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The Evolution of Blended and Competency-Based Schooling: What Lies Beyond the Horizon?

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Even when we believe we’re thinking “outside the box,” we’re often limited in our capacity to envision new school models that are more personalized, leverage technology effectively, and ultimately improve learning. When designing schools and classrooms, we often don’t realize how heavily our ideas are influenced by the assumptions and mental models we have about learning and education. In this this webinar, Dr. Tim Hudson will explore some of these hidden assumptions and help us imagine the full implications of blended learning that ensures high achievement for all students.

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The Evolution of Blended and Competency-Based Schooling: What Lies Beyond the Horizon?

  1. 1. The Evolution of Blended & Competency-Based Schooling What Lies Beyond the Horizon? Tim Hudson, PhD Vice President of Learning DreamBox Learning @DocHudsonMath
  2. 2. Poll: What is your biggest challenge with blended schooling? - Personalizing learning for every student - Measuring impact - Fidelity of implementations - Getting educators comfortable with blended learning - Accessing and using actionable data
  3. 3. Poll: What is your level of interest in digital curriculum? - Just looking at new technologies - Researching possible software solutions for my school - Interested in grants and funding options for my school - Interested in pricing - Interested in viewing a demo
  4. 4. studio3architecture.wordpress.com
  5. 5. Today’s Goals Explore our hidden assumptions and imagine the full implications of blended learning that ensure high achievement and enjoyment for all students. Surface and reflect upon our own mental models of education, schooling, and learning that inform how we design classrooms, schools, and use educational technology.
  6. 6. “Next Generation” Education? “…one would think that by 2025, age-graded schools and the familiar teaching and learning that occurs today in K-12 and universities would have exited the rear door. Not so. Blended instruction, personalized learning, and flipped classrooms will reinforce the age-graded school, the 19th century organizational innovation that is rock-solid in 2015. That is what I predict for 2025.” Larry Cuban, 12/2015 Stanford University Professor Emeritus of Education From “Predictions, Dumb and Otherwise, about Technology in Schools in 2025” www.larrycuban.wordpress.com
  7. 7. What is Blended Schooling? What is Competency-Based Schooling?
  8. 8. What is Blended Schooling? What is Competency-Based Schooling?
  9. 9. Personalized Schooling Personalized Learning Industrial Schooling Industrial Learning Personalized (Relational) Impersona l (Industrial) Learning Pedagogy with Students Schooling Structures from Adults
  10. 10. School Policies & Structures are Designed for Students as Unique Individuals. Strategic & Varied Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Empowering Learning Experiences, Critical Thinking, Creativity, Exploration. Students “Think & Do” using Their Own Intuitive Ideas School Policies & Structures are Designed for Efficiency, Economy & Scale. Fixed Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Age-Based Pacing Calendars Traditional Lesson Paradigm of Mass Instruction Teach, Practice, Test Students “Sit & Get” the Teacher’s Ideas Personalized (Relational) Impersona l (Industrial) Learning Pedagogy with Students Schooling Structures from Adults
  11. 11. Planning Backwards School Curriculum © 1998, 2005© 2007
  12. 12. School Policies & Structures are Designed for Students as Unique Individuals. Strategic & Varied Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Empowering Learning Experiences, Critical Thinking, Creativity, Exploration. Students “Think & Do” using Their Own Intuitive Ideas School Policies & Structures are Designed for Efficiency, Economy & Scale. Fixed Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Age-Based Pacing Calendars Traditional Lesson Paradigm of Mass Instruction Teach, Practice, Test Students “Sit & Get” the Teacher’s Ideas Personalized (Relational) Impersona l (Industrial) Learning Pedagogy with Students Schooling Structures from Adults
  13. 13. Plan Curriculum Backwards 1. Identify desired results (for units and lessons) 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Understanding by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2005
  14. 14. Schooling by Design, ©2007, Wiggins & McTighe, p. 6 Where are decisions about Blended Learning or Competency-Based Models made?
  15. 15. Age-Grading Seat-Time Schedules Credits Mission should drive scheduling. Structures should not drive Mission.
  16. 16. Plan Schooling Backwards • “Not schooling by habit or impulse.” • “Without a commitment to mission, we don’t really have a school; we just have a home for freelance tutors of subjects.” p. 11, 25, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007
  17. 17. Mission or Habit? “Our mission is to ensure success for all our students. We will do whatever it takes to ensure their success – provided we don’t have to change the schedule, modify any of our existing practices, or adopt any new practices.” Revisiting Professional Learning Communities at Work, ©2008, DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, pp. 114-115
  18. 18. What is Blended Schooling? What is Competency-Based Schooling?
  19. 19. School Policies & Structures are Designed for Students as Unique Individuals. Strategic & Varied Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Empowering Learning Experiences, Critical Thinking, Creativity, Exploration. Students “Think & Do” using Their Own Intuitive Ideas School Policies & Structures are Designed for Efficiency, Economy & Scale. Fixed Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Age-Based Pacing Calendars Traditional Lesson Paradigm of Mass Instruction Teach, Practice, Test Students “Sit & Get” the Teacher’s Ideas Personalized (Relational) Impersona l (Industrial) Learning Pedagogy with Students Schooling Structures from Adults Blende d Blende d Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this?
  20. 20. Why don’t we see the term ‘blended’ associated with other professions?
  21. 21. BLENDED HOSPITALS
  22. 22. BLENDED MEDICINE
  23. 23. BLENDED FARMING
  24. 24. BLENDED COOKING
  25. 25. PURPOSE • What are restaurants, farms, hospitals, schools, etc. “in business” to accomplish? • Regardless of what “school” looks like, what must be accomplished for all students?
  26. 26. Plan Schooling Backwards “Contemporary school reform efforts… typically focus too much on various means: structures, schedules, programs, PD, curriculum, and instructional practices (like cooperative learning)” [or blended learning] [or flipped classrooms] [or iPads, hardware, etc] [or “gamification”] p. 234-235, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007
  27. 27. Plan Schooling Backwards “Certainly such reforms serve as the fuel for the school improvement engine, but they must not be mistaken as the destination…[which is] improved learning.” p. 234-235, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007
  28. 28. Blended Learning H. Staker, M. Horn, Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, © 2012
  29. 29. Blended Learning H. Staker, M. Horn, Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, © 2012 online delivery of content & instruction anytime, anywhere delivery of content & instruction at school
  30. 30. Time, Place, Path, Pace H. Staker, M. Horn, Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, © 2012
  31. 31. Time, Place, Path, Pace H. Staker, M. Horn, Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, © 2012 • Path: Learning is no longer restricted to the pedagogy used by the teacher. Interactive and adaptive software allows students to learn [in a method that is customized to their needs]. BUT… Learning IS restricted – and limited by – the pedagogy used by the online teacher, in the online instruction, or in designs of the learning software.
  32. 32. Which blended schooling model is better? FLIPPED-CLASSROOM ENRICHED-VIRTUAL Blending is a means to what ends? What is happening with the teacher? What is happening on the computers? H. Staker, M. Horn, Classifying K-12 Blended Learning, © 2012
  33. 33. Schedules Equipment Facilities Budgets Class Size Planning “Forward” based on resources? Or Planning Backward from Mission Adapted from Schooling by Design, G. Wiggins & J. McTighe, ©2007, p. 6
  34. 34. based on Schooling by Design, ©2007, Wiggins & McTighe, p. 6 Where are decisions about Blended Learning Models made? 1. Define Learning Principles 2. Establish Curriculum & Assessment 3. Establish Face-to- Face and Online Programs & Practices to Enable Blended Learning Determine Personnel, Structures, and Resources
  35. 35. What is Blended Schooling? What is Competency-Based Schooling?
  36. 36. Competency Education (iNACOL) • Advance upon demonstrated mastery • Transferable learning objectives that empower students • Positive, meaningful assessment • Timely, differentiated support • Application and creation of knowledge, developing important skills & dispositions http://www.competencyworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/iNCL_CWIssueBrief_Implementing_v5_web.pdf
  37. 37. • Advance upon demonstrated mastery • Transferable learning objectives that empower students • Positive, meaningful assessment • Timely, differentiated support • Application and creation of knowledge, developing important skills & dispositions http://www.competencyworks.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/iNCL_CWIssueBrief_Implementing_v5_web.pdf Competency Education (iNACOL)
  38. 38. Plan Curriculum Backwards 1. Identify desired results (for units and lessons) 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Understanding by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2005
  39. 39. Acquire Knowledge and Skills Information Facts Procedures Make Meaning Concepts Ideas Contexts Situations Transfer Independent Use Unfamiliar Situations © Authentic Education Learning Outcomes A-M-T
  40. 40. “You can learn ANYTHING online.” usually means “You can acquire ANY INFORMATION online.”
  41. 41. Schooling by Design, ©2007, Wiggins & McTighe, p. 6 Where are decisions about Competency-Based Systems made? Establish Policies & Structures for Progressing Based on Competency Decide on Evidence of Competence
  42. 42. Why “Factory” Model Structures? “…all the rhetoric around how we will shove off the mantel of “factory education” for the brand new world of “personalized learning” misses a point of the utmost importance: Factory education was invented as a form of personalization.” Mike Caulfield, July 2014 Director of Blended and Networked Learning at Washington State University-Vancouver “The Original Factory Education Was a Personalized Learning Experiment” www.hapgood.us
  43. 43. Will County, Illinois One-Room Schoolhouse, http://polarbearstale.blogspot.com/ Math Packet 1 Math Packet 2 Math Packet 4 Math Packet 7 Math Packet 3 Math Packet 8 Math Packet 2 Math Packet 3 Math Packet 3 Varied Pace Alone Doesn’t Result in Learning & Understanding
  44. 44. How we Cause Learning 1. Identify desired results (for units and lessons) 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Understanding by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2005
  45. 45. Wiggins on “Mastery” “…the original sin in curriculum design: Take a complex whole, divide it into small pieces, string those together in a rigid sequence of instruction and testing, and call completion of this sequence "mastery." “How Good is Good Enough?” G. Wiggins, ASCD © 2013
  46. 46. Learning to Drive? Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
  47. 47. Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill + Skill l ≠Transfer, Mastery & Understanding
  48. 48. What do you remember about math from when you were in middle & high school?
  49. 49. Experience or Instruction? From a 5th grade teacher in NY: “I had a lot of good people teaching me math when I was a student – earnest and funny and caring. But the math they taught me wasn’t good math. Every class was the same for eight years: ‘Get out your homework, go over the homework, here’s the new set of exercises, here’s how to do them. Now get started. I’ll be around.’” p. 55, Teaching What Matters Most, Strong, Silver, & Perini, ©2001
  50. 50. Instruction, Content Delivery Whole Class or Small Group Instruction Independent Practice Whole Class Assessment Use Data Formatively to Plan Use Data Summatively (Competence)
  51. 51. Impersonal by Definition
  52. 52. Let Me Show You How To Do X Now You Go Do X Can You Independently Do X? Maybe You Need to Be Shown X Again You Know X Who is doing the thinking?
  53. 53. School & Home Work At School: Explicit Instruction & Problem Solving At Home: Practice Problems Whole Class Assessment Maybe you need to be shown X again Use Data Summatively
  54. 54. Flipped Classroom? At Home: Explicit Instructional Videos & Online Practice At School: Guided Practice & Problem Solving Whole Class Assessment Maybe You Need to Watch the Video Again Use Data Summatively
  55. 55. Learning Outcomes? “They were so concerned with making sure we knew how to do every single procedure we never learned how to think mathematically. I did well in math but I never understood what I was doing. I remember hundreds of procedures but not one single mathematical idea.” p. 55, Teaching What Matters Most, Strong, Silver, & Perini, ©2001
  56. 56. Let Me Show You How To Do X Now You Go Do X Can You Independently Do X? Maybe You Need to Be Shown X Again You Know X If it’s believed that learners are merely passive receivers of information and procedures, then what would logically follow for the design of schools and lessons and edtech?
  57. 57. Transmission View of Learning
  58. 58. Pedagogy, not Technology 61
  59. 59. Earth 2199 “I know kung fu.” The Matrix, 1999, Warner Brothers, Village Roadshow Pictures
  60. 60. Did educators try to simply transmit information from books to passive students en masse in 2000? ‘At School in the Year 2000’ Image Source via Wikimedia Commons
  61. 61. http://www.sociology.com/2012/11/jobs-and-careers What’s Different? What’s Similar?
  62. 62. https://medium.com/bright/ipads-teachers-e51896af3930 What’s Different? What’s Similar?
  63. 63. School Policies & Structures are Designed for Students as Unique Individuals. Strategic & Varied Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Empowering Learning Experiences, Critical Thinking, Creativity, Exploration. Students “Think & Do” using Their Own Intuitive Ideas School Policies & Structures are Designed for Efficiency, Economy & Scale. Fixed Schedule, Location, Path, Pace Age-Based Pacing Calendars Traditional Lesson Paradigm of Mass Instruction Teach, Practice, Test Students “Sit & Get” the Teacher’s Ideas Personalized (Relational) Impersona l (Industrial) Learning Pedagogy with Students Schooling Structures from Adults Blende d Blende d Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this? Is there an app for this?
  64. 64. Curse of the Familiar “If our problems are mere inefficiencies – if we need students doing basically exactly what they've been doing before but faster – then the gambit of building apps that mirror typical classroom practices will work out great.” Justin Reich on EdWeek November 20, 2013 http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/11/edtech_start-ups_and_the_curse_of_the_familar.html
  65. 65. Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) “Each MOOC varies in content, requirements, prerequisites and length,” Tarte said. “Some will contain video lectures, some might have selected readings, and some courses provide quizzes periodically so students can test their understanding of the material.” High School to Offer College Courses Online www.emissourian.com, November 27, 2013
  66. 66. Thoughtful vs. Thoughtless Blended Learning … night school instruction was questionable … I heard over and over again about students who never watched or read through any of the instruction material. They simply clicked through screens until they got to assessments and Googled to find answers. Even in rooms where teachers did not allow that practice, instruction from the computer relied on basic “read this” followed by “now answer these questions” approach no different than many textbook-style education methods. Students never had the chance to engage in any activities, projects, or even class discussions to augment their learning. It was all basic regurgitation…” http://prwhite213.wordpress.com/2014/10/08/thoughtless-vs-thoughtful-blended-learning/ -Patrick White
  67. 67. Fullan: Alive in the Swamp Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp: Assessing Digital Innovations in Education, © July 2013, www.nesta.org/uk “Technology–enabled innovations have a different problem, mainly pedagogy and outcomes. Many of the innovations, particularly those that provide online content and learning materials, use basic pedagogy – most often in the form of introducing concepts by video instruction and following up with a series of progression exercises and tests. Other digital innovations are simply tools that allow teachers to do the same age-old practices but in a digital format.” (p. 25)
  68. 68. Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp Scorecard: Innovation Index Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp: Assessing Digital Innovations in Education, © July 2013, www.nesta.org/uk
  69. 69. Sample: Assessment Platform Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp: Assessing Digital Innovations in Education, © July 2013, www.nesta.org/uk
  70. 70. Data inform the Adaptive Engine Common “Adaptive” Design Explicit Input, Video Lecture, Textbook Reading, Dependent Practice, “Worksheet” Problems Digitized Quiz/Test Items Mistakes on the Quiz or Test Items
  71. 71. Wiggins on “Mastery” “Indeed, many modern software solutions now exist to help educators track endless small objectives, in the name of "mastery," "proficiency," or "competency." In some units, students cannot advance to the next level until they test out on interim assessments of such bits of knowledge.” “How Good is Good Enough?” G. Wiggins, ASCD © 2013
  72. 72. 1989 • “The notion that learning comes about by the accretion of little bits is outmoded learning theory. • “Current models of learning based on cognitive psychology contend that learners gain understanding when they construct their own knowledge and develop their own cognitive maps of the interconnections among facts and concepts.” (pp. 5–6) Shepard, L. A. (1989, April). Why we need better assessments. Educational Leadership, 46(7) quoted in Schooling by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007 p. 46
  73. 73. Where do we get this notion? Why does it persist?
  74. 74. Transmission via Print “If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print.” Edward Thorndike 1912
  75. 75. Transmission via Print “If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print.” Edward Thorndike 1912
  76. 76. What’s the alternative? What other notions are there?
  77. 77. Curse of the Familiar “If you think that the problems in classrooms are not just about kids doing things a little faster, but doing different things than is current practice, then you need to build things that will be unfamiliar.” Justin Reich on EdWeek November 20, 2013 http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/11/edtech_start-ups_and_the_curse_of_the_familar.html
  78. 78. Learning Principle “Understandings cannot be given; they have to be engineered so that learners see for themselves the power of an idea for making sense of things.” p. 113, Schooling by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2007
  79. 79. Don’t Start by Telling “Providing students with opportunities to first grapple with specific information relevant to a topic has been shown to create a ‘time for telling’ that enables them to learn much more from an organizing lecture.” How People Learn, p. 58
  80. 80. Engineered for Realizations Engage with & Make Sense of a Situation or Context Student’s Own Ideas & Intuition Specific, Instant, Custom Feedback Engine Adapts & Differentiates Student Independently Transfers “Offline,” Too
  81. 81. The Quality of Digital Learning Experiences is just as important as the Quality of Classroom Learning Experiences
  82. 82. Whitepaper Best Practices for Evaluating Digital Curricula
  83. 83. Thank you timh@dreambox.com www.dreambox.com @DocHudsonMath
  84. 84. DreamBox Learning® K-8 Math Available in English & Spanish Intelligent Adaptive Learning Engine • Millions of personalized learning paths • Tailored to a student’s unique needs Motivating Learning Environments • Student Directed, Empowering • Leverages Gaming Protocols Rigorous Mathematics Curriculum • Reporting Aligned to CCSS, Texas TEKS, Virginia SOL, Indiana IAS, South Carolina, SCCCR, Canada WNCP, & Canada Ontario Curriculum Reports • Standards for Mathematical Practice
  85. 85. DreamBox Lessons & Virtual Manipulatives Intelligently adapt & individualize to: • Students’ own intuitive strategies • Kinds of mistakes • Efficiency of strategy • Scaffolding needed • Response time
  86. 86. Insight Dashboards
  87. 87. Seeing is believing! www.DreamBox.com/request-a-demo
  88. 88. We value your feedback, compliments, suggestions, and complaints! Let us know how we’re doing: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/HFB9VX3

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