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العقل البشري

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العقل البشري

  1. 1. مكانة العقل من الجسم فى الطب الحديث باسم بن يوســف شــيخ
  2. 2. <ul><li>بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم </li></ul><ul><li>الحمد لله على نعمة العقل </li></ul>
  3. 3. مكانة العقل من الجسم فى الطب الحديث
  4. 4. أهمية العقل في الإسلام
  5. 5. <ul><li>الإسلام و الطب </li></ul><ul><li>المعرفة </li></ul><ul><li>الإيمان </li></ul>
  6. 6. ما هو العقل؟
  7. 7. <ul><li>لغة : الحجر </li></ul><ul><li>المنع </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>شرعا </li></ul><ul><li>تعريف العقل عند ابن الجوزي في كتابه &quot; ذم الهوى &quot; </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The mind </li></ul><ul><li>The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination </li></ul>و يعرف الغرب العقل على أنّه الوعي الإنسانيَ الذي يَنْشأُ في الدماغِ ويظهر بشكل خاص في الفكرِ، الفهم، العاطفة، الذاكرة، والخيال
  10. 10. العقل الدماغ Mind Brain
  11. 12. وظائف الدماغ
  12. 13. ما الذي جعل الإنسان أذكى من الحيوان
  13. 14. قال تعالى ( ناصية خاطئة كاذبة ) الناصية
  14. 15. الناصية
  15. 16. الكذب بارزُ مِنْ الحقيقةِ بالنشاطِ قَبْلَ الأماميِ والجداريِ المتزايدِ Daniel D. Langleben et al. Telling Truth From Lie in Individual Subjects With Fast Event-Related fMRI Human Brain Mapping 26:262–272(2005)
  16. 17. The Architecture of Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex <ul><li>Science 14 November 2003 : Vol . 302 . no . 5648, pp . 1181 - 1185 </li></ul><ul><li>Etienne Koechlin , Chrystèle Ody ,1 Frédérique Kouneiher </li></ul><ul><li>The prefrontal cortex ( PFC ) subserves cognitive control. the ability to coordinate thoughts or actions in relation with internal goals . Its functional architecture, however, remains poorly understood . Using brain imaging in humans, we showed that the lateral PFC is organized as a cascade of executive processes from premotor to anterior PFC regions that control behavior according to stimuli, the present perceptual context, and the temporal episode in which stimuli occur, respectively . The results support an unified modular model of cognitive control that describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and has basic methodological and theoretical implications . </li></ul><ul><li>يؤدى لحاء الفص ماقبل الأمامي ( الناصية ) سيطرة إدراكية </li></ul><ul><li>يبقى مفهوم القدرة لتنسيق الأفكار أَو الأعمال في العلاقة بالأهداف الداخلية ضعيف </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Cue - versus Probe - dependent Prefrontal Cortex Activity during Contextual Remembering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I . G . Dobbins and S . Han ( 2006) J . Cogn . Neurosci . 18 : 1439-1452 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Electrophysiological Investigation of Preparatory Attentional Control in a Spatial Stroop Task . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E . R . Stern and J . A . Mangels ( 2006 ). J . Cogn . Neurosci . 18 : 1004-1017  |  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Specialization within Rostral Prefrontal Cortex ( Area 10 ): A Meta - analysis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S . J . Gilbert, S . Spengler, J . S . Simons, J . D . Steele, S . M . Lawrie, C . D . Frith, and P . W . Burgess ( 2006 ). J . Cogn . Neurosci . 18 : 932-948 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content - and Task - Specific Dissociations of Frontal Activity during Maintenance and Manipulation in Visual Working Memory . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H . M . Mohr, R . Goebel, and D . E . J . Linden ( 2006 ). J . Neurosci . 26 : 4465-4471  |  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontostriatal Microstructure Modulates Efficient Recruitment of Cognitive Control . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C . Liston, R . Watts, N . Tottenham, M . C . Davidson, S . Niogi, A . M . Ulug, and B . J . Casey ( 2006 ). Cereb Cortex 16 : 553-560 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better without ( lateral ) frontal cortex? Insight problems solved by frontal patients . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C . Reverberi, A . Toraldo, S . D'Agostini, and M . Skrap ( 2005 ). Brain 128 : 2882-2890 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Region - specific changes in prefrontal function with age : a review of PET and fMRI studies on working and episodic memory . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M . N . Rajah and M . D'Esposito ( 2005 ). Brain 128 : 1964-1983 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. ذكر محلة العقل
  19. 22. Heal the heart, the mind will follow <ul><li>www.health.harvard.edu/heart </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that protect you from a heart attack or stroke can work against aging-related memory loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is beginning to show how emotions, isolation, and a host of other psychological and social factors affect the heart. It works the other way, too: The health of your heart and blood vessels affects your mind and brain. </li></ul><ul><li>أشف القلب و سيتبعه العقل </li></ul><ul><li>الإستراتيجيات التي تحميك من نوبة قلبية يمكن أَن يعملا ضد فقدان الذاكرة المتعلق بالمعمر </li></ul><ul><li>صحة قلبك يؤثر على رأيك ودماغ </li></ul>
  20. 23. Heart and mind : relationship between cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions <ul><ul><li>Shah SU , White A , White S , Littler WA . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship of our emotions and psyche to heart disease is intriguing . In this article we have reviewed the evidence linking cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders and the possible mechanisms and pathophysiology of this association . This review is derived from Medline searches ( 1966-2002 ) using the relevant search terms ( psychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, and pathophysiology ). Finally, the possible role of using mood enhancing therapies ( mainly antidepressants ) and their safety in patients with cardiovascular disorders is briefly discussed . In a companion paper, the therapeutic aspects of these two conditions is highlighted . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>القلب والعقل : علاقة بين الظروف القلبية والنفسية </li></ul><ul><li>الدليل الذي يربط العلاقة بين الاضطرابات القلبية الوعائية و الاضطرابات النفسيةَ والآليات المحتملة من علم الأمراض و علم وظائف الأعضاء </li></ul>
  21. 24. The brain and the heart : the twain meet <ul><li>European Heart Journal Advance Access originally published online on October 14, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Roy C. Ziegelstein1, and Brett D. Thombs </li></ul><ul><li>A little more than a decade ago, we formed a group— comprised of both cardiologists and psychologists—to study post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression </li></ul><ul><li>cardiologists, most had a similar response, ‘Of course a patient after an MI is depressed, he's got a bad heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe it is silly to believe that depression is a disorder of the brain, and MI a disorder of the heart, and never the twain shall meet. After all, a relationship between the brain and the heart is abundantly clear </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, for example, may develop profound electrocardiographic changes and may even present with new LV dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>At the very least, the findings should force us to ask why two seemingly unrelated conditions should be related </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>{ ولقد ذرأنا لجهنم كثيرا من الجن والإنس لهم قلوب لا يفقهون بها ولهم أعين لا يبصرون بها ولهم آذان لا يسمعون بها أولائك كالأنعام بل هم أضل أولائك هم الغافلون } </li></ul><ul><li>{ ألهم أرجل يمشون بها أم لهم أيد يبطشون بها أم لهم أعين يبصرون بها أم لهم آذان يسمعون بها قل ادعوا شركائكم ثم كيدون فلا تنظرون } </li></ul><ul><li>{ أفلم يسيروا فى الأرض فتكون لهم قلوب يعقلون بها أم آذان يسمعون بها فإنها لاتعمى الأبصار ولاكن تعمى القلوب التى فى الصدور } </li></ul>
  23. 27. {.. أم لهم أعين يبصرون بها ..} الآية
  24. 28. {.. أم لهم آذان يسمعون بها ..} الآية
  25. 29. { ألهم أرجل يمشون بها أم لهم أيد يبطشون بها ..} الآية
  26. 33. <ul><li>فالعقل يمكن اعتباره مجموعة الأفكار و المشاعر , و العواطف و ما إلى ذلك </li></ul><ul><li>يأتينا السؤال عن ماهية و تكوين المادة التي تتألف منها العقل  : هل هي نفس مادة الأجسام الطبيعية ام مادة أخرى ؟ </li></ul>
  27. 40. <ul><li>The outermost layer of the cerebral hemisphere which is composed of gray matter . Cortices are asymmetrical . Both hemispheres are able to analyze sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions </li></ul>
  28. 41. <ul><ul><li>The relationship between age-related heart rate changes and developing brain function: a model of anencephalic human fetuses in utero. Yoshizato T , Koyanagi T , Takashima T , Satoh S , Akazawa K , Nakano H . Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. We attempted to identify the brain segment which controls heart rate changes in human fetuses with advancing gestation. Twelve anencephalic and 165 normal fetuses (control-group fetuses) between 25-32 weeks' gestation were studied. The instantaneous fetal heart rate (FHR) data were obtained from each fetus for a continuous 90-120 min period, using an external cardiotocograph. Calculations included the 'individual probability distribution matrices' in which the FHRs at 1 beat/min intervals between 110 and 180 beats/min, the beat-to-beat differences (DFHRs) between +/- 5 beats/min and the probability values were arranged in rows, columns and the corresponding elements, respectively. Using 2-gestational-week intervals probability distribution matrices (age-group probability distribution matrices) obtained from 335 normal fetuses in our previous study as a reference, the difference between a given 'individual probability distribution matrix' and the corresponding age-group probability distribution matrix' was quantified as the 'difference rate' according to the formula in the text. From 25-26 to 27-28 weeks' gestation, the 'difference rates' in four anencephalic fetuses, with only the spinal cord preserved, were significantly higher in value than those of control-group fetuses, whereas the rates in four fetuses with both the spinal cord and medulla oblongata preserved, indicated no significant differences. From 29-30 to 31-32 weeks' gestation, the rates of the four fetuses with the spinal cord and medulla oblongata preserved, showed significant differences from the control-group fetuses. These findings suggest that there is a critical period between 27-28 and 29-30 weeks' gestation with regard to the developing brain function pertaining to FHR changes. In the early stage, the medulla oblongata plays a role in FHR changes, whereas, in the latter stage, the brain cephalad to the medulla also appears to take on the role of FHR regulator. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 42. <ul><ul><li>Jpn Heart J. 2004 Sep;45(5):771-7.   Relationship between brain natriuretic peptide, myocardial wall stress, and ventricular arrhythmia severity. Sutovsky I , Katoh T , Ohno T , Honma H , Takayama H , Takano T . First Department of Internal Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo 113-8603, Japan. We previously demonstrated that the severity of arrhythmias is reflected by circulating brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations in patients without signs of congestive heart failure. In the present study, we evaluated the relationships between the severity of the arrhythmia, BNP concentration, and echocardiographic findings. The subjects consisted of 52 patients with ventricular premature contractions (VPC) but no manifestations of heart failure and no digoxin or beta-blocker therapy. Patients underwent Holter monitoring, plasma sampling for BNP measurement, and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We scored the motion of 16 left ventricular segments, deriving a wall-motion score index (WMSI) by totaling the scores and dividing by the number of segments scored. Twenty-three patients with Lown grade I to II arrhythmias constituted group A while group B consisted of 29 Lown III to IV patients. Group B had BNP concentrations triple those in group A (57.2 versus 18.1 pg/mL, P < 0.01). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in groups A and B (65.2% versus 62.1%, NS). Although left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) was normal in both groups, group B exhibited a larger LVEDD than group A (50 versus 46 mm, P < 0.005). The correlation (r) between BNP and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) was 0.27 (P = 0.013) in group A and 0.37 (P < 0.0001) in group B. Between BNP and posterior wall thickness (PWT), the correlation was 0.23 (P = 0.014) in group A versus 0.33 (P < 0.0001) in group B. The WMSI in group B was higher than in group A (1.34 versus 1.11, P < 0.05). We believe that besides the changes in echocardiographic parameters, the BNP elevation in group B could be a response to abnormal wall stress from the severe ventricular arrhythmias </li></ul></ul>

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