Searching forstill digital images often poses problems. Metadata, organisation, cataloguing, retrieval and discoverability are challenging because of the large size of image databases, image complexity, subjectivity of descriptive terms and the lack of metadata standards. This study seeks to determine whether a link chart otherwise known as an entity relationship diagram orlink node diagram could be used as an aid to digital image retrieval.In this presentation I will describe a simple link chart and by making reference to Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh and three of his works, I will suggest the possible ways in which a link chart could assist with image retrieval.
Link charts can be drawn by hand using pen and paper or created by analytical software such as RFFlow and IBM’s analyst notebook.This one was created by RF Electronics.
This is one I created using IBM’s i2 Analyst Notebook (i2anb). Using this type of software analysts are able to link “seemingly unrelated pieces of information” and “find patterns” using “unstructured and structured data sources” including “social media” (IBM, 2011).
Vincent van Gogh painted almost 2,000 paintings in the course of a short ten-year career. The originals of the still digital images shown in the following slides were painted by van Gogh. There is therefore a relationship or link between van Gogh and the three paintings depicted.There is also a relationship between the original paintings and the many surrogates of them that exist in either digital or analogue form.
This copy of the painting Starry Night exists in digital form and can be viewed in many locations on the world wide web including on the webpage arrived at when clicking the following link http://www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/starryindex.html
This copy of the painting Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear and Pipe exists in digital form and can be viewed in many locations on the world wide web including on the webpage arrived at when clicking the following link http://www.vangoghgallery.com/catalog/Painting/2116/Self-Portrait-with-Bandaged-Ear-and-Pipe.html
This is a digital copy of the painting that inspired the poem on the previous slide. Itcan be viewed when clicking the link http://www.vangoghgallery.com/catalog/Painting/784/Young-Peasant-Woman-with-Straw-Hat-Sitting-in-the-Wheat.html
The information that Vincent van Gogh painted these three paintings can be described in words. (CLICK) Alternatively, the relationships between van Gogh and the three paintings can be depicted by a simple link chart or entity relationship diagram as shown in this slide. In such a link chart each bit of data or ‘entity’ (person, place, painting, book, word, website, event) is depicted as a small picture ‘icon’ or ‘text box’ (CLICK) and the relationship between them is denoted by a line (CLICK)
A solid line is used for confirmed relationships and a dotted line for those links that are not yet confirmed. For example, while searching for this image I found a website indicating that this original self portrait was housed at the Tate. However, a subsequent visit to the Tate’s official website did not confirm this.Information such as date and time can be included on each link. The chart creator and those authorised to make additions could indicate when the work was created, photographed, digitized, exhibited, sold, donated, damaged or restored.The information on the links allows for differentiation between them and can be used to search and analyse the data.The additional information on a link or an entity is known as an attribute. According to Jorgensen (2003) an attribute is “any kind of feature component, or property of a stimulus (an image) that can be represented by an information processing system.” An image attribute is “Not limited to purely visual characteristics, but includes other cognitive, affective, or interpretive responses to the image such as those describing spatial, semantics, or emotional characteristics” (p.3). In instances where there is an unlabeled link between two entities, there is a strong suspicion of or likelihood of a link but either no knowledge of the specific type of link or no clear attribute to define it.
A link chart can be constructed by importing the data contained in a relational database. The data above was imported to form the link chart in the following slide (Slide #8). Additionally, an authorised person (indexer or user) can augment information on the chart i.e. a user creating content related to them.
Vincent van Gogh Link ChartThis slide shows a link chart formed by importing the data from our Database example.The information available from this chart includes the name of the artist, the possible locations of two of his original works, one location of each of the listed digital images, the location where and the date at which one work was painted and other related works and publications.It also contains live links to sites containing more information about van Gogh and his works, other artists, paintings and literature about them. Starry Night could have been linked to a song entitled Vincent / Starry Starry Night, which is explicit in its’ understanding of van Gogh’s struggle with depression and his subsequent suicide. The song contains implicit references to several of his works.It could also have been linked to multimedia linkshttp://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=79802For the purposes of this exercise the dataset was purposefully kept small one, to allow for easy viewing and two so that the entire link chart could fit on and be clearly read on one PowerPoint slide. In reality, much larger data sets such as the entire contents of a museum, library or archival database can be used.
It is possible to zoom in on portions of the chart, of vital importance for very large datasets in which it is impossible to view individual chart icons.Accessibility IssuesHere we get a closer look at a portion of the chart - Young Peasant Woman with Straw Hat Sitting in the Wheat is linked to a poem of the same name. The writer, inspired by the painting, wrote the poem which was then published in a magazine with an online component.
The format can be changed to reflect a timeline of events.The chart could also indicate the artist’s affiliations such as the friendship between van Gogh and Gauguin.Links to colour schemes and shapes can be introduced thereby possibly providing a starting point toward bridging the gap between concept-based and content based image retrieval. Additionally the feelings of those viewing works by van Gogh or emotive words surrounding van Gogh’s paintings could also be introduced.The terms Flame-like, spirals, ‘swirling waves of energy’, destiny, death, quietness have been used to describe The Starry Nighthttp://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?object_id=79802
Additionally, one relational database can be linked to another in an entirely different location once there is at least one entity in common - such as this link which leads to a webpage hosted by the Tate – with “Bandaged Ear” as the common text or link.Source: Helena Bonett, ‘Harold Gilman 1876–1919’, artist biography, October 2009, in Helena Bonett, Ysanne Holt, Jennifer Mundy (eds.), The Camden Town Group in Context, May 2012, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/camden-town-group/harold-gilman-r1105360, accessed 19 February 2013.
To search for and find a still digital image a searcher needs one or more access points. A link chart provides such access points and therefore multiple ways of searching. This is a non-exhaustive list of possible useful access points available from a link chart.Now, I would like to ask you a few questions based on what you have seen in this presentation.
Searching for still digital images can link charts help
Searching for Still Digital Images Can Link Charts help? 1
The originals of the still digital images shown in the following three slides were painted by Vincent van Gogh. There is therefore a relationship or link between van Gogh and the three paintings depicted. This relationship can be described in words or in the form of an entity relationship diagram or link chartVincent van Gogh 4
http://www.vangoghg allery.com/painting/st arryindex.htmlThe Starry Night 5
A solid line is used for confirmed relationships. A broken line is used for those links that are not yet confirmed. One website indicated that the original self portrait in the following chart was housed at the Tate. A visit to the Tate’s official website did not confirm this.Descriptors 9
A link chart can be constructed by importing the data contained in a relational database. Additionally, an authorised person (analyst, indexer or user) can augment or correct inaccurate information on the chartChart Formation 11
Entity Attribute Link Entity AttributeVincent van Gogh Person Painted Starry Night Painting Young Peasant Woman with Straw Hat Sitting inVincent van Gogh Person Painted 1890 the Wheat Painting Vincent van Gogh Self PortraitVincent van Gogh Person Painted with Bandaged Ear and Pipe PaintingYoung Peasant Womanwith Straw Hat Sitting in Auvers-sur-Oise:the Wheat Painting Painted 1890 Locationhttp://www.youtube.com Video Artiste/watch?v=dipFMJckZOM Sung by Singerhttp://www.youtube.com/ Videowatch?v=dipFMJckZOM Link Starry Night Paintinghttp://www.youtube.com/ Videowatch?v=dipFMJckZOM Lyrics Vincent van Gogh Personhttp://www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/starrynig Song Lyricshtlyrics.html Location 2012 Starry Night Digital Copyhttp://www.vangoghgallery.com/painting/starryind Web Pageex.html Location 2012 Starry Night Digital Copyhttp://www.vangoghgalle Young Peasant Womanry.com/painting/starryind Web Page with Straw Hat Sitting inex.html Location 2012 the Wheat Digital Copy Database Examplehttp:www.commonwealmagazine.org Magazine Published Young Peasant Woman with Straw Hat Sitting in the Wheat PoemYoung Peasant Woman Young Peasant Womanwith Straw Hat Sitting in Poem with Straw Hat Sitting in 12the Wheat Link the Wheat Paintinghttp://www.bellagio.com
Links to colour schemes and shapes can be introduced thereby possibly providing a starting point toward bridging the gap between concept-based and content based image retrieval.Content Based Image Retrieval 17
Additionally, one relational database can be linked to another in an entirely different location once there is at least one entity in common In the following example “Bandaged Ear” is the common text or linkLinks to Other Databases 19
Location of Original School of Art Location of Digital Image Medium Location of Analogue Technique Used Image Colour Scheme Location where Painted Title Date Painted Description Name of Artist Content (CBIR) Artist’s Affiliations Digital Image Surrogate Work Dimensions Exhibition Location Frame Related Textual Works Exhibition Date Restoration Date Words in a Document Digitization Date User Tag Related Text Emotion EvokedPossible Access Points Providedby a Link Chart 21
Bonett, H. (2009). Harold Gilman 1876–1919: Artist biography. In H Bonett, Y Holt and J. Mundy (Eds.), The Camden Town Group in Context, May 2012, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/research-publications/camden-town-group/harold- gilman-r1105360 accessed 19 February 2013. IBM. (2011). IBM Completes i2 Acquisition to expand big data analytics portfolio for smarter cities: Technology to benefit clients in government, law enforcement, retail and insurance. Retrieved from http://www- 03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/35505.wss Jorgensen, C. (2003). Image retrieval: Theory and research. Lanham, MD. Scarecrow Press, Inc. Mapp, E. (2006). Peasant woman with straw hat sitting in the wheat. Commonweal Foundation. www.commonwealmagazine.org Pissarro, J., Stolwijk, C., & van Heugten, S. (2008). Van Gogh and the Colors of the Night. http://www.momastore.org/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ProductDisplay?langId=- 1&storeId=10001&catalogId=10451&productId=53841&p RFF Electronics. (2013). Sample link chart. Retrieved from http://www.rff.com/link_analysis_sample.htmReferences 22
Tate. (2012). Tate, Britain. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/ van Gogh, V. (1889). Self portrait with bandaged ear and pipe. Retrieved from http://www.vangoghgallery.com/catalog/Painting/2116/Self- Portrait-with-Bandaged-Ear-and-Pipe.html van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=79802 van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night. The Van Gogh Gallery. Retrieved from http://www.vangoghgallery.com/catalog/Painting/508/Starry- Night.html>. van Gogh, V. (1890). Young peasant woman with straw hat sitting in the wheat. The Van Gogh Gallery. Retrieved from http://www.vangoghgallery.com/catalog/Painting/784/Young- Peasant-Woman-with-Straw-Hat-Sitting-in-the-Wheat.htmlReferences Continued 23
Link to Questionnaire Please cut and paste this link into your browser to take the survey anonymouslyhttps://qtrial.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_bjA6uJDKO23GwD3 24