Dispro issuesineducation


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Dispro issuesineducation

  1. 1. Disproportionality Issues EDCI 427-Fall 10 Dr. Davis
  2. 2. Disproportionality in Special & Gifted Education
  3. 3. Cultural Diversity Issues <ul><li>Exceptional learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA entitles every student with a disability to a free and appropriate education in a Least Restrictive Environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-contained and Inclusion classes are provided based on needs of students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some students attend specialized schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Disabled, Mentally Retarded, Behavior Disordered, Autistic, Physically Disabled </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Disproportionate Representation <ul><li>Overrepresentation of children of color in Special Education Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Underrepresentation of children of color (& those in poverty) in Gifted Education Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns expressed by Congress in 1997 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Disproportionality as a National Problem <ul><li>The 19th Annual Report to Congress on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) also cited the disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minorities as a major concern for both the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and the Office for Civil Rights (OCR). OSEP and OCR identified the following major concerns about disproportionate representation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may be misclassified or inappropriately placed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement in special education classes may be a form of discrimination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may be unserved or receive services that do not meet their needs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Disproportionate Representation in Special Ed Ethnicity/Race % in general population % in Sp Ed population Asian/Pacific Islander 3.8 1.7 Black (Non-Hispanic) 14.8 20.2 American Indian 1.0 1.3 Caucasian (non-Hispanic 66.2 63.6 Hispanic 14.2 13.2
  7. 7. Continuing concern-- <ul><li>Most recently, a second NAS panel convened and released a report entitled, Minority Children in Special and Gifted Education (2002) to revisit the issue of disproportionality. The report provided multiple recommendations in the following categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>referral and eligibility determination in special education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gifted and talented education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher quality; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biological and early childhood risk factors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data collection; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research and development </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Definition of Gifted Youth <ul><li>Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic areas. They require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor (P.L. 100-297, Sec. 4103. Definitions.). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gifted Education <ul><li>Identification process has limited students to those who score well on individualized intelligence tests which tend to be verbally loaded and to have students respond to items that may be unfamiliar to culturally diverse or students from low income settings </li></ul><ul><li>As ‘gatekeepers’ teachers do not recognize giftedness in children of color as much as that in majority culture children </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenge: Under-Representation <ul><li>Black, Hispanic, and Native American students are underrepresented in gifted education programs nationally, with underrepresentation ranging from 50-70%. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trends in National data <ul><li>Asian Americans: </li></ul><ul><li>Generally underidentified for special education; overidentified for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gifted ed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African American students: </li></ul><ul><li>3 times more likely--labeled mentally retarded. </li></ul><ul><li>2 times more likely--emotionally disturbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys labeled MR 4 times more than non-minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Native American students: </li></ul><ul><li>2 times more likely to be labeled ED or learning disabled. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, 4 times more likely--speech or language impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic students: </li></ul><ul><li>More likely identified when attending schools with high numbers of ELL students. </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely eligible for services if attending schools with lower numbers of ELL students. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The ‘New’ Mainstream student <ul><li>45 million students enrolled in public, private elem-secondary schools..more than 30% groups designated as racial or ethnic minorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American- 16%; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic- 12%; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 3 % and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American 1% </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Socio-Economic Status (SES) <ul><li>Bottom quartile (in family income) students made up only 10% of gifted program participants </li></ul><ul><li>Top quartile students make up 50% of gifted program students </li></ul><ul><li>Direct, targeted efforts at identifying and serving Low SES students does make a difference (Davis, 2007; Castellano, Favus, & White,2003; Patton & Davis, 1997) </li></ul>