Logistics provider 2 Support services Instruments Endoscopic surgery Biopsy forceps (II) Arthrocare; Boston Scientific; Oberg Industries 2005–2008 8 firms: 7 US 1 Puerto Rico 2 OEM 4 Components 1 Packaging 1 Finishing Therapeutics Cosmetic surgery; Women’s health & urology Breast implants (III) Minimally invasive devices for uterine surgery (II) Allergan; Tegra Medical; Specialty Coating Systems 2009–2012 21 firms: 16 US 1 CR 1 Ireland 1 Japan 2 Joint ventures (US-CR) 5 OEMS 7 Components 2 Non-OEM assemblers 1 Input Distributor 2 Sterilization 2 Packaging Therapeutics Disposables Instruments Cardiovascular Drug delivery Heart valves (III) Dialysis catheters (III) Guide wires (III) Compression socks (I) Abbott Vascular St. Jude Medical Covidien Moog Synergy Health Volcano Corp. FIRMS IN THE COSTA RICA MEDICAL DEVICES SECTOR 43
  44. 44. © 2014 Duke CGGC UPGRADING SUCCESS: A LEADING MEDICAL DEVICES MNC 2010 Initial plant reopens after restructuring • 2004: Manufacturing functions • 2012: Engineering for process improvements Focused on cardiology segment; strategy – to alleviate R&D costs in the US. Functional Upgrading • Biopsy forceps Labor intensive, basic metal works & extrusion. • Urethral stent Thermoforming, laser marking, coating capabilities. • Guide Wires  Sophisticated Laser cutting & welding. • Today – CR facilities cover 42 manufacturing processes. Product & Process Upgrading • Gastroenterology segment  Urology  Cardiovascular Market Diversification • Recent co-location of sterilization vendors will allow the firm to export directly to global distribution centersForward Linkages 2004 First production plant opens in Costa Rica (10,000m2) 2008 Second plant opens. (32,000m2) First plant restructuring 2005 2011 Exports: US$18 million Exports: US$120 million 44
  45. 45. © 2014 Duke CGGC BRAZIL AND MEXICO: MEDICAL DEVICE EXPORTS, 1998-2011 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 ExportValue(US$Million) MEXICO • Disposables: largest product category & growing • Brazilian government & private sector actors working to promote price-competitive, mid-tech exports. • Stabilizing disposables exports • Strong focus in instruments • Growing gains in capital equipment  participation in electronics value chains 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 ExportValue(US$Million) Year BRAZIL 45
  46. 46. © 2014 Duke CGGC http://www.cggc.duke.edu ggere@soc.duke.edu Gary Gereffi 46

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