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Autonomic nervous system (1)

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Autonomic nervous system (1)

  1. 1. AUTONOMICNERVOUS SYSTEM Zulcaif Ahmad
  2. 2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMPART OF THE MOTOR DIVISION OF PNS
  3. 3. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  4. 4. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMDIVISIONS1. SYMPATHETIC2. PARASYMPATHETIC
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF THE ANS1. SYMPATHETIC READIES THE BODY FOR AN EMERGENCY2. PARASYMPATHETIC RESTORES THE BODY TO HOMEOSTASIS3. MOST ORGANS ARE DUALLY INNERVATED
  6. 6. SOMATIC MOTOR AND ANS1. EFFECTORS2. NUMBER OF NEURONS FROM THE CNS TO THE EFFECTOR
  7. 7. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
  8. 8. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
  9. 9. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
  10. 10. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
  11. 11. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
  12. 12. NAMING NEURONS BY NEUROTRANSMITTER1. NEURONS WHICH SECRETE ACh ARE CHOLINERGIC2. NEURONS WHICH SECRETE NE ARE ADRENERGIC
  13. 13. NEUROTRANSMITTERS1. ALL PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS, AND POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS SECRETE ACh2. 2% OF POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC SECRETED ACh3. THESE NEURONS ARE TERMED CHOLINGERIC
  14. 14. NEUROTRANSMITTERS1. 98% OF POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NEURONS SECRETE NE2. THESE NEURONS ARE TERMED ADRENERGIC
  15. 15. NEUROTRANSMITTERS
  16. 16. RECEPTORSRECEPTORS ARE STRUCTURES WHICH RECEIVENEUROTRANSMITTER FROM THE AXONAL TERMINALS OF NEURONS
  17. 17. RECEPTORSLOCATION1. DENDRITES OF POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS2. ON EFFECTORS (SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLE, AND GLANDS)
  18. 18. RECEPTORSTYPES1. RECEPTORS WHICH RECEIVE ACh ARE CHOLINERGIC2. RECEPTORS WHICH RECEIVE NE ARE ADRENERGIC
  19. 19. CHOLINGERIC RECEPTORSTYPES1. NICOTINIC2. MUSCARINIC
  20. 20. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSLOCATION1. SKELETAL MUSCLE2. DENDRITES OF POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS3. ADRENAL MEDULLA
  21. 21. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS ACh
  22. 22. CHOLINGERICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS DIRECT
  23. 23. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS
  24. 24. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS Na+ ION INFLUX PRODUCES DEPOLARIZATION OF THE MEMBRANE, THEREFORE, EXCITATION
  25. 25. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION2. GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL ON POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS3. STIMULATION OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA AND SECRETION OF NE AND E
  26. 26. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSLOCATION1. EFFECTORS INNERVATED BY POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS2. EFFECTORS INNERVATED BY POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NEURONS
  27. 27. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS ACh
  28. 28. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
  29. 29. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS
  30. 30. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSIF THE EFFLUX OF K+ IONS ISREDUCED, DEPOLARIZATIONRESULTS AND THE EFFECT IS EXCITATION
  31. 31. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IF THE EFFLUX OF K+IONS IS INCREASED,HYPERPOLARIZATION RESULTS AND THE EFFECT IS INHIBITION
  32. 32. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSSYMPATHETIC EXAMPLES1. EXCITATION—ECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS2. INHIBITION—BLOOD VESSELS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
  33. 33. CHOLINGERICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSPARASYMPATHETIC EXAMPLES1. EXCITATION—G.I. TRACT2. INHIBITION—HEART, BLOOD VESSELS SUPPLYING PENIS AND CLITORIS
  34. 34. ADENERGIC RECEPTORSTYPES1. ALPHA 12. ALPHA 23. BETA 14. BETA 2
  35. 35. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. BLOOD VESSELS SERVING THE SKIN, VISCERA, KIDNEYS, AND SALIVARY GLANDS2. MOST SYMPATHETIC TARGET ORGANS EXCEPT THE HEART
  36. 36. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS NE. E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
  37. 37. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
  38. 38. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS PRODUCEDEPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE EXCITATORY
  39. 39. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. CONSTRICTS BLOOD VESSELS2. CONSTRICTS VISCERAL ORGAN SPHINCTERS3. CONTRACTION OF RADIAL MUSCLE OF THE IRIS, WHICH CAUSES DILATION OF THE PUPIL OF THE EYE
  40. 40. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. BLOOD PLATELETS2. EXOCRINE GLANDS OF THE PANCREAS3. LIVER
  41. 41. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS NE, BUT E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
  42. 42. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSTHE MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
  43. 43. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORS PRODUCE HYPERPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE INHIBITORY
  44. 44. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. INHIBIT INSULIN AND ENZYME SECRETION FROM THE PANCREAS2. INHIBIT GALL BLADDER CONTRACTIONS
  45. 45. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. HEART2. KIDNEY
  46. 46. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USEDIS NE, BUT E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
  47. 47. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSMECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
  48. 48. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC BETA 1RECEPTORS USUALLY PRODUCE DEPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE EXCITATORY
  49. 49. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. INCREASES HEART RATE AND STRENGTH OF CONTRACTION2. SECRETION OF RENIN FROM JG CELLS OF THE KIDNEY
  50. 50. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. LUNGS BOTH BLOOD VESSELS AND BRONCHIOLES2. CORONARY BLOOD VESSELS3. SMOOTH MUSCLE OF THE DIGESTIVE AND URINARY SYSTEMS
  51. 51. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSTHIS RECEPTOR BINDS ONLY EPINEPHRINE WHICH IS PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
  52. 52. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSTHE MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
  53. 53. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC BETA 2RECEPTORS USUALLY PRODUCE HYPERPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE INHIBITORY
  54. 54. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. DILATION OF THE BRONCHIOLES OF THE LUNGS2. DILATION OF BLOOD VESSELS OF THE LUNGS AND HEART
  55. 55. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORS3. DECREASED MOTILITY AND TONE OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM4. RELAXATION OF URINARY BLADDER
  56. 56. COMPARISON OF THE TWO DIVISIONS1. FUNCTIONS2. ORIGINS3. NAME OF GANGLIA4. LOCATION OF GANGLIA5. RELATIVE LENGTH OF PRE & POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS6. NEUROTRANSMITTERS USED
  57. 57. COMPARISON OF THE TWO DIVISIONS7. RECEPTORS8. RAMI COMMUNICANTES9. DEGREE OF EFFECTS10. LENGTH OF EFFECTS
  58. 58. BLOCKING AGENTS• Interfere with stimulatory or depressing effects of neurotransmitters by blocking the receptors on target organs. BlockerNORMAL NEUROTRANSMITTER CAN’T BIND WITH RECEPTOR BECAUSE BLOCKER COVERS THE BINDING SITE.
  59. 59. CHOLINERGICBLOCKERS MUSCARINIC BLOCKERS BLOCK PARASYMPATHETIC EFFECTS ON TARGET ORGANS AN EXAMPLE IS ATROPINE.
  60. 60. ADRENERGICBLOCKERSBLOCK RECEPTOR BINDING SITES PREVENTING THE BINDING OF EPINEPHERINE OR NOREPINEPHERINE. ALPHA 1 BLOCKERS DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH OTHER SYMPATHETIC EFFECTS.
  61. 61. ADRENERGICBLOCKERS BETA 1 BLOCKERS ON HEART PREVENT HEART RATE INCREASE & ARRHYTHMIAS IN CARDIAC PATIENTS WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH OTHER SYMPATHETIC EFFECTS.

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