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Ebola virus disease


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Based on recent outbreak in West Africa.
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Ebola virus disease

  1. 1. Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2014
  2. 2. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has prompted health authorities in other countries to take precautions beyond experts' recommendations, showing the concern about the deadly disease.
  3. 3. WHO: Disease update • The magnitude of the Ebola virus outbreak may be vastly underestimated, the World Health Organization said on Thursday 14 Aug 14. • . More than 1,000 people have died and nearly 2,000 have been sickened.
  4. 4. WHO: Disease update • They say the deadly nature of Ebola, which has killed 54% of those infected in the current outbreak and up to 90% in other outbreaks, and concerns from the public justify the precautions. • Reports of possible cases from New York City to Hong Kong have alarmed some in the public, though fears subsided somewhat after all tested negative.
  5. 5. BUSINESS • Tekmira Evaluating Options for Using Experimental Ebola Virus Drug • Canadian Firm in Talks With Agencies on Using Drug Despite Lack of Regulatory Approval By MARIA ARMENTAL CONNECT Updated Aug. 14, 2014 8:30 a.m. ET • Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corp. on Wednesday said it is looking into ways that its experimental Ebola treatment might be used to combat a serious outbreak in West Africa, even if the drug hasn't been formally cleared by the various regulatory agencies. • "Given the severity of the situation, we are carefully evaluating options for use of our investigational drug within accepted clinical and regulatory protocols," the company said. "This includes discussions with government agencies and NGO's, including the…
  6. 6. WORLD NEWS • Ebola Virus: Nigerian Patients to Be Given Experimental Drug • Untested Drug on Way to Lagos to Treat Eight Nigerians • Ebola victims in Nigeria's commercial capital Lagos will receive an experimental drug called Nano Silver and ZMapp the country's top health official said on Thursday, • Nigerian scientist, whose name he wouldn't disclose. • The World Health Organization opened the door for experimental Ebola drugs this week, after a panel of ethicists it convened, condoned such treatments because of the challenges controlling an outbreak that has killed at least 1,069 people. A handful of medications and vaccines have been developed, but not tested on humans.
  7. 7. Sheik Umar Khan, head doctor fighting the deadly tropical virus Ebola in Sierra Leone, poses for a picture in Freetown, June 25, 2014. Khan, a Sierra Leonean virologist credited with treating more than 100 Ebola victims, contracted the disease a month later and died on July 29. (Umaru Fofana / Reuters)
  8. 8. Key Facts?
  9. 9. Key facts • Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. • EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. • EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests. • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
  10. 10. Key facts • Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. • Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. • No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.
  11. 11. Natural host of Ebola virus • In Africa, fruit bats, esp species of the genera –Hypsignathus monstrosus, –Epomops franqueti and –Myonycteris torquata, are considered possible natural hosts • As a result, the geographic distribution of Ebola viruses may overlap with the range of the fruit bats.
  12. 12. History • Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara (Sudan), and Yambuku (Democratic Republic of Congo). • The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
  13. 13. Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century- Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas
  14. 14. Ebola • The phrase cordon sanitaire, or sanitary barrier, appears to date from 1821, when France sent 30,000 troops into the Pyrenees to stop a lethal fever raging in Spain from crossing the border.
  15. 15. cordon sanitaire • Plans for the new cordon were announced Aug. 1 at an emergency meeting in Conakry, Guinea, of the Mano River Union, a regional association of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, the three countries hardest hit by Ebola. • Armed forces have been put in place. • Informers maybe paid. • WHO and other countries with a vote have urged it to proceed in a humane manner
  16. 16. • The most famous voluntary cordon, according to Joseph P. Byrne, a historian at Belmont University in Nashville, Tennessee, was of the English village of Eyam. In 1665, the plague reached it from London, probably in fleas on cloth shipped to a local tailor, the first to die. • The village, which had about 350 people, voluntarily cordoned itself off from the spring until November to prevent the plague from spreading to the rest of Derbyshire. • Grateful people from other villages left food outside a circle of stones around Eyam. Only a quarter of the village survived, but the plague did not spread.
  17. 17. Taxonomy: Family Filoviridae has 3 genuses • Ebolavirus • Marburgvirus • Cuevavirus Genus Ebolavirus comprises 5 distinct species: –Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) –Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) –Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) –Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) –Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).
  18. 18. Taxonomy: Family Filoviridae Genus Ebolavirus comprises 5 distinct species: –Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) ** –Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) ** –Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) –Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) ** –Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV). ** Ass with large outbreaks in Africa
  19. 19. World Distribution • BDBV, EBOV, and SUDV have been associated with large EVD outbreaks in Africa, whereas RESTV and TAFV have not. • The RESTV species, found in Philippines and the People’s Republic of China, can infect humans, but no illness or death in humans from this species has been reported to date.
  20. 20. Transmission • Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. • In Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
  21. 21. Transmission Ebola then spreads by human-to-human transmission in the community • Direct contact of broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people • Indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. At burial ceremonies mourners having direct contact with the dead body can transmit Ebola. • Men can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.
  22. 22. Transmission • Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
  23. 23. Transmission • Among workers in contact with monkeys or pigs infected with Reston ebolavirus, several infections have been documented in people who were clinically asymptomatic. • Thus, RESTV appears less capable of causing disease in humans than other Ebola species.
  24. 24. Transmission Reston ebolavirus -milder disease? • However, the only available evidence comes from healthy adult males. • It is premature to extrapolate the health effects other population groups - –immuno-compromised persons –underlying medical conditions –pregnant women and children • More studies are needed before conclusions about pathogenicity & virulence of RESTV
  25. 25. Incubation Period • The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms, is 2 to 21 days. • People are infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. • Ebola virus was isolated from semen 61 days after onset of illness in a man who was infected in a laboratory.
  26. 26. Signs and symptoms EVD is a severe acute viral illness characterized by • sudden onset of fever • intense weakness and muscle pain • headache and sore throat. Followed by- • vomiting and diarrhoea • Rash • both internal and external bleeding. • Deranged kidney & liver functions in some cases
  27. 27. Signs and symptoms EVD is a severe acute viral illness characterized by • sudden onset of fever • intense weakness and muscle pain • headache and sore throat. Followed by- • Vomiting and diarrhoea • Rash • Both internal and external bleeding. • Deranged kidney & liver functions in some cases
  28. 28. Fever, dehydration
  29. 29. Hemorrhagic bullae
  30. 30. Hemorrhagic bullae
  31. 31. Laboratory findings • Low white blood cell • Low platelet counts • Elevated liver enzymes
  32. 32. Differential Diagnosis Other diseases that should be ruled out are- • Malaria • Typhoid fever • Shigellosis • Cholera • Leptospirosis • Plague • Rickettsiosis • Relapsing fever • Meningitis • Hepatitis • Other viral haemorrhagic fevers
  33. 33. Diagnosis Definitive lab diagnosis is by several tests: • antibody-capture ELISA • antigen detection tests • serum neutralization test • RT-PCR assay • electron microscopy • virus isolation by cell culture. Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; testing should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.
  34. 34. Vaccine and treatment • No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use. • Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. • Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids. • No specific treatment is available. • New drug therapies are being evaluated. Z Mapp
  35. 35. Ebola virus in animals • Non-human primates have been a source of infection for humans, they are the reservoir but rather accidental host like human beings. Since 1994, ebola outbreaks (EBOV and TAFV sps) have been observed in chimpanzees and gorillas. • RESTV has caused severe outbreaks in macaque monkeys farmed in Philippines and detected in monkeys imported into the USA & Italy from 1989 to 1996.
  36. 36. Ebola virus in animals • Since 2008, RESTV viruses have been detected during deadly outbreaks in pigs in China and Philippines. • Asymptomatic infection in pigs has been reported. • But, experimental inoculations have shown that RESTV cannot cause disease in pigs.
  37. 37. Prevention and control Controlling Reston ebolavirus in domestic animals • No animal vaccine against RESTV is available. • Routine cleaning and disinfection of pig or monkey farms (sodium hypochlorite or other detergents) should inactivate the virus. • If an outbreak is suspected, the premises should be quarantined immediately. • Culling of infected animals. • Close supervision of burial /incineration of carcasses. • Restricting or banning the movement of animals from infected farms to reduce spread.
  38. 38. Proper burial of carcasses
  39. 39. Prevention and control Controlling Reston ebolavirus in domestic animals • RESTV outbreaks in pigs and monkeys have preceded human infections. • Establishment of an active animal health surveillance system to detect new cases (early warning) for public health authorities.
  40. 40. Prevention and control Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people • In the absence of effective treatment and a human vaccine, raising awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection and the protective measures individuals can take is the only way to reduce human infection and death. • During EVD outbreaks, educational public health messages for risk reduction must focus on several factors:
  41. 41. Prevention and control Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people A. Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from • Avoid contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes. • Avoid consumption of their raw meat. • Handling animals with gloves and protective clothing. • Thorough cooking of animal products (blood and meat) before consumption.
  42. 42. Prevention and control B. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission • Risk arises from direct /close contact with infected patients, and their bodily fluids. • Close physical contact with Ebola patients should be avoided. • Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home.
  43. 43. Protective gear- in hospitals
  44. 44. … and at home
  45. 45. Prevention and control B. Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission • Regular hand washing before and after taking care of patients at home. • Affected communities should inform the whole population about nature of the disease and containment measures, including burial of the dead. • People who have died from Ebola should be promptly and safely buried.
  46. 46. Safe burials
  47. 47. Prevention and control Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people • Pig farms in Africa can amplify infection due to fruit bats on these farms. • Appropriate biosecurity measures should limit transmission.
  48. 48. Prevention and control Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people • For RESTV, educational public health messages should focus on reducing the risk of pig-to-human transmission. • Avoid unsafe animal husbandry, slaughtering practices, consumption of fresh blood, raw milk or animal tissue. • Use gloves and other protective clothing when handling sick animals or their tissues and when slaughtering animals. • Thorough cooking before eating all animal products (blood, meat and milk) in regions where RESTV has been reported in pigs
  49. 49. Infection Control: in health-care settings • Human-to-human transmission is associated with direct or indirect contact with blood and body fluids. • Transmission to health-care workers has been reported when appropriate infection control measures have not been observed. • It is not always possible to identify patients with EBV early because initial symptoms may be non-specific.
  50. 50. Infection Control: in health-care settings • For this reason, it is important that health- care workers apply standard precautions consistently with all patients – regardless of their diagnosis – in all work practices at all times. • These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment (according to the risk of splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.
  51. 51. Infection Control: in health-care settings • Health-care workers caring for suspected or confirmed Ebola cases should apply, in addition to standard precautions, other infection control measures to avoid any exposure to the patient’s blood and body fluids and direct unprotected contact with the possibly contaminated environment. • When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers • should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), • a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).
  52. 52. Infection Control: in health-care settings • Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from suspected human and animal Ebola cases for diagnosis should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
  53. 53. WHO response • WHO provides expertise and documentation to support disease investigation and control. • Recommendations for infection control while providing care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola haemorrhagic fever are provided in: Interim infection control recommendations for care of patients with suspected or confirmed Filovirus (Ebola, Marburg) haemorrhagic fever, March 2008. This document is currently being updated.
  54. 54. Much worse maybe ahead...